Africa 2020: Country information

1960 is referred to as the Year of Africa because of the developments during that year: increasing Pan-African sentiments, a peak of independence movements, but also growing post-colonial violence. No less than 17 African nations became independent.

Below is a list of those countries, with links to the information on the ASCL Country Portal, the countries' histories on Wikipedia, the ASCL/Leiden University experts, and selected open access publications.

 

Cameroon
On 1 January 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France. On 1 October 1961, the formerly British Southern Cameroons gained independence and joined with French Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.

ASCL Country Portal on Cameroon 
Wikipedia: History of Cameroon

ASCL experts: Mirjam de Bruijn, Mayke Kaag, Harrison Esam Awuh
Leiden University experts: Walter Nkwi
ASCL Infosheet 'Cameroon at 60'
Further reading


Togo
Became independent from France on 27 April 1960. 

ASCL Country Portal on Togo 
Wikipedia: History of Togo

ASCL Community experts: Samuel Aniegye Ntewusu

Further reading
 


Mali
The Mali Federation became independent from France on 20 June 1960, then split into Mali and Senegal on 20 August. The independent Republic of Mali was created on 22 September 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Mali 
Wikipedia: History of Mali

ASCL experts: Mirjam de BruijnRahmane Idrissa, Han van Dijk

Further reading
 


Madagascar
Became independent from France on 26 June 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Madagascar 
Wikipedia: History of Madagascar

ASCL Community expert: Juvence Ramasy

Further reading
 


Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)
Achieved independence from Belgium on 30 June 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Democratic Republic of the Congo
Wikipedia: History of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Leiden University experts: Carolien Jacobs, Ingrid Samset, Catherina Wilson

Further reading

 


Somalia
On 26 June, British Somaliland became the independent State of Somaliland. It united with the Italian Trust Territory of Somalia to create the Somali Republic on 1 July. 

ASCL Country Portal on Somalia
Wikipedia: History of Somalia

ASCL experts: Jan Abbink, Annachiara Raia

Further reading
 


Benin
Dahomey, renamed Benin in 1975, became independent from France on 1 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Benin
Wikipedia: History of Benin

ASCL expert: Kassim Assouma

Further reading
 


Niger
Niger became independent from France on 3 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Niger
Wikipedia: History of Niger

ASCL experts: Klaas van Walraven, Abdourahmane Idrissa, Han van Dijk

Further reading

 


Burkina Faso
Upper Volta, renamed Burkina Faso in 1984, became independent from France on 5 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Burkina Faso
Wikipedia: History of Burkina Faso

ASCL experts: Mirjam de Bruijn, Rahmane Idrissa, Han van Dijk

Further reading
 


Côte d'Ivoire
Became independent from France on 7 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Côte d'Ivoire
Wikipedia: History of Côte d'Ivoire

ASCL Community expert: Sander MuilermanIssouf Binaté

Further reading
 


Chad
Became independent from France on 11 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Chad
Wikipedia: History of Chad

ASCL experts: Mirjam de Bruijn, Han van Dijk, Mayke Kaag 

Further reading
 


Central African Republic
Became independent from France on 13 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Central African Republic
Wikipedia: History of Central African Republic

ASCL experts: Mirjam de BruijnKlaas van Walraven
Leiden University expert: Catherina Wilson

Further reading


Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
Became independent from France on 15 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on the Republic of the Congo
Wikipedia: History of the Republic of the Congo

ASCL experts: Klaas van Walraven, Jan Abbink

Further reading
 


Gabon
Became independent from France on 17 August 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on the Republic of the Congo
Wikipedia: History of the Republic of the Congo

ASCL Community expert: Joseph Mangarella

Further reading

 


Senegal
The Mali Federation became independent from France on 20 June 1960. Then it split into Mali and Senegal on 20 August, which is also the date on which Senegal became an independent country.

ASCL Country Portal on Senegal
Wikipedia: History of Senegal

ASCL experts: Mayke Kaag, Abdourahmane Idrissa, Loes Oudenhuijsen

Further reading
 


Nigeria
Became independent from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Nigeria
Wikipedia: History of Nigeria

ASCL experts: Akinyinka Akinyoade, Chibuike U. Uche, Rahmane IdrissaMichel Doortmont
Leiden University expert: David Ehrhardt

Further reading


Mauritania
Became independent from France on 28 November 1960.

ASCL Country Portal on Mauritania
Wikipedia: History of Mauritania

ASCL Community expert: Lotte Pelckmans

Further reading