Crime in Africa

The final book by the late Stephen Ellis, This Present Darkness: A History of Nigerian Organised Crime, was launched at the ASCL on 9 June. The book describes Nigerian organised crime from its origins in the last years of colonial rule, to the moment it went global. To mark this occasion, the ASCL Library has compiled a web dossier on crime in Africa, with a special focus on Nigeria. The dossier is divided into four thematic chapters, containing titles from our Library catalogue published from 2010. Each title links to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides abstracts and full text access, when available. The dossier opens with a personal word on Stephen Ellis by ASCL director Ton Dietz, and a thematic introduction on crime and the quest for integrity by ASCL researcher Chibuike Uche. It concludes with links to a number of relevant websites.

Introduction - A tribute to Stephen Ellis / Crime in Africa and the quest for integrity
Crime general - Nigeria / Crime general - Africa other 
Illicit trade, drug and human trafficking - Nigeria / Illicit trade, drug and human trafficking - Africa other 
Corruption and commercial crime - Nigeria / Corruption and commercial crime - Africa other 
Police and vigilante groups - Nigeria / Police and vigilante groups - Africa other 
Web resources


A tribute to Stephen Ellis

This Present Darkness. A History of Nigerian Organised Crime is Stephen Ellis’ last book, published in April 2016, by Hurst, the publisher of several of Stephen’s books. Stephen died in July 2015 and was working on this book almost to the end. This web dossier accompanies the official launch of the book at the ASCL, the Centre where Stephen worked on his many research projects over the years.

Stephen has always had an interest in the hidden sides of African society. Before he came to Leiden he was the editor of Africa Confidential, the journal that uncovers Africa’s secrets. Later, he studied the war in Liberia, where the state had become criminal and its leaders thrived because of their involvement in warfare, smuggling, and everything else that could be regarded as ‘illegal’.

Stephen Ellis was born in Nottingham, UK, on 13 June 1953. He studied modern history at the University of Oxford and did his doctoral exam there in 1981. He studied a revolt in Madagascar in the late 1890s, which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1985 as Rising of the Red Shawls. Later, he published a book about Madagascar in French, Un Complot à Madagascar, (Karthala 1990). In 1979-1980 he worked as a lecturer at the University of Madagascar, but that was not his first time in Africa: when he was eighteen years old he worked as a teacher in Douala, Cameroon. Between 1982 and 1986 he was head of the African sub-region at the International Secretariat of Amnesty International in London, followed by a position as Editor for the Africa Confidential newsletter. In 1991-1994 Stephen became the General Secretary and later Director of the African Studies Centre in Leiden, followed by an assignment for the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (for the Global Coalition for Africa; this resulted in his book Africa Now, published in 1996) and a position as senior researcher at the ASC. He was also appointed Desmond Tutu Professor at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam in 2008 for two days per week.

Stephen Ellis was the ASC’s most prominent scholar, and one of the key researchers in African Studies in the world. The ASC Library has over 80 of his publications, many of which deal with recent or historical political developments in Africa or, often together with his partner Gerrie ter Haar, about religion in Africa. He wrote most extensively about South Africa, Madagascar, Liberia and Nigeria, but also about Togo, Zambia, and Sierra Leone. Stephen Ellis’ personal page at Google Scholar shows that, to date, his publications have been cited by more than 5000 colleagues. His most popular book is The Criminalization of the State in Africa, which he wrote together with Jean-François Bayart and Béatrice Hibou, published in 1999 (after a French version that was published two years earlier). Other books that became famous include The Mask of Anarchy: The destruction of Liberia and the religious dimension of an African civil war (2001), Worlds of Power: Religious thought and political practice in Africa (together with Gerrie ter Haar, 2004) and Comrades against Apartheid: The ANC & the South African Communist Party in exile (together with Tsepo Sechaba, 1992). Among his recent publications are: External Mission: The ANC in exile, 1960-1990 (2013), Season of Rains: Africa in the world (2012; there is also a Dutch version, Het Regenseizoen) and West Africa’s International Drug Trade (2009).

Christopher Clapham, a scholar at the University of Cambridge, describes how many of Stephen’s interests come together in his last book, about the history of organised crime in Nigeria: “This is quite simply a dynamite book, striking first of all for the sheer depth of research that has gone into it. It is remarkable, too, in the way that it is able to fir this material into a bigger picture, created not only by a thorough familiarity with Nigerian history and politics, but also by an awareness especially of the spiritual dimensions of Nigerian life, and the ways in which these feed through into crime as well as virtually every other aspect of Nigerian affairs.”

Ton Dietz
African Studies Centre Leiden

Crime in Africa and the quest for integrity

Crime generally denotes an unlawful act punishable by the state, which is supposed to be the most potent vehicle for fighting and curtailing misconduct. This explains the normative assumption that the integrity of the state and its institutions should never be compromised. This has, however, not been the case in many African countries.

Since the attainment of political independence, many African states have been ravaged by corruption. Strong leaders and their parochial interests have hindered the development of strong institutions and the promotion of the common good. The preponderance of weak institutions reduces the chances of offenders ever being brought to justice. This encourages the proliferation of all manner of social and economic crimes.

For a long time, some influential foreign powers tolerated corrupt African leaders, in part because of their reluctance to pry into the internal affairs of independent nation states. Under the above scenario, corruption gained legitimacy and became institutionalised. Tiny Rowland, the controversial head of Lonrho, which was the biggest multinational company operating across Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, once asserted that African leaders “are so corrupt that that there’s not a single one of them I could not buy.”

Corruption in Africa has also been exacerbated by spells of military regimes across the continent. In the case of Nigeria, for instance, Stephen Ellis asserted that the military regime of General Babangida (1985-1992) “marked a transformation in Nigeria’s already notorious corruption, turning it into a generalized instrument of government” (African Affairs: (2009), vol. 108, no. 431, pp. 171-196). Although most African countries have now embraced democracy, with its inbuilt checks and balances, the quality of their institutions remains weak.

Despite the above troubling state of affairs, there is hope on the horizon. A small but increasing number of countries in the continent have, for instance, witnessed democratic transitions from a governing party to the opposition party. Examples of countries that have achieved this milestone include Senegal, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria.

The increasing realisation that bad governance practices in corrupt, underdeveloped countries could have repercussions in third countries, has made the world less tolerant of leaders who are unable to justify their continued stay in power on the basis of the will of the majority of their people. Slowly, the interests of the people are gradually becoming a factor in the determination of the governance direction in Africa. This is a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of leaders with integrity and the development of strong institutions. At another level, increasing international cooperation and enhanced scrutiny against cross-border financial flows have made it more difficult for African leaders to hide the proceeds of their corrupt practices abroad. Albeit slowly, change is coming to Africa.

Chibuike Uche
African Studies Centre Leiden

Crime general


Crime, community, and human rights in southeastern Nigeria, then and now/ Sabine Jell-Bahlsen
In: Journal of West African History: (2016), vol.2, no.1, p.115-164 : foto's. 

This present darkness : a history of Nigerian organised crime/ Stephen Ellis. - London : Hurst & Company, 2016Cover vigilant things

Violence in Nigeria : "a qualitative and quantitative analysis"/ ed. by Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos / Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos (ed.). - Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.], 2016. - (West African politics and society (WAPOSO) series, ISSN 2213-5480 ; 3)

Crime-reporting practices among market women in Oyo, Nigeria / Johnson Oluwole Ayodele
In: SAGE Open: (2015), vol. 5, no. 2, p. 1-13

Regional differences and developmental implications of security challenges in Nigeria : the case of kidnapping/ Adewumi Israel Badiora
In: African Security Review: (2015), vol.24, no.1, p.55-62 : tab.

Traditional structures of crime control in Lagos, Nigeria/ Oludayo Tade & Faisol Olaitan
In: African Security Review: (2015), vol.24, no.2, p.138-152.

Crime and public safety in Nigeria / Etannibi E. O. Alemika (ed.). - Lagos : CLEEN Foundation, 2014

A spiritual dimension to cybercrime in Nigeria : the "Yahoo Plus" phenomenon / Oludayo Tade
In: Human Affairs: (2013), vol. 23, no. 4 (Oct 2013), p. 689-705.

Nigeria's criminal crude : international options to combat the export of stolen oil/ Christina Katsouris & Aaron Sayne / Royal Institute of International Affairs. issuing body. - London : Chatham House, 2013

Nigerian organized crime/ Stephen Ellis
In: Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime / Felia Allum and Stan Gilmour.- London [etc.] : Routledge: (2012), p.127-142.

Vigilant things : on thieves, Yorùbá anti-aesthetics, and the strange fates of ordinary objects in Nigeria/ David Todd Doris. - Seattle, WA [etc.] : University of Washington Press, 2011

Les coupeurs de route : histoire du banditisme rural et transfrontalier dans le bassin du lac Tchad/ Issa Saibou. - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Les terrains du siècle)

Nigerian criminal networks : a comparative analysis/ Aimar Alkholt. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2010  

Africa other

Does organized crime exist in Africa?/ Stephen Ellis & Mark Shaw
In: African Affairs: (2015), vol.114, no.457, p.505-528 : fig.

Addressing the spectre of phishing : are adequate measures in place to protect victims of phishing?/ Fawzia Cassim
In: Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa: (2014), vol.47, no.3, p.401-428.

African nations as proxies in covert cyber operations/ Jan Kallberg & Steven Rowlen
In: African Security Review: (2014), vol.23, no.3, p.307-311.

Comprehensive assessment of drug trafficking and organised crime in West and Central Africa/ Mark Shaw, Tuesday Reitano & Marcena Hunter. - Addis Ababa : Directorate of Social Affairs, African Union Commission, 2014

Culture, crime et violence : socio-anthropologie de la déviance au Sénégal/ Lamine Ndiaye. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014. - (Palabres africaines)

Dirty entanglements : corruption, crime, and terrorism/ Louise I. Shelley. - New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2014Cover Dirty entanglements

Drugs in Africa : histories and ethnographies of use, trade, and control / Gernot Klantschnig, Neil C. M. Carrier, & Charles H. Ambler (ed.). - New York [etc.] : Palgrave Macmillan, 2014

Entreprenariat d'insécurité, réseaux de contrebande et dynamiques transfrontalières en Afrique centrale / Hans De Marie Heungoup
In: Enjeux: (2013), no. 49, p. 37-43 : fig. , foto's, krt. , tab.

Governing through crime in South Africa : the politics of race and class in neoliberalizing regimes/ Gail Super. - Surrey : Ashgate Publishers, 2013. - (Advances in criminology)

Le "bien" sécurité dans trois communes (Guidan Roumdji, Balleyara et Say) : des logiques de l'État aux logiques locales, ou la diversité d'acteurs/ Aghali Abdoulkader & Chaidou Adamou. - Niamey [etc.] : LASDEL, 2013. - (Études et travaux ; no. 105)

Perilous desert : insecurity in the Sahara / Frederic Wehrey & Anouar Boukhars (ed.). - Washington, DC [etc.] : Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013

The elephant in the room : how can peace operations deal with organized crime?/ Walter Kemp, Mark Shaw & Arthur Boutellis / International Peace Institute. - New York : International Peace Institute, 2013

The evolution of organised crime in Africa : towards a new response/ Mark Shaw & Tuesday Reitano. - Pretoria : Institute for Security Studies, 2013. - (ISS paper, ISSN 1026-0404 ; no. 244)

The impact of crime on inbound tourism to South Africa / Busani Moyo & Emmanuel Ziramba
In: African Security Review: (2013), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 4-18 : graf. , tab.

The impact of organised crime on governance in West Africa / Etannibi E. O. Alemika (ed.). - Abuja : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2013

La piraterie maritime : le nouveau danger / Olivier D'Auzon
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2012), no. 42, p. 159-167.

Patriomoine culturel et conflits armés en Afrique de l'Ouest / Ndèye Sokhna Guèye
In: Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire Cheikh Anta Diop. Série B, Sciences humaines: (2012), t. 54, no. 1/2, p. 79-92.

Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime / Felia Allum & Stan Gilmour (ed.). - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2012. - (Routledge handbooks)

The development of informal governance in post-apartheid South Africa: criminal gangs as neo-medieval agents / John Rapley
In: South African Journal of International Affairs: (2012), vol. 19, no. 3, p. 319-336.

The impact of organised crime on State social control : organised criminal groups and local governance on the Cape Flats, Cape Town, South Africa / Derica Lambrechts
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2012), vol. 38, no. 4, p. 787-807 : fig. , tab.

The modernity bluff : crime, consumption, and citizenship in Côte d'Ivoire/ Sasha Newell. - Chicago [etc.] : The University of Chicago Press, 2012

Addressing the growing spectre of cyber crime in Africa : evaluating measures adopted by South Africa and other regional role players / Fawzia Cassim
In: The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa: (2011), vol. 44, no. 1, p. 123-138.

Cape Town after apartheid : crime and governance in the divided city/ Tony Roshan Samara. - Minneapolis, MN [etc.] : University of Minnesota Press, 2011

Termites at work : transnational organized crime and state erosion in Kenya/ Peter Gastrow. - New York, NY : International Peace Institute, 2011

Afrique noire, poudre blanche : l'Afrique sous la coupe des cartels de la drogue/ Christophe Champin. - Bruxelles : Versaille, 2010

Crimes et délits dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal de 1810 à 1970/ Daha Chérif Ba. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (Études africaines)

Crimes, conflicts and courts : the administration of justice in a Zambian refugee settlement/ Julie Veroff. - Geneva : 2010. - (Research paper, New issues in refugee research, ISSN 1020-7473 ; 192)

Empowering the powerless : using anthropological knowledge to address the challenge of witchcraft-related crime in post-apartheid South Africa / Theodore Petrus
In: Africa Insight: (2010/11), vol. 40, no. 3, p. 50-60.

La cybercriminalité, menace pour le développement : les escroqueries Internet en Côte dIvoire / Jean Jacques Bogui
In: Technologies de l'information et de la communication en Afrique / dossier coordonné par Annie Chéneau-Loquay. (Afrique contemporaine: (2010), no. 234, p. 95-170): (2010), p. 155-167 : graf. .

La piraterie, un nouveau défi pour l'Afrique / Richard Mahé
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2010), no. 36, p. 209-235.

Misdaad en het WK voetbal 2010 in Zuid Afrika/ Johan Burger
In: Justitiele Verkenningen: (2010), vol.36, no.1, p.41-53 : fig.

Pirates en eaux somaliennes/ Jean Jacques Cécile. - Paris : Nouveau monde, 2010

Illicit trade, drugs and human trafficking


Coercion or volition : making sense of the experiences of female victims of trafficking from Nigeria in the Netherlands/ Taiwo Olabisi Oluwatoyinz & Akinyinka Akinyoade
In: African roads to prosperity : people en route to socio-cultural and economic transformations / edited by Akinyinka Akinyoade, Jan-Bart Gewald.- Leiden : Brill, [2015]: (2015), p.170-194.

Recruitment and abuse of trafficked children in south-west Nigeria/ Oludayo Tade
In: African Security Review: (2014), vol.23, no.3, p.264-282.

The evolving menace of baby factories and trafficking in Nigeria/ Freedom C. Onuoha
In: African Security Review: (2014), vol.23, no.4, p.405-411 : graf., tab.

Combating the 'new slavery' in Nigeria : an appraisal of legal and policy responses to human trafficking / Nlerum S. Okogbule
In: Journal of African Law: (2013), vol. 57, no. 1, p. 57-80.

Human trafficking in Edo State (Nigeria) : a socio-economic study / A. A. Lawal
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2013), vol. 13, p. 17-30.

Prostitution nigériane : entre rêves de migration et réalités de la traite / Bénédicte Lavaud-Legendre (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2013. - (Hommes et sociétés, ISSN 0993-4294)Cover prostitution nigeriane

Strangers, indigenes and child kidnapping in late colonial Lagos / Paul Osifodunrin
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2013), vol. 13, p. 1-16.

Survival strategies and citizenship claims : youth and the underground oil economy in post-amnesty Niger Delta / Paul U. Ugor
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2013), vol. 83, no. 2, p. 270-292.

"The problem of Nigeria is slavery, not white slave traffic" : globalization and the politicization of prostitution in Southern Nigeria, 1921-1955 / Saheed Aderinto
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2012), vol. 46, no. 1, p. 1-22 : tab.

Cases of severely exploited Nigerian citizens and other forms of exploitation : an enquiry conducted jointly between Italy and a number of Nigerian states : initial considerations/ Akinyinka Akinyoade & Francesco Carchedi. - Roma : Ediesse, 2012

The political economy of oil and 'rebellion' in Nigeria's Niger Delta / Kathryn Nwajiaku-Dahou
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2012), vol. 39, no. 132, p. 295-313 : graf. , tab.

The negotiations of Nigerian seamen in the transition from colonialism to independence : smuggling to make ends meet / Lynn Schler
In: African Studies Review: (2011), vol. 54, no. 1, p. 167-185.

Africa other

Blood timber : how Europe helped fund war in the Central African Republic : a report / Global Witness. - London : Global witness, 2015Cover blood timber

Drug trafficking in Guinea-Bissau, 1998-2014: the evolution of an elite protection network/ Mark Shaw
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2015), vol.53, no.3, p.339-364 : fig..

Heroin use, trafficking, and intervention approaches in Sub-Saharan Africa/ Sheryl McCurdy & Haruka Maruyama
In: Global health in Africa : historical perspectives on disease control / edited by Tamara Giles-Vernick and James L.A.Webb, Jr.- Athens, OH : Ohio University Press, 2013: (2015), p.211-234.

Illicit financial flows : report of the High Level Panel on illicit financial flows from Africa / United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. - Addis Ababa : UNECA, 2015

West Africa and the transnational trade in illegal drugs : physical properties, policing, and power/ Simon Howell & Andrews Atta-Asamoah
In: Africa Review: (2015), vol.7, no.1, p.1-14.

"Hybrid governance", legitimacy, and (il)legality in the informal cross-border trade in Panyimur, Northwest Uganda/ Kristof Titeca & Rachel Flynn
In: African Studies Review: (2014), vol.57, no.1, p.71-91 : tab.

Illicit flows and African security / Mikael Eriksson, Emy Lindberg, & Mats Utas (ed.) / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2014. - (Occasional paper)

Illicit trafficking and Libya's transition : profits and losses/ Mark Shaw & Fiona Mangan. - Washington, DC : United States Institute of Peace, 2014. - (Peaceworks ; 96)

Ivory's curse: the militarization and professionalization of poaching in Africa/ Varun Vira & Thomas Ewing. - Washiongton : Born Free USA, 2014

Les mafias du Mali : trafics et terrorisme au Sahel/ Serge Daniel. - Paris : Descartes, 2014

Smuggling ideologies : from criminalization to hybrid governance in African clandestine economies/ Kate Meagher
In: African Affairs: (2014), vol.113, no.453, p.497-517.

The impact of drug trafficking on informal security actors in Kenya / Moritz Schuberth
In: Africa Spectrum: (2014), vol. 49, no. 3, p. 55-81.

Trafficking economies in the Sahara-Sahel/ Alain Antil
In: An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel : geography, economics and security / under the direction of Laurent Bossard.- Paris : OECD/Sahel and West Africa Club, cop.2014: (2014), p.225-237 : fig., krt.

Vanishing point : criminality, corruption and the devastation of Tanzanias elephants / Environmental Investigation Agency, London / Washington. - London [etc.] : EIA, 2014

'Afrod', le business touareg avec la frontière: nouvelles conditions et nouveaux défis / Ines Kohl & Armelle Gaulier
In: Politique africaine: (2013), no. 132, p. 139-159 : foto.

African transnational threat to Turkey / Behsat Ekici
In: African Security Review: (2013), vol. 22, no. 3, p. 123-144 : tab.

Globalization, gender bias, and trafficking in young women : a feminist interpretation/ Franca Attoh
In: Perspectives on feminism from Africa / 'Lai Olurode.- Durham, NC : Carolina Academic Press (CAP), cop.2013: (2013), p.65-78 : tab.

Les cartographies du trafic des enfants en Afrique centrale : territorialisation de la criminalité et intégration régionale / Claude Abe
In: Enjeux: (2013), no. 49, p. 9-14 : fig. , foto's, tab.

Maritime security challenges in the gulf of Guinea/ Ifesinachi Okafor. - Nairobi [etc.] : African Leadership Centre, 2013. - (African Leadership Centre Monographs, ISSN 2312-9107 ; 33)

Migrant smuggling in the Horn of Africa & Yemen : the political economy and protection risks/ Bram Frouws / Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat. - Nairobi : Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, 2013. - (Mixed migration research series, Explaining people on the move ; study 1)

Youths on perilous journeys : irregular migrants from Tgra northern Ethiopia, to the Gulf region / Fesseha Berhe
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2013), vol. 28, p. 345-360.

Doing business out of war : an analysis of the UPDF's presence in the Democratic Republic of Congo / Koen Vlassenroot, Sandrine Perrot & Jeroen Cuvelier
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2012), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 2-21.

Smugglers and saints of the Sahara : regional connectivity in the twentieth century/ Judith Scheele. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012. - (African studies series ; 120)

The challenges of transnational human trafficking in West Africa/ Wilfried Relwende Sawadogo
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2012), vol.13, no.1/2, p.77-99 : krt., tab.

The legal protection of children against trafficking in East Africa: a comparative human rights analysis between Tanzania and Kenya / Elizabeth Lukelelwa
In: Journal of African and International Law: (2012), vol. 5, no. 1, p. 139-208 : tab.

The South Africa Vietnam rhino horn trade nexus: a deadly combination of institutional lapses, corrupt wildlife industry professionals and Asian crime syndicates/ Tom Milliken , Jo Shaw & Richard H. Emslie. - Johannesburg : TRAFFIC International, 2012

The State and the bloody diamond rush in Chiadzwa: unpacking the contesting interests in the development of illicit mining and trading, c. 2006-2009 / Tinashe Nyamunda & Patience Mukwambo
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2012), vol. 38, no. 1, p. 145-166.

Trafficking in Namibia / Merab Kambamu Kiremire
In: Journal for studies in humanities and social sciences: (2012), vol. 1, no. 2, p. 217-230.

Tycoons and contraband: informal cross-border trade in West Nile, north-western Uganda / Kristof Titeca
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2012), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 47-63.

Women smuggling and the men who help them: gender, corruption and illicit networks in Senegal / Cynthia Howson
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2012), vol. 50, no. 3, p. 421-445.

Access to resources and predictability in armed rebellion: the FAPC's short-lived 'Monaco' in eastern Congo / Kristof Titeca
In: Africa Spectrum: (2011), vol. 46, no. 2, p. 43-70.

Géopolitique du Sahara/ Emmanuel Grégoire. - Paris : La Découverte, 2011. - (Hérodote ; 2011/3, no. 142)

Le trafic d'enfants, un aspect de la migration ouest-africaine au Gabon / Serge Loungou
In: Les cahiers d'outre-mer: (2011), vol. 64, no. 256, p. 485-505.

Pourquoi un marché informel du médicament dans les pays francophones d'Afrique? / Carine Baxerres
In: Politique africaine: (2011), no. 123, p. 117-136.

Relations and regulations in local gold trade networks in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo / Sara Geenen
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2011), vol. 5, no. 3, p. 427-446.

"Off the backs of the children" : forced begging and other abuses against talibés in Senegal / Matthew Wells & Corinne Dufka (ed.). - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2010

"Patrons' et 'petits patrons': knowledge and hierarchy in illicit networks of trade in archaeological objects in the Baniko region of Mali / Cristiana Panella
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 124, p. 228-237.

Africa's connection to the drug trade / Peyton E. Daniels (ed.). - Hauppauge, NY : Nova Science Publishers, 2010. - (African political, economic and security issues series)

Child trafficking in sub-Saharan Africa : continuation of slavery by other means / Ezeibe Christian Chukwuebuka
In: African Renaissance: (2010), vol. 7, no. 3/4, p. 29-40 : tab.

Des fillettes esclaves à Libreville à la fin du XXe siècle/ O. Díaz. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (Études africaines)

Diamonds and clubs : the militarized control of diamonds and power in Zimbabwe / Alan Martin & Bernard Taylor (ed.). - Ottawa, Ont : Partnership Africa Canada, 2010

Does all that is solid melt into air? : questioning 'neo-liberal' occult economies in Mozambique / Jason Sumich
In: Kronos: (2010), no. 36, p. 157-172.

Enfants martyrs : l'esclavage moderne au Burkina Faso/ Marie France Réveillard. - Chevilly-Larue : Monde global, 2010. - (Collection Terre de vie)

Informal cross-border trade and arms smuggling along the Uganda-Rwanda border / Nelson Alusala
In: African Security Review: (2010), vol. 19, no. 3, p. 15-26.

L'affaire du "Probo Koala" ou les insuffisances du droit face au trafic illicite de déchets dangereux / Marie Bourrel & Joseph Breham
In: Revue africaine des affaires maritimes et des transports: (2010), no. 2, p. 18-33.

Proximate spaces : the rise of informal trade between Ghana and Togo / Sandile Zeka
In: Africa Insight: (2010/11), vol. 40, no. 3, p. 157-167.

Regulation, cross-border trade and practical norms in West Nile, north-western Uganda / Kristof Titeca & Tom De Herdt
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2010), vol. 80, no. 4, p. 573-594 : krt.

Sex trafficking : a global perspective / Kimberly A. McCabe & Sabita Manian (ed.). - Lanham, MD [etc.] : Lexington Books, 2010

Stratagems and spoils : a critical analysis of informal trade on the Ghana/Togo border / Sandile Zeka
In: Africa Insight: (2010/11), vol. 40, no. 2, p. 165-176.

Which protection for children involved in mobility in West Africa : our positions and recommendations / Plan WARO;ENDA Jeunesse Action;AMWCY. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2010

Corruption and commercial crime


Dictators and democracy in African development : the political economy of good governance in Nigeria/ A. Carl LeVan. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2014. - (African Studies)Cover Dictators and democracy in African development

Gift-giving, anti-bribery laws and the Nigerian Constitution : matters arising / Akeem Olajide Bello
In: Journal of African Law: (2014), vol. 58, no. 2, p. 278-302.

Governance reform in Africa : international and domestic pressures and counter-pressures/ Jérôme Bachelard. - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2014. - (Routledge explorations in development studies)

Manipulative and coercive power and the social-ecological determinants of violent conflicts in the Niger Delta of Nigeria / Isidore A. Udoh & Matthew S. Ibok
In: African Conflict & Peacebuilding Review: (2014), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 60-94 : tab.

Oil corrupts elections : the political economy of vote-buying in Nigeria/ Hakeem Onapajo, Suzanne Francis & Ufo Okeke-Uzodike
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2014/15), vol.15, no.2, p.1-21.

Oil, democracy, and development in Africa/ John R. Heilbrunn. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2014

Rejecting continuity and rupture / Chris Willott
In: African and Asian Studies: (2014), vol. 13, no. 4, p. 405-428.

The (ab)use of import duty waivers in Nigeria/ Nwanneka Modebe. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2014. - (ASC working paper ; 113)

The economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria : an appraisal/ Patrick Edobor Igbinovia & Blessing Edobor-Igbinovia. - Ibadan : Safari Books, 2014

United Nations and African Union Conventions on corruption and anti-corruption legislations in Nigeria : a comparative analysis / Akeem Olajide Bello
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2014), vol. 22, pt. 2, p. 308-333.

Whither the ivory tower? : corruption and development of higher education in Nigeria/ Osumah Oarhe
In: Africa Education Review: (2014), vol.11, no.3, p.311-328 : tab.

Corruption and economic crime in Nigeria / Daniel Egiegba Agbiboa
In: African Security Review: (2013), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 47-66 : graf. , tab.

Nigeria's quest to recover looted assets : the Abacha affair / David U. Enweremadu
In: Africa Spectrum: (2013), vol. 48, no. 2, p. 51-70 : tab.

Anti-corruption campaign in Nigeria (1999-2007) : the politics of a failed reform/ David U. Enweremadu. - Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.], 2012. - (West African politics and society (WAPOSO) series, ISSN 2213-5480 ; vol. 1)

Authority stealing : anti-corruption war and democratic politics in post-military Nigeria/ Wale Adebanwi. - Durham, NC : Carolina Academic Press, 2012. - (African world series)

Corruption as an impediment to good governance in Nigeria : the way forward / Oyekanmi Adewoye
In: Recht in Afrika: (2012), Jg. 15, H. 2, S. 239-250.

NGOs and the formation of the public : grey practices and accountability / Laura Routley
In: African Affairs: (2012), vol. 111, no. 442, p. 116-134.

Security votes in Nigeria: disguising stealing from the public purse / Obiamaka Egbo
In: African Affairs: (2012), vol. 111, no. 445, p. 597-614.

Conflict drivers: environmental degradation and corruption in the Niger Delta region / Tarila Marclint Ebiede
In: African Conflict & Peacebuilding Review: (2011), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 139-151.

Pirates, smugglers and corrupt tycoons: social bandits in Africa/ Evelyn Groenink & Charles Rukani. - [S.l.] : FAIR Transnational Investigation, 2011

Serving the few, starving the many: how corruption underdevelops Nigeria and how there is an alternative perspective to corruption cleanups / Daniel Egiegba Agbiboa
In: Africa Today: (2011/12), vol. 58, no. 4, p. 111-132.

When corruption fights back: democracy and elite interest in Nigeria's anti-corruption war / Wale Adebanwi & Ebenezer Obadare
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2011), vol. 49, no. 2, p. 185-213.

Bad leadership: bane of sustainable development at local government in Nigeria / A. A. Idowu
In: Journal of Local Government Studies: (2010), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 62-79.

Combating corruption in Nigeria: the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)/ Emmanuel Obuah
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2010/11), vol.12, no.1, p.17-44.

Corruption in Nigeria : the fight and movement to cure the malady/ Mazi A. K. Oji & Valerie U. Oji. - Lanham, MD [etc.] : University Press of America Inc., 2010

Executive immunity under the Nigerian Constitution and its impact on the anti-corruption crusade / Elijah Adewale Taiwo
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2010), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 216-247.

La police morale de l'anticorruption : Cameroun, Nigeria/ Olivier Vallée. - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Les Afriques)

La société civile et la lutte contre la corruption au Nigeria : le cas des ONG anti-corruption/ David U. Enweremadu. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2010. - (ASC working paper ; 89)

Legitimizing corruption in government : security votes in Nigeria/ Obiamaka Egbo. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2010. - (ASC working paper ; 91)

Political corruption and the Nigerian democratic environment : the role of religion / Mubarak Ademola Noibi
In: Journal of Oriental and African Studies: (2010), vol. 19, p. 233-243.

Regional parallelism and the reporting of corruption in the Nigerian press / Muhammad Jameel Yusha'u
In: Journal of African Media Studies: (2010), vol. 2, no. 3, p. 353-369 : tab.

The impact of corruption on democracy and development in Nigeria / Olatokunbo Ogunfolu
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2010), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 379-394.

The institutionalization of elite corruption and the culture of primitive accumulation in the twenty-first century Nigeria / J. O. Shopeju & Chris C. Ojukwu
In: Identity, Culture and Politics: (2010), vol. 11, no. 1, p. 91-112 : tab.

The open sore of a nation : corruption complex and internal security in Nigeria / Osumah Oarhe & Iro Aghedo
In: African Security: (2010), vol. 3, no. 3, p. 127-147.

Africa other

Blood diamonds : corruption and torture in Angola/ Rafael Marques de Morais. - Lisboa : Tinta da China, 2015

États, corruption et blanchiment : Sénégal-Cameroun/ Stéphane Enguéléguélé. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015. - (Collection Études africaines)

Le vampirisme des entreprises camerounaises : un frein à l'émergence/ Fonkika Dinven Verla. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015Cover Le vampirisme des entreprises camerounaises

Oil, power, and poverty in Angola/ José León García-Rodríguez
In: African Studies Review: (2015), vol.58, no.1, p.159-176 : krt., tab.

République CentrAfricaine : douanes et corruption, causes de la déliquescence du pays?/ Lionel Pascal. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015. - (Études africaines. Série Administration)

The looting machine : warlords, tycoons, smugglers, and the systematic theft of Africa's wealth/ Tom Burgis. - London : William Collins, 2015

The real politics of the Horn of Africa : money, war and the business of power/ Alex De Waal. - Cambridge [etc.] : Polity Press, 2015

Combating corruption : legal approaches to supporting good governance and integrity in Africa/ John Hatchard. - Cheltenham, UK ; Norhtampton, MA, USA : Edward Elgar, 2014

Corruption et États fragiles africains / Oasis Kodila-Tedika & Remy Bolito-Losembe
In: African Development Review: (2014), vol. 26, no. 1, p. 50-58 : graf. , tab.

Trillion Dollar Scandal / One. - London : One, 2014

Vaincre la corruption en Afrique : la solution patrimoniale/ Armand Salouo. - Paris : l'Harmattan, 2014. - (Point de vue)

Buying loyalty : Zimbabwe's Marange diamonds / David Towriss
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2013), vol. 39, no. 1, p. 99-117 : krt.

Conakry : la république des voleurs/ Thierno Bah. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013

Corruption as an empty signifier : politics and political order in Africa/ Lucy Koechlin. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2013. - (Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies, ISSN 1574-6925 ; vol. 10)

Corruption, good governance and the African state : a critical analysis of the political-economic foundations of corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa/ Joseph Patrick Ganahl. - Potsdam : Potsdam University Press, 2013. - (Potsdam economic studies, ISSN 2196-9302 ; 2)

Financial crimes and the law : a critical legal analysis of the embezzlement of public funds in Tanzania / Kiomon Kibamba
In: Journal of African and International Law: (2013), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 1-78.

The politics of anti-corruption enforcement in South Africa / Vinothan Naidoo
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2013), vol. 31, no. 4, p. 523-542.

The politics of elite corruption in Africa : Uganda in comparative African perspective/ Roger K. Tangri. - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2013. - (Routledge studies on African politics and international relations ; 3)

The Sahel at the crossroads / Marcel Kitissou (ed.). - London : Adonis & Abbey Publishers, 2013. - (African renaissance, ISSN 1744-2532 ; vol. 10, no. 1)

Threat assessment of money laundering and terrorist financing in West Africa / Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa. - [Senegal?] : Inter-Governmental Action Group Against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), 2013

End of road for Uganda's thieves/ Tamale Mirundi. - [Kampala] : Author, 2012

Europe, crimes et censure au Congo/ Charles Onana. - Paris : Duboiris, 2012. - (Secrets d'état)

Good governance and democratic leadership for an African Renaissance : a reflection on AU member States' compliance with the AUCPCC / André Mbata Mangu
In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies: (2012), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 18-37 ; tab.

La contribution de la CEMAC dans la lutte contre le blanchiment des capitaux et le financement du terrorisme / Augustin Kongatoua Kossonzo
In: Revue juridique et politique des États francophones: (2012), année 66, no. 3, p. 348-368.

La lutte contre la corruption et la responsabilité des décideurs publics au Maroc / Michel Rousset
In: Revue juridique et politique des États francophones: (2012), année 66, no. 1, p. 3-18.

Magie et enrichissement illicite : la feymania au Cameroun/ Basile Ndjio. - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2012. - (Histoire des Suds)

Africa investigates : Ghana gold/ Elizabeth Jones & Anas Aremeyaw Anas. - [S.n.] : Aljazeera, 2011

Combating corruption, improving governance in Africa : regional anti-corruption programme for Africa, 2011-2016 / United Nations. Governance and Public Administration Division;African Union. Advisory Board on Corruption. - Addis Ababa : United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2011

Corruption and human development in Africa : an empirical analysis / Jacques P. Nguemegne
In: Cahiers africains d'administration publique: (2011), no. 77, p. 167-203 : tab.

Income shocks and corruption in Africa : does a virtuous cycle exist? / Maarten J. Voors, Èrwin H. Bulte & Richard Damania
In: Journal of African Economies: (2011), vol. 20, no. 3, p. 395-418 : tab.

Killing Kebble : an underworld exposed/ Mandy Wiener. - Johannesburg : Macmillan, 2011

La criminalité économique et ses conséquences sur la PME africaine : cas de la fraude, la corruption et l'arnaque/ David Fongang. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011. - (Défense, stratégie & relations internationales)

La prévention comme moyen de sécurisation des nouveaux moyens de paiement dans l'espace UEMOA / A. Shamsidine Adjita
In: Penant: (2011), année 121, no. 875, p. 210-255.

Politiques publiques de santé, logiques d'acteurs et ordre négocié au Burkina Faso / Valéry Ridde
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2011), vol. 51, cah. 201, p. 115-143.

Annual Report / Malawi. Financial Intelligence Unit. - Lilongwe : Financial Intelligence Unit, 2010

Avoiding the oil curse in Ghana: is transparency sufficient?/ Franklin Obeng-Odoom
In: African Journal of International Affairs: (2010), vol.13, no.1/2, p.89-120.

Combating money laundering in Tanzania : an overview of the legal framework / Laurent Agola
In: Journal of African and International Law: (2010), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 389-408.

Corruption - money laundering nexus : an analysis of risks and control measures in West Africa / Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa. - Dakar, Senegal : Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), 2010

Corruption in West Africa: can there be some prospects for a lasting solution? / Massoud Omar
In: Cahiers africains d'administration publique: (2010), no. 74, p. 111-119.

La nouvelle loi anti-corruption (loi no. 5/2009 du 22 septembre 2009 sur la corruption, la concussion, la fraude et les infractions assimilées) : Congo (Brazzaville) / Roland Bembelly
In: Revue congolaise de droit et des affaires: (2010), no. 2, p. 11-21.

Lutte contre la fraude douanière en RDCongo : pour la création d'une direction générale de la Brigade douanière (enjeux financiers pour la reconstruction)/ Afoto Jean Elenga-di-Okanga. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (Collection "Comptes rendus)

Silent and lethal : how quiet corruption undermines Africa's development efforts/ Jorge Saba Arbache, James Habyarimana & Vasco Molini. - Washington, D.C. The World Bank, 2010

Police and vigilante groups


Managing police grievances in a depressed economy : the Lagos Colony Police mutiny of 1933 / Abimbola Omotayo Adesoji & Emmanuel Olukemi Rotimi
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2014), vol. 48, no. 2, p. 257-274.

Dossier "Corps habillés : politique des métiers de l'ordre" / Marielle Debos & Joel Glasman (ed.). - : 2012

Policing a plurality of worlds : the Nigeria police in metropolitan Kano / Alice Hills
In: African Affairs: (2012), vol. 111, no. 442, p. 46-66.

Zangbeto : navigating between the spaces of oral art, communal security and conflict mediation in Badagry, Nigeria/ Folashade Hunsu. - Uppsala : Nordiska, 2011. - (Discussion paper, ISSN 1104-8417 ; 53)

Criminal force : torture, abuse, and extrajudicial killings by the Nigeria police force / Network on Police Reform in Nigeria;Open Society Justice Initiative. - New York : Open Society Institute, 2010

Restoring peace or waging war : security agencies' management of ethno-religious uprisings in Nigeria / A. O. Adesoji
In: African Security Review: (2010), vol. 19, no. 3, p. 2-14.

Africa other

Changes and challenges of the Kenya Police Reserve : the case of Turkana County/ Kennedy Mkutu Agade
In: African Studies Review: (2015), vol.58, no.1, p.199-222 : graf., krt., tab.

Rejecting rights : vigilantism and violence in post-apartheid South Africa/ Nicholas Rush Smith
In: African Affairs: (2015), vol.114, no.456, p.341-360.

Sécurité pour l'émergence du Sénégal/ Abdoulaye Aziz Ndaw. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015. - (Études africaines, Série politique)Cover Securite pour l'emergence du Senegal

"C'est le terrain qui commande": Normenpluralismus im Alltag von Polizisten in Parakou, Benin/ Lisa Peth. - Mainz : Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikastudien, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 2014. - (Arbeitspapiere ; 151)

Community policing and the politics of local development in Tanzania / Charlotte Cross
In: Journal of Modern African Studies: (2014), vol. 52, no. 4, p. 517-540.

Policing in intimate crowds : moving beyond "the mob" in South Africa/ Sarah Jane Cooper-Knock
In: African Affairs: (2014), vol.113, no.453, p.563-582.

Somalia works: police development as State building/ Alice Hills
In: African Affairs: (2014), vol.113, no.450, p.88-107.

State policing and invisible forces in Mozambique/ Helene Maria Kyed
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2014), vol.84, no.3, p.424-443.

Strengthening police oversight and accountability in Southern Africa = Reforço da supervisão e responabilização policial na África Austral = Renforcement de la surveillance et de la responsabilisation de la police en Afrique australe : summary report on a workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa, 4-6 December 2013/ Gavin Cawthra / African Policing Civilian Oversight Forum;Raoul Wallenberg institutet för mänskliga rättigheter och humanitär rätt;SADC Parliamentary Forum. - Cape Town : African Policing Civilian Oversight Forum, 2014

The role of private security in community policing: case of Kikuyu sub county, Kiambu county, Kenya/ Tabitha Ndanu Anicent. - Nairobi : University of Nairobi, 2014

Thugs, spies and vigilantes: community policing and street politics in inner city Addis Ababa/ Marco Di Nunzio
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2014), vol.84, no.3, p.444-465.

Unruly agents : police reform, bureaucratization, and policemen's agency in interwar Togo / Joel Glasman
In: Journal of African History: (2014), vol. 55, no. 1, p. 79-100 : fig. , foto.

Building a police force "for the good"in DR Congo : questions that still haunt reformers and reform beneficiaries/ Thierry Nlandu Mayamba. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2013. - (Policy dialogue, ISSN 1654-6709 ; 11)

Hybridity in policing : the case of Ethiopia / Bruce Baker
In: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law: (2013), vol. 45, no. 3, p. 296-313.

'There should be no open doors in the police' : criminal investigations in northern Ghana as boundary work / Jan Beek
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2012), vol. 50, no. 4, p. 551-572.

Community policing in a pastoral community : a case study of West Pokot County, Kenya/ Mercy Wambugha Mwasaru. - Rotterdam : Erasmus University. International Institute of Social Studies, 2012

From witch-hunts to thief-hunts : on the temporality of evil in the South African Lowveld / Isak Niehaus
In: African Historical Review: (2012), vol. 44, no. 1, p. 29-52.

Grauzonen : Funktionsweisen der Beniner Polizei und ihr Verhältnis zur Bevölkerung/ Annika Witte. - Mainz : Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikastudien, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 2012. - (Arbeitspapiere ; nr. 133)

Policing and constitutional reform in Zimbabwe/ David Bruce. - Pretoria : IDASA, 2012

Security in Niamey: an anthropological perspective on policing and an act of terrorism in Niger / Mirco Göpfert
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2012), vol. 50, no. 1, p. 53-74.

Security, development, and force : revisiting police reform in Sierra Leone / Erlend Grøner Krogstad
In: African Affairs: (2012), vol. 111, no. 443, p. 261-280.

Tested loyalties: police and politics in South Africa, 1939-63 / Keith Shear
In: The Journal of African History: (2012), vol. 53, no. 2, p. 173-193.

African police and soldiers in colonial Zimbabwe, 1923-80/ Timothy Joseph Stapleton. - Rochester, NY [etc.] : University of Rochester Press [etc.], 2011. - (Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora, ISSN 1092-5228 ; 50)

La politique de défense et de sécurité de la Côte d'Ivoire/ G. Bertin Kadet. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011. - (Études africaines)

Policing and human rights : the meaning of violence and justice in the everyday policing of Johannesburg/ Julia Hornberger. - Abingdon [etc.] : Routledge, 2011. - (Law, development and globalization)

The politics of mobilization for security in South African townships / Laurent Fourchard
In: African Affairs: (2011), vol. 110, no. 441, p. 607-627.

The use of technology and leadership in enhancing strategic cooperative policing within the SADC region / Ingrid Sinclair & Mpho Matlala
In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies: (2011), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 47-59.

Des principaux défis de la Police Nationale pour une meilleure sécurité publique et le renforcement démocratique/ Willy Nindorera. - [Bujumbura] : Centre d'Alerte et de Prévention des Conflits (CENAP), 2010

Domesticating vigilantism in Africa/ Thomas G. Kirsch & Tilo Grätz. - Oxford : James Currey, 2010

Web resources

CLEEN Foundation
The CLEEN Foundation (formerly known as the Centre for Law Enforcement Education) is a Nigerian NGO established in January 1998 with a mission to promote public safety, security and accessible justice through the strategies of empirical research, legislative advocacy, demonstration programmes and publications, in partnership with government and civil society. Their website offers access to many publications, including full text books.

Institute for Security Studies (ISS Africa)
ISS Africa is an organization that aims to enhance human security in Africa. It works across the continent, doing research, providing expert policy advice, and delivering practical training and technical assistance. The ISS has divisions on Governance, crime and justice and Transnational threats and international crime. On their website you can find many of their publications on these subjects in full text.

International Peace Institute
The International Peace Institute (IPI) is an independent, international not-for-profit think tank dedicated to managing risk and building resilience to promote peace, security, and sustainable development. One of the research topics of the International Peace Institute is transnational organized crime. A search on their website returns many online publications in relation to Africa.

Nigeria Watch
This research project monitors lethal violence, conflicts, and human security in Nigeria. It began in July 2006 and is now based on the campus of the University of Ibadan and, since July 2013, has had the support of the French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA-Nigeria). The Nigeria Watch website gives access to a database monitoring homicides and violent deaths in Nigeria, in order to provide statistics, set up a GIS to localise dangerous spots, and to assess the rise, decline or stabilisation of violence in Nigeria. The site also offers access to downloads of their annual reports, working papers, and other published works.

UNAFRI Digital Repository
The UNAFRI (United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders) Digital Repository includes all UNAFRI publications since 1991 and publications from sister institutions and the United Nations. It covers topics like crime prevention, treatment of offenders, and the criminal justice system.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - Data for Africa
The UNODC website contains links to many open access publications in their areas of interest, such as corruption, drug and human trafficking, transnational crime, etc. Their 2005 initiative Data for Africa had the objective to improve knowledge on drugs and crime phenomena in Africa, and aimed to enhance capacity of African countries to collect and analyse data and trends in drugs, crime, and victimisation. There is a special section on the website containing publications from the Data for Africa programme.