Indian Ocean slave trade

The slave market in Zanzibar, Tanzania, East Africa. From El Mundo en la Mano, published in 1878.On the occasion of the exhibition on slavery at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the ASCL Library has compiled a web dossier on the Indian Ocean slave trade. The dossier consists of selected titles from the ASCL Library Catalogue, extended with sources available through the broader Leiden University Library collection. Titles link to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides additional details and abstracts, where available. The dossier is introduced by Rijksmuseum curator Maria Holtrop and concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites.

Introduction | Selected titles | Web resources

Slavery : 10 people, 10 storiesonline exhibition Rijksmuseum | online tentoonstelling Rijksmuseum


In the Netherlands, the history of slavery has long been associated with the transatlantic trade and with the Dutch West India Company. Until now, the story of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) around the Indian Ocean has received less attention. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, the Dutch shipped at least 600,000 Africans to North and South America and between 660,000 and 1.1 million people around the Indian Ocean. All of these men, women, and children were forcibly removed from their homes and were relocated to other, faraway countries. They were coerced into leaving their families, languages, cultures, and religions behind, and ended up in a system that objectified them, broke their relationships, and reduced them to commodities. The same fate befell their children and generations to come.

Before the colonial period, many forms of slavery already existed in Asia and Africa. Sometimes people were enslaved for life, but sometimes slavery was of a temporary nature, for example, until a debt had been paid off. The arrival of the Europeans meant a massive increase and hardening of existing systems. After its establishment in 1602, the VOC set up an extensive trade network, often with brute force, using existing networks and routes. Dutch demand gave a powerful stimulus to the slave trade and to the production of merchandise through the use of slavery. Unlike the Dutch West India Company (WIC), the VOC did not have a monopoly on the slave trade; however, this did not mean that they did not trade in people. The VOC sent ships to India, Bengal, Madagascar, and Bali, among other places, to buy people and to ship them to trading posts as far away as Cape Town and Japan. The Company and its employees were responsible for the slave trade. They bought men, women, and children as additional income and sold them elsewhere for a profit.

The Dutch abolished slavery in their Asian territories from 1860. In countries such as South Africa and India, which were conquered by the British, the abolition of slavery occurred several decades earlier. In some places in the Indonesian archipelago there was slavery into the 20th century.

People in slavery

There were people living in slavery at all Dutch trading posts. They were forced to do hard labour in the timber yards and forts, or to do agricultural work. Others worked in European households, for example in Batavia or Cape Town, or on plantations in the Banda islands. What did it mean to be enslaved in the times of the VOC? Enslaved Africans and Asians did not have any rights. The slaveholder ran every aspect of their lives and they could be sold at any time, without having any influence in the decision. They did not have any possessions, were not allowed to bequeath anything, and even their offspring belonged to the slaveholder. Enslaved Africans and Asians were not allowed to defend their honour and hence could not rebel against humiliations or ill-treatment without serious consequences.
People in slavery have always rebelled against their enslavement, often through sabotaging the system, running away from it or resisting it, but also through desperate acts such as jumping overboard during the voyage, by suicide, or by killing their own children. They sabotaged the system by working slowly or inefficiently. People also sought refuge in the jungle or in the mountains, where the landscape was difficult to penetrate and so provided natural protection, thereby creating new, parallel communities.

The stories of the men, women, and children who lived in slavery can be distilled from the many VOC archives. In these archives, sales were included in notarial deeds, punishments in the criminal archives, and sometimes examples of attempts at resistance in the administrative archives. These archives provide a glimpse of what could happen to these people, albeit from a colonial viewpoint. Any records of literal quotations from enslaved Africans and Asians themselves remain words that were written down from an unequal position of power. It is therefore important to also consult other sources, such as oral histories, when writing on this subject, in order to tell the story from different angles.

Maria Holtrop [Text translated from Dutch]

Selected titles

Dutch involvement in the Indian Ocean slave trade | Indian Ocean slave trade | Abolition of slavery

Dutch involvement in the Indian Ocean slave trade

Slavernij: het verhaal van João, Wally, Oopjen, Paulus, Van Bengalen, Surapati, Sapali, Tula, Dirk, Lohkay. - Amsterdam: Rijksmusem, 2021.

book cover "Slavernij: het verhaal van João, Wally, Oopjen, Paulus, Van Bengalen, Surapati, Sapali, Tula, Dirk, Lohkay"De slavernij in Oost en West : het Amsterdam-onderzoek / Pepijn Brandon, Guno Jones, Nancy Jouwe, Matthias van Rossum (redactie). - Amsterdam : Spectrum, 2020.

Good Hope : South Africa and The Netherlands from 1600 / Martine Gosselink Maria Holtrop, Robert Ross, Wayne Dooling, and Geoffrey Badenhorst. - Amsterdam: Rijksmusem, 2017.

Les traites des esclaves néerlandaise et française à Madagascar au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles / Rafaël Thiébaut. - [Place of publication not identified]: [Publisher not identified], 2017.

Private slave trade in the Dutch Indian Ocean world: a study into the networks and backgrounds of the slavers and the enslaved in South Asia and South Africa / by Linda Mbeki; Matthias van Rossum.
In: Slavery & Abolition, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 95-116, 2017.

Indian Ocean Slaves in Cape Town, 1695–1807 / Nigel Worden.
In: Journal of southern African studies, vol.42, no. 3, p.389-408, 2016.

De Madagascar à Sumatra : une route négrière peu commune : le voyage du navire 'Binnenwijzend' de la VOC en 1732 / Rafaël Thiébaut.
In: Afriques : débats, méthodes et terrains d'histoire, issue 06, 2015.

Slave trading and slavery in the Dutch colonial empire: a global comparison / Rik van Welie.
In: NWIG: New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, vol. 82, no. 1/2, p. 47-96, 2008.

"The World's Oldest Trade": Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century / Markus Vink.
In: Journal of World History, vol. 14, no. 2, p.131-177, 2003.

Children of Bondage: A Social History of Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1838 / R. Shell. - Hanover and Johannesburg: Wesleyan University Press and Wits University Press, 1994.

The Dutch on the Swahili Coast, 1776-1778 : two slaving journals : part I, part II / Robert Ross (ed.).
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 305-360 : krt. ; vol. 19, no. 3, p. 479-506, 1986.

Slavery in Dutch South Africa/ Nigel Worden. - Cambridge [etc.] Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Cape of torments : slavery and resistance in South Africa / Robert Ross. - London [etc.]: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

The occupations of slaves in eighteenth century Cape Town / Robert Ross.
In: Studies in the history of Cape Town / ed. by C. Saunders and H. Phillips; vol. 2 , p. 1-14. - 1980.

Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape, 1658-1700 / Anna Jacoba Böeseken. Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1977.

Indian Ocean slave tradebook cover "Testimonies of enslavement"

Being a slave : histories and legacies of European slavery in the Indian Ocean / Edited by Alicia Schrikker, Nira Wickramasinghe. - Leiden : Leiden University Press, 2020.

Yesterday is not gone : memories of slavery in Zanzibar and Oman in memoirs, fiction, and film / Emily Jane O'Dell.
In: Journal of Global Slavery, vol. 5, no. 3, p.357–401, 2020.

Testimonies of enslavement : sources on slavery from the Indian Ocean World / Matthias van Rossum ... et al. - London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2020.

Africa and slavery in the Indian Ocean World / Gwyn Campbell.
In: Africa and the Indian Ocean World from early times to circa 1900 / Gwyn Campbell. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 255-280, 2019.

Le blocus de Zanzibar 1888-1889 : entre "intervention d'humanité" colonisation et droit international / Raphaël Cheriau. - Paris: Éditions Juris Africa, 2019.

Karafu : a freed slave / Nahida Esmail. - Dar es Salaam : Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, [2019]

Bondage and the environment in the Indian Ocean world / Edited by Gwyn Campbell. -  Cham, Switzerland : Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Building life histories of Cape Town's enslaved, 1700-1850: an archival and isotopic study / L. Mbeki. - PhD, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 2018.

Buying time : debt and mobility in the western Indian Ocean / Thomas F. McDow. - Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2018.

'Le caractère d'une traite d'esclaves déguisée (the nature of a disguised slave trade)'? Labor recruitment for La Réunion at Portuguese Mozambique, 1887-1889 / Edward A. Alpers.
In: Ufahamu, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 3-32, 2018.

'The Door to the Coast of Africa': The Seychelles in the Mascarene Slave Trade, 1770-1830 / Peter A. Nicholls. - Canterbury: University of Kent, 2018.

Translocal connections across the Indian Ocean : Swahili speaking networks on the move / edited by Francesca Declich. - Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2018.

Feeding globalization : Madagascar and the provisioning trade, 1600-1800 / Jane Hooper. - Athens: Ohio University Press, 2017.

Le génocide voilé : enquête historique / Tidiane N'Diaye. - Paris: Folio, 2017.

Les traites des esclaves néerlandaise et française à Madagascar au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles / Rafaël Thiébaut. - [Place of publication not identified]: [Publisher not identified], 2017.

Slave trade profiteers in the Western Indian Ocean : suppression and resistance in the nineteenth century / Hideaki Suzuki. - Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Strategic tangles: Slavery, colonial policy, and religion in German East Africa, 1885-1918 / Jörg Haustein.
In: Atlantic Studies: German entanglements in transatlantic slavery, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 497-518, 2017.Map published in "Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery"

Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827) / Lisette M. Kootker, Linda Mbeki, Alan G. Morris, Henk Kars.
In: PloS one, 2016, vol.11 (6), p. e0157750-e0157750, 2016.

Esclavage : nouvelles approches / Prosper Eve ... [et al.].
In: Revue historique de l'océan Indien , no. 13, p. 417-478 : graf., tab, 2016.

“Our Little Piratical Intentions”: Select Narratives of British Abolition in East Africa, 1849-1873 / Tyler Yank. - Indian Ocean World Centre Working Paper Series no. 1, 2016.

Shackles of iron : slavery beyond the Atlantic / Stewart Gordon. - Indianapolis [etc.]: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc, 2016.

Special issue: Durban and Cape Town as port cities : reconsidering Southern African Studies from the Indian Ocean / [ed. by Isabel Hofmeyr, Uma Dhupelia-Mesthrie & Preben Kaarsholm]. - [Abingdon]: Routledge, 2016.

Transition from slavery in Zanzibar and Mauritius : a comparative history / Abdul Sheriff, Vijayalakshmi Teelock, Saada Omar Wahab & Satyendra Peerthum. - Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2016.

"Whoever leaves their traditions is a slave" : contemporary notions of servitude in an East African town / Sarah Hillewaert.
In: Africa : journal of the International African Institute , vol. 86, no. 3, p. 425-446, 2016.

The archaeology of slavery : a comparative approach to captivity and coercion / ed. by Lydia Wilson Marshall. - Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2015.

De Madagascar à Sumatra : une route négrière peu commune : le voyage du navire 'Binnenwijzend' de la VOC en 1732 / Rafaël Thiébaut.
In: Afriques : débats, méthodes et terrains d'histoire, issue 06, 2015.

The East African Slave Trade and the Making of the African Diaspora in Arabia / Matthew S.Hopper.
In: Slaves of one master, chapter 1. - Yale University Press, 2015.

Esclavage : nouvelles approches / Prosper Eve ... [et al.].
In: Revue historique de l'océan Indien , no. 12, p. 153-223 : ill., krt, 2015.

Globalization and the End of the East African Slave Trade/ Matthew S. Hopper.
In: Slaves of one master, chapter 6. - Yale University Press, 2015.

L’Afrique orientale et l’océan Indien : connexions, réseaux d'échanges et globalization (Ier millénaire - XIXe siècle) / Sous la direction de Thomas Vernet et Philippe Beaujard. - Paris: CEMAf, 2015.

Slavery, antislavery, political rivalry and regional networks in East African waters, 1877-1883 / Edward A. Alpers.
In: Afriques : débats, méthodes et terrains d'histoire, issue 06, 2015.

African workers and the Universities' Mission to Central Africa in Zanzibar, 1864-1900 / Michelle Liebst.
In: Journal of eastern African studies : journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa , vol. 8, no. 3, p. 366-381, 2014.

The Arabs and the scramble for Africa / John C. Wilkinson. - Sheffield [etc.]: Equinox, 2014.

Capitalism and cloves : an archaeology of plantation life in nineteenth century Zanzibar / Sarah K. Croucher. - New York [etc.]: Springer VS, 2014.

Esclavage : nouvelles approches / Prosper Eve ... [et al.].
In: Revue historique de l'océan Indien , no. 11, p. 552-624 : ill., tab, 2014.

Esclavage et libération à Madagascar / sous la dir. de Ignace Ratoko et Sylvain Urfer ; préf. Désiré Tsarahazana. - Anatananarivo Paris: Centre foi et justice Karthala, 2014.

European slave trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500-1850 / Richard Blair Allen. - Athens, Ohio : Ohio University Press, 2014.

The Indian Ocean : oceanic connections and the creation of new societies / Abdul Sheriff, Engseng Ho (editors). - London: Hurst & Company, 2014.

Les revers du commerce négrier entre l'océan Indien et le Rio de la Plata (fin du XVIIIe-début du XIXe siècle) / Jean-Pierre Tardieu.
In: Outre-mers : revue d'histoire , t. 102, no. 382/383, p. 149-181 : krt., tab, 2014.

Ocean of trade : South Asian merchants, Africa and the Indian Ocean, c. 1750-1850 / Pedro Machado. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Résistances et mémoires des esclavages : espaces arabo-musulmans et transatlantiques / [sous la dir. de] Olivier Leservoisier et Salah Trabelsi. - Paris: Karthala [etc.], 2014.

Slavery and the slave trade in Eastern Africa / Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi. - Berlin: ResearchGate [host], 2014.

Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade / John T. Cathey and John S. Marr.
In: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 108(5), pp.252-257, 2014.

Aspects of colonial Tanzania history / Lawrence E.Y. Mbogoni. - Dar-es-Salaam: Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers, 2013.

East Africa's Gorée: slave trade and slave tourism in Bagamoyo, Tanzania / Steven Fabian.
In: Canadian journal of African studies , vol. 47, no. 1, p. 95-114 : foto's, krt, 2013.

Être esclave : Afrique-Amériques (XVe-XIXe siècle) / Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Eric Mesnard ; préf. de Ibrahima Thioub. - Paris: :La Découverte, 2013.

Slavery and emancipation in Islamic East Africa from honor to respectability / Elisabeth Mcmahon. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

The taking of the slaver Meermin, 1766 / Dan Sleigh & Piet Westra. - Cape Town: Africana Publishers, 2013.

Traites et esclavages en Afrique orientale et dans l'océan Indien / Henri Médard ... [et al.], dir. - Paris: Karthala Ciresc, 2013.

Consecrations to God: The “nasty, brutish, and short” life of SUSANNA from BENGAL otherwise known as “ONE EAR” – 2nd recorded female convict at the VOC-occupied Cape of Good Hope / M. Upham.
In: Uprooted lives: unfurling the Cape of Good Hope’s earliest colonial inhabitants (1652-1713) 8, 2012, pp. 7–10

India's relations with East Africa : a historical study / Manish Karmwar.
In: Indian journal of African studies , vol. 18, no. 1/2, p. 39-57, 2012.

Les campagnes du 'Ruby' en 1763-1764 : étude des colonies françaises des Mascareignes, de Madagascar et de la côte orientale de l'Afrique : contribution à la connaissance de la traite indian-océanique au XVIIIe siècle / Albert Jauze.
In: Outre-mers: (2012), t. 100, no. 374/375, p. 119-189 : graf. , krt. , tab., 2012.

Sahibs, Sklaven und Soldaten : Geschichte des Menschenhandels rund um den Indischen Ozean / Michael Mann. - Darmstadt : Von Zabern, cover "Sahibs, Sklaven und Soldaten"

Archives nationales de France, Fonds colonies C4 : Île de France / compiled by Yola Argot-Nayekoo, Sharon Philips, Stéphanie Tamby ; under the supervision of Thomas Vernet and Vijaya Teelock. - [Réduit, Mauritius]: University of Mauritius Press, 2011.

La première traite française à Zanzibar: le journal de bord du vaisseau l'Espérance, 1774-1775 / Thomas Vernet.
In: Civilisations des mondes insulaires (Madagascar, canal de Mozambique, Mascareignes, Polynésie, Guyanes). Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur Claude Allibert, Karthala, pp.477-521, 2011.

A captura de escravos no Sudoeste Africano para o tráfico a longa distância / José Capela.
In: Africana studia : revista internacional de estudos africanos , no. 14, p. 39-51 : tab, 2010.

De UMCA over slavenhandel in Oost-Afrika : een discoursanalyse : het discours van de missionarissen van de Universities' Mission to Central Africa over de gevolgen van de slavenhandel in Oost-Afrika, van 1860 tot 1890 / Simone Olsthoorn. - [S.l.: s.l.], 2010.

Satisfying the "want for labouring people": European slave trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500-1850 / Richard B. Allen.
In: Journal of world history, vol. 21, no. 1, p.45-73, 2010.

The Sultan's shadow : one family's rule at the crossroads of East and West / Christiane Bird. - New York: Random House, 2010.

Empreintes de la servitude dans les sociétés de l'océan Indien : métamorphoses et permanences / Christiane Rafidinarivo ; préf. de Roger Botte ; postface de François Vergès. - Paris: Karthala, 2009.

The history of sovereigns in Madagascar: new light from old sources / Stephen Ellis.
In: Madagascar revisitée : en voyage avec Françoise Raison-Jourde / sous la Didier Nativel et Faranirina V.Rajaonah.- Paris : Karthala: (2009), p.405-431 : krt. - 2009.

Representations of Children in the East African Slave Trade / Edward A.Alpers.
In: Slavery & abolition, vol. 30, no 1, p. 27-40, 2009.

Slave trade and slavery on the Swahili coast (1500-1750) / Thomas Vernet. - Villeurbanne: HAL-SHS, 2009.

Slavery, Islam and diaspora / ed. by Behnaz A. Mirzai, Ismael Musah Montana and Paul E. Lovejoy. - Trenton, NJ [etc.]: Africa World Press, 2009.

Small change: children in the nineteenth-century East African Slave Trade / Fred Morton.
In: Children in Slavery through the Ages, 3, p.55, 2009.

The constant demand of the French: the Mascarene slave trade and the worlds of the Indian Ocean and Atlantic during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries / by Richard B. Allen.
In: The journal of African history , vol. 49, no. 1, p. 43-72 : tab, 2008.

Les premières explorations arabes du Congo d'après une source omanaise: le "Juhaynat al-ahbar fi tarih Zinjibar" de Saʿid bin ʿAli al-Mugiri / Xavier Luffin.
In: Annales aequatoria , no. 29, p. 425-445, 2008.

Mozambique Réunion : esclavages, mémoire et patrimoines dans l'océan Indien / sous la dir. de Séverine Cachat. - Saint-Maur-des-Fosses: Editions Sépia, cover "Mozambique Réunion : esclavages, mémoire et patrimoines dans l'océan Indien"

Slavery and the Slave Trades in the Indian Ocean and Arab Worlds : Global Connections and Disconnection / Matthew S. Hopper. - New Haven: Yale University, 2008.

Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African diaspora / ed. by Akinwumi Ogundiran and Toyin Falola. - Bloomington, IN [etc.]: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Shipboard slave uprisings on the Malagasy coast : the 'Meermin' (1766) and 'De Zon' (1775) / Andrew Alexander.
In: Kronos : 'n geleentheidspublikasie van die Wes-Kaaplandse Instituut vir Historiese Navorsing 0259-0190 , no. 33, p. 84-111 2007.

Women and slavery / ed. by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, Joseph C. Miller. - Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007.

Les réseaux de traite de l'Afrique orientale : côte swahili, Comores et nord-ouest de Madagascar (vers 1500 - 1750) / Thomas Vernet. - [Villeurbanne?] : HAL-SHS, 2006.

The African slave trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands / Robert O. Collins.
In: African and Asian studies , vol. 5, no. 3/4, p. 325-346 : krt., tab, 2006.

De l'Afrique à l'Extrême-Orient / Behnaz A. Mirzai... [et. al]. - Nantes: Les anneaux de la mémoire, 2006.

Islam's black slaves / Ronald Segal. - Leiden: Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Mzee Ali : the biography of an African slave-raider turned askari & scout / Bror Urme MacDonell. - Johannesburg: 30° South, 2006.

Slave trade with Madagascar : the journals of the cape slaver Leijdsman, 1715 = Slawehandel met Madagaskar : die joernale van die Kaapse slaweskip Leijdsman, 1715 / ed. by/gered. deur Piet Westra & James C. Armstrong. - Kaapstad: Africana Uitgewers, 2006.

Pirates, slavers, and the indigenous population in Madagascar, c. 1690-1715 / by Arne Bialuschewski.
In: The international journal of African historical studies 0361-7882 , vol. 38, no. 3, p. 401-425 : krt., 2005.

Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans / ed. by Kwesi Kwaa Prah. - Cape Town: The Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, cover "Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans"

Regards sur l'Afrique et l'océan Indien / textes réunis par Sudel Fuma. - Paris [etc.]: Publieur [etc.], 2005.

Slave routes and oral tradition in Southeastern Africa / ed. by Benigna Zimba, Edward Alpers and Allen Isaacman. - Maputo: Filsom Entertainment, 2005.

Le commerce des esclaves sur la côte swahili, 1500-1750 / Thomas Vernet.
In: Azania : the journal of the British Institute of History and Archaeology in East Africa , vol. 38, p. 69-97 : krt, 2003.

Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost-Afrika in de 19de eeuw : historische en hedendaagse aspecten / met bijdragen van Jan-Lodewijk Grootaers ... [et al. ; cartogr. Kartografisch Bureau Marijn Bosma ; vert. in het Duits Guido Honings ... et al.]. - Berg en Dal: Afrika Museum, 2003.

The African diaspora in the Indian Ocean / ed. by Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya and Richard Pankhurst. - Trenton, NJ [etc.]: Africa World, 2003.

"Memoir on the East African slave trade" : ein unveröffentlichtes Dokument aus dem Jahr 1853 / Ludwig Krapf. - Wien: AFRO-PUB, 2002.

Documents tell about slavery from 1900-1915 : how much were Africans involved? / Johannes Henschel. - Bagamoyo: Department for Antiquities, Catholic Museum, 2002.

Slavery in the history of Muslim Black Africa / Humphrey J. Fisher. - New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Bagamoyo and slavery in the 19th century : the two worlds : the on slave based society in Bagamoyo and surroundings, the slave free society on the Catholic compound / Johannes Henschel, Felix Ndunguru, Lucas William Kadelya. - Bagamoyo: Department for Antiquities, Catholic Museum, 2000.

Esclavage et engagisme dans l'océan Indien : la traite atlantique / Association les Anneaux de la mémoire. - Nantes: Les Anneaux de la mémoire, 2000.

Recollecting Africa : diasporic memory in the Indian Ocean World / Edward A. Alpers.
In: African studies review, vol.43, no. 1, p.83-99, 2000.

Zanzibar : kinyang'anyiro na utumwa / Issa Nasser Issa Al- Ismaily. - Ruwi, Sultanate of Oman, 1999.

The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century / ed. by William Gervase Clarence-Smith. - London [etc.]: Cass, 1989.

The institution of slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba / [by] Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi. - Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1973.

The African presence in Asia : consequences of the East African slave trade / [by] Joseph E. Harris. - Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1971.

Abolition of slavery

‘Siendi’ (I won’t go): concubines’ activism in the abolition of slavery in the Zanzibar Protectorate / Elisabeth McMahon.
In: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, vol. 41, no. 2, p. 395-412, 2020.

Migrations, migrants et exils dans les pays de l'Indianocéanie (XVIIe-XXe siècles) : esclavage nouvelles approches - 9 / Prosper Eve. - Saint-Denis: Association historique internationale de l'ocean Indien (AHIOI), 2017.

In: Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pages 60-89, 2017

Emancipation without abolition in German East Africa c. 1884-1914 / Jan-Georg Deutsch. Oxford: James Currey, 2016.

The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1838-1956 : a history / James Heartfield. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

The first Spiritan mission method in Bagamoyo : liberation of slaves / Johannes Henschel.
In: Spiritan horizons ; volume 11, issue 11, article 10, 2016.

Islamic law, gender and social change in post-abolition Zanzibar / Elke E. Stockreiter. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Indian Ocean slavery in the age of abolition / Robert Harms. - New Haven: Yale University Press, cover "Indian Ocean slavery in the age of abolition"

Slavery and emancipation in Islamic East Africa : from honor to respectability / by Elisabeth McMahon. - Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Enslaved population and Indian owners along the East African coast: exploring the Rigby manumission list, 1860-1861 / Hideaki Suzuki.
In: History in Africa : a journal of method , vol. 39, p. 209-239 : graf., krt., tab, 2012.

British anti-slave trade and anti-slavery policy in East Africa, Arabia, and Turkey in the late nineteenth century / William Mulligan.
In: Humanitarian intervention: a history. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

The last slave market / Alastair Hazell. - London: Constable, 2011.

The Royal Navy’s anti-slavery campaign in the western Indian Ocean, c. 1860-1890: race, empire and identity / Lindsay Doulton. - Kingston upon Hull: University of Hull, 2010.

Abolition and its aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia / Gwyn Campell. - London [etc.]: Routledge, 2005.

The evangelization of slaves and Catholic origins in eastern Africa / Paul V. Kollman. - Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2005.

Esclavage et abolitions dans l'océan Indien (1723-1860) : actes du colloque de Saint-Denis de la Réunion, 4-8 décembre 1998 / textes réunis par Edmond Maestri. - Paris [etc.]: L'Harmattan [etc.], 2002.

Pastimes and politics : culture, community, and identity in post-abolition urban Zanzibar, 1890-1945 / Laura Fair. - Athens, Ohio Oxford: Ohio University Press [etc.] James Currey, 2001.


Web resources

First Fifty Years - a project collating Cape of Good Hope records
The website brings together a wealth of information about the people who lived and settled in the Cape in the 17th century.

Gale Primary Sources: Slavery and Anti-Slavery: A Transnational Archive
This database includes documents from East and South Africa and other parts of the world. In addition to newspaper collections and books published in the antebellum era, it contains documents from archives originally available only on microfilm. (restricted access)

Indian Ocean slavery
Indian Ocean Slavery is a series of articles by Karen Williams on the slave trade across the Indian Ocean and its historical and current effects on global populations commissioned by Media Diversified in 2016.

Indian Ocean slave trade route: a story map
Completed by Tamia Khumalo and Thomas Gerhart for the UCT Geomatics Course APG2018X

Indian Ocean World Centre
The Indian Ocean World Centre (IOWC) at McGill University is a research initiative and resource base established to promote the study of the history, economy, and cultures of the lands and peoples of the Indian Ocean world (IOW) – from China to Southeast and South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Its website includes podcasts and publications.

'Slavery @ the Cape'
South African bibliography on slavery at the Cape of Good Hope maintained by Mogamat G Kamedien.


Sources on Slavery and Slave Trade
Registration of the symposium organized by the Rijksmuseum, the Dutch National Library and the National Archives of the Netherlands on 23 April 2021

Western Attitudes to Slavery in the Indian Ocean World from 1807 to the Present Day
Lecture by Gwyn Campbell at the Bonn Center for Dependency and Slavery Studies, 17 Februray 2020 (audio)

In Conversation with Professor Abdul Sheriff
Abdul Sheriff is the former Executive Director of Zanzibar Indian Ocean Research Institute and author of Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873.

See also:

Dutch involvement in the transatlantic slave trade and abolition
ASCL web dossier 2013

Picture gallery : Examples of slavery memorials