Dutch involvement in the transatlantic slave trade and abolition

Nationaal monument slavernijverleden (Wikimedia Commons)On 1 July 1863, slavery was abolished in the former Dutch colonies of Suriname and the Dutch Antilles. This ended  a period of around 200 years of slavery in these colonies. To mark the 150th anniversary of Dutch abolition in 2013, various activities have been organized, including exhibitions in the National Library of the Netherlands, the History Museum of The Hague, and the University of Amsterdam.  

To coincide with these commemorations and provide background information, the Library, Documentation and Information Department of the African Studies Centre Leiden has compiled the present web dossier on  Dutch involvement in the slave trade. It contains titles published in the past ten years, all of which are available in the ASC Library. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue, which provides further bibliographic details and abstracts, loan information, and links to full text if available. The dossier concludes with links to a number of relevant web sites.

On the occasion of the national Slavery Memorial Year in the Netherlands, which has commenced on 1 July 2023, this dossier has been updated. Read the updated dossier.

Introductionslave ship (Wikimedia Commons)

The transatlantic slave trade, which spanned the 16th  through the 19th century, was the largest long-distance forced movement of people in history.  From the late fifteenth century, the Atlantic Ocean became a commercial highway that integrated the histories of Africa, Europe, and the Americas. The majority of slaves transported to the New World were sold by Africans from central and western parts of Africa to European slave traders, who transported them to North and South America.  Before 1820, over 80 percent of the people arriving in the New World were enslaved Africans and it is estimated that in all  a total of 12 million enslaved Africans were transported.

Although by the late 18th century anti-slavery sentiments were widespread, slave labour continued to be used in the colonies.  The campaign to abolish the slave trade developed in a changing international context marked by events such as the French Revolution, as well as acts of resistance from below by enslaved peoples themselves. In 1807 Britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies and established a network of treaties allowing the British to detain the slave ships of other nations.  However, it was not until 1834 that slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire. The French colonies followed in 1848, and the United States in 1865, after the end of the Civil War.

Dutch involvement in the Atlantic slave trade covers the 17th-19th centuries. Initially the Dutch shipped slaves to northern Brazil, and during the second half of the 17th century they had a controlling interest in the trade to the Spanish colonies. Today’s Suriname and Guyana became prominent markets in the 18th century. Between 1612 and 1872, the Dutch operated from some 10 fortresses along the Gold Coast (now Ghana), from which slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. The trade declined between 1780 and 1815. The Dutch part in the Atlantic slave trade is estimated at 5-7 percent, or some 550,000-600,000 Africans.

The Netherlands was one of the last countries to abolish slavery in 1863. Although the  decision was  made in 1848, it took many years for the law to be implemented.  Furthermore,  slaves  in Suriname would  be fully free only in 1873, since the law stipulated that there was to be a mandatory 10-year transition.

Abolition of slavery

Abolition and empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia/ Bronwen Everill. - Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. - (Cambridge imperial and post-colonial studies series)book cover "Abolition and empire..."

Cardinal Charles Lavigerie and the Anti-slavery campaign : documents / Jean Claude Ceillier & Francois Richard (ed.). - Rome : Society of the Missionaries of Africa, 2012. - (Missionaries of Africa, History series ; 11)

Discourse networks in South African slave society / Fiona Vernal
In: African Historical Review: (2011), vol. 43, no. 2, p. 1-36.

The last slave market/ Alastair Hazell. - London : Constable, 2011

Abolitionismus in Afrika zwischen Rassismus und Zivilisierungsmission / Arno Sonderegger
In: Afrika 1500-1900 : Geschichte und Gesellschaft / Andreas Eckert, Ingeborg Grau, Arno Sonderegger (Hg. ). - Wien : Promedia: (2010), p. 218-234.

Apprenticeship and the negotiation of freedom : the liberated Africans of the Anglo-Portuguese Mixed Commission in Luanda (1844-1870) / Samuel Coghe
In: Africana Studia: (2010), no. 14, p. 255-273.

Esclavages et abolitions en terres d'Islam : Tunisie, Arabie saoudite, Maroc, Mauritanie, Soudan/ Roger Botte. - Bruxelles : André Versaille, 2010. - (L'autre et l'ailleurs)

L'esclavage au Niger : [aspects historiques et juridiques]/ Kadir Abdelkader Galy. - Paris : Karthala, 2010

Mémoires de l'esclavage dans la région de Kayes, histoire d'une disparition / Marie Rodet
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2010), vol. 50, cah. 197, p. 263-291.

O ethos dos roceiros : pragmático ou esclavagista e, ainda e sempre, avesso à liberdade? / Augusto Nascimento
In: Africana Studia: (2010), no. 14, p. 141-162.

The Sudanese Mahdi's attitudes on slavery and emancipation / Kim Searcy
In: Islamic Africa: (2010), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 63-83.

A worthwhile possession : a reading of women's valuation of slaveholding in the 1875 Gold Coast ladies' anti-abolition petition / Kwabena Adu-Boahen
In: Itinerario: (2009), vol. 33, no. 3, p. 95-112.

La représentation anti-musulmane des Swahilis d'Afrique centrale par Godefroid Kurth : un acteur catholique dans la propagande coloniale (1888-1926) / Quentin de Becker
In: Annales aequatoria: (2009), no. 30, p. 611-637.

Patrimoines missionnaire et colonial : des images médiévales à l'époque du Congo belge 1890-1940 / Mathieu Zana Etambala
In: Annales aequatoria: (2009), no. 30, p. 989-1047.

Post-emancipation slave commerce : increasing child slave trafficking and women's agency in late nineteenth-century Ghana / Boahen Adu
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2009), vol. 9, p. 118-137.

Rethinking abolition in Algeria : slavery and the "Indigenous question" / Benjamin Claude Brower
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2009), vol. 49, cah. 193, p. 805-827.

The daemon behind the curtain : William Edwards and the theatre of liberty / Kirsten MacKenzie
In: South African Historical Journal: (2009), vol. 61, no. 3, p. 482-504.

200 years later ... : commemorating the 200 year anniversary of the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade / Nadja Ofuatey-Rahal (ed.). - Berlin : AfricaAvenir [etc.], 2008

Bibliographies of bondage : selected bibliographies of South African slavery and abolition / Robert Carl-Heinz Shell, Sandra Rowoldt Shell, Mogamat Kamedien, & Cecilia Blight (ed.). - Princeton : Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008book cover "Bibliographies of bondage"

Women and slavery. Vol. 2: The modern Atlantic / Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, & Joseph Calder Miller (ed.). - Athens, OH : Ohio University Press, 2008

Guide des sources de la traite négrière, de l'esclavage et de leurs abolitions/ Claire Sibille. - Paris : La Documentation française, 2007. - (Guide direction des archives de France)

L'éradication des séquelles de l'esclavage en Mauritanie / Haimoud Ramdan
In: Revue juridique et politique des États francophones: (2007), année 61, no. 2, p. 211-229.

Mauriciens : enfants de mille combats. [Tome II]: La période anglaise/ Jean Claude de L'Estrac. - Maurice : Éd. Le Printemps, 2007

Slavery, emancipation, and colonial rule in South Africa/ Wayne Dooling. - Scottsville : University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2007

The aftermath of slavery : transitions and transformations in southeastern Nigeria / Chima J. Korieh & Femi J. Kolapo (ed.). - Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2007

Colonialismo e liberazione degli schiavi nel Baule (Costa d'Avorio) / Fabio Viti
In: Africa / Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente: (2006), a. 61, n. 1, p. 30-65.

L'abolition de l'esclavage au Sénégal : entre plasticité du droit colonial et respect de l'État de droit / Mamadou Badji
In: Droit et cultures: (2006), no. 52, p. 239-274.

The abolition of the slave trade in Southeastern Nigeria, 1885-1950/ A. E. Afigbo. - Rochester, NY [etc.] : 2006. - (Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora, ISSN 1092-5228 ; vol. 25)

"I will gather all nations and tongues" : Christian missions and racial integration in the Cape Colony in the aftermath of abolition / R. L. Watson
In: Kronos: (2005), no. 31, p. 107-123.

L'Afrique dans le discours abolitionniste de Victor Schoelcher: de la réfutation de l'"infériorité native des Nègres" au projet africain / Caroline Oudin-Bastide
In: Afrique et histoire: (2005), no. 4, p. 149-173.

Living the legacy of slavery : between discourse and reality / E. Ann McDougall
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2005), vol. 45, cah. 179/180, p. 957-986.

Slavery and emancipation in the colonial archives : British officials, slave-owners, and slaves in the Protectorate of the Gambia (1890-1936) / Alice Bellagamba
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2005), vol. 39, no. 1, p. 5-41.

"We shall rejoice to see the day when slavery shall cease to exist" : the 'Gold Coast Times', the African intelligentsia, and abolition in the Gold Coast / Kwabena O. Akurang-Parry
In: History in Africa: (2004), vol. 31, p. 19-42.

Fighting the slave trade : West African strategies/ Sylviane A. Diouf. - Athens : Ohio University Press, 2004. - (Western African studies)book cover "Fighting the slave trade"

Slave emancipation, trans-local social processes and the spread of Islam in French colonial Buguni (southern Mali), 1893-1914 / Brian J. Peterson
In: The Journal of African History: (2004), vol. 45, no. 3, p. 421-444 : krt.

Slavery and reform in West Africa : toward emancipation in nineteenth-century Senegal and the Gold Coast/ Trevor R. Getz. - Athens, OH : Ohio University Press, 2004. - (Western African studies)

Britain and the hydra in the Bight of Benin : towards a history of the abolition of the internal slave trade in the Oil Rivers and its hinterland, c. 1885-c. 1943 / A. E. Afigbo
In: African Economic History: (2003), no. 31, p. 1-18.

Social death and resurrection : slavery and emancipation in South Africa/ John Edwin Mason. - Charlottesville, [Va., etc.] : University of Virginia Press, 2003. - (Reconsiderations in Southern African history)

Dutch involvement in the transatlantic slave trade

Het kasteel van Elmina : in het spoor van de Nederlandse slavenhandel in Afrika/ Marcel van Engelen. - Amsterdam : De Bezige Bij, 2013book cover "Het kasteel van Elmina"

Lorrendrayen op Africa : de illegale goederen- en slavenhandel op West-Afrika tijdens het achttiende-eeuwse handelsmonopolie van de West-Indische Compagnie, 1700-1734/ Rudolf Paesie. - Amsterdam : De Bataafsche Leeuw, 2008

Dutch and Portuguese slave trade to Brazil : a comparative approach (1630-1650)/ Filipa Ribeiro da Silva. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

Trials of slavery : selected documents concerning slaves from the criminal records of the Council of Justice at the Cape of Good Hope, 1705-1794 / Nigel Worden & Gerald Groenewald (ed.). - Cape Town : Van Riebeeck Society, 2005. - (Van Riebeeck Society ; Second series, no. 36)

De Nederlandse slavenhandel 1500-1850/ P. C. Emmer. - Amsterdam [etc.] : De Arbeiderspers, 2003

Saga of a slave : Jacobus Capitein of Holland and Elmina/ David Nii Anum Kpobi. - [S.l. : s.n], 2001

The agony of Asar : a thesis on slavery by the former slave, Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein, 1717-1747/ Jacobus Elisa Joannes Capitein / Grant Parker (ed.). - Princeton, NJ : Markus Wiener, 2001

's Heeren slaaf : het dramatische leven van Jacobus Capitein/ Henri van der Zee. - Amsterdam : Balans, 2000

Nederlanders in West-Afrika 1600-1650 : Angola, Kongo en São Tomé/ Klaas Ratelband / René Baesjou (ed.). - Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2000

The Dutch triangle : the Netherlands and the Atlantic slave trade, 1621-1664/ Willie F. Page. - New York [etc.] : Garland, 1997. - (Studies in African American history and culture)

The Dutch in the Atlantic slave trade, 1600-1815/ Johannes Menne Postma. - Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 1990book cover "The Dutch in the Atlantic slave trade"

L'Afrique de l'Ouest et les Pays-Bas au XIXe siècle : quelques suggestions pour une recherche comparative dans le domaine du commerce des esclaves à travers l'Atlantique et le Sahara / P. C. Emmer
In: Le Maroc et la Hollande : études sur l'histoire, la migration, la linguistique et la sémiologie de la culture / [éd. supervisée par Abdelmajid Kaddouri, Jilali Saib, Abdelmajid Zeggaf]. - Rabat : Université Mohammed V, Faculté des lettres et des sciences: (1988), p. 85-89.

The Dutch on the Swahili Coast, 1776-1778 : two slaving journals : part I, part II / Robert Ross (ed.)
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (1986), vol. 19, no. 2, p. 305-360 : krt. ; vol. 19, no. 3, p. 479-506.

Slavery in Dutch South Africa/ Nigel Worden. - Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 1985. - (African studies series ; 44)

Mortality in the Dutch slave trade, 1675-1795/ J. Postma
In: The uncommon market; essays in the economic history of the Atlantic slave trade / ed.by H.A.Gemery and J.S.Hogendorn: (1979), p.239-260.

The Dutch participation in the Atlantic slave trade/ E. van den Boogaart & P. C. Emmer
In: The uncommon market; essays in the economic history of the Atlantic slave trade / ed.by H.A.Gemery and J.S.Hogendorn: (1979), p.353-375.

De Nederlandse Patriotten en de kolonien : een onderzoek naar hun denkbeelden en optreden, 1770-1800/ G. J. Schutte. - Groningen : Tjeenk Willink, 1974. - (Historische studies ; 29)

The dimension of the Dutch slave trade from Western Africa / J. Postma
In: The Journal of African History: (1972), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 237-248.

The dimension of the Dutch slave trade from Western Africa/ J. Postma. - New York : African Studies Association, 1970

De scheepvaart op West-Afrika en West-Indie in de achttiende eeuw/ J. Hudig. - [S.l. : s.n.], 1926

Slave trade and Africa

Exposer l'esclavage : méthodologies et pratiques / Anne Bocandé & Françoise Vergès (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (Africultures, ISSN 1276-2458 ; 91)

Africans and Luso-Africans in the Portuguese slave trade on the Upper Guinea coast in the early seventeenth century / Linda A. Newson
In: The Journal of African History: (2012), vol. 53, no. 1, p. 1-24 : krt. , tab.

L'Afrique centrale atlantique/ Ahmadou Séhou & others. - Nantes : Les Anneaux de la Mémoire, 2012. - (Cahiers des anneaux de la mémoire, ISSN 1280-4215 ; no. 14)

Les campagnes du 'Ruby' en 1763-1764 : étude des colonies françaises des Mascareignes, de Madagascar et de la côte orientale de l'Afrique : contribution à la connaissance de la traite indian-océanique au XVIIIe siècle / Albert Jauze
In: Outre-mers: (2012), t. 100, no. 374/375, p. 119-189 : graf. , krt. , tab.

Metaphor and the slave trade in West African literature/ Laura T. Murphy. - Athens, OH : Ohio University Press, 2012. - (Western African studies)book cover "Metaphor..."

The rise of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in western Africa, 1300-1589/ Toby Green. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2012. - (African studies series, ISSN 0065-406X ; 118)

Alcohol under the context of the Atlantic slave trade: the case of Benguela and its hinterland (Angola) / José C. Curto
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2011), vol. 51, cah. 201, p. 51-85 : tab.

Le mal-être spirituel des noirs : essai/ Tiburce Koffi. - Abidjan : NEI-CEDA, 2011

Omenuko ou le repentir d'un marchand d'esclaves : premier roman en langue igbo (Nigeria)/ Pita Nwana & Françoise Ugochukwu. - Paris : Karthala, 2011. - (Lettres du Sud)

Slavery in Africa : archaeology and memory/ Paul J. Lane & Kevin C. Macdonald. - Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press published for the British Academy, 2011. - (Proceedings of the British Academy, ISSN 0068-1202 ; 168)

The Fante and the transatlantic slave trade/ Rebecca Shumway. - Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press, 2011. - (Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora, ISSN 1092-5228 ; 52)

West African narratives of slavery : texts from late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ghana/ Sandra E. Greene. - Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, 2011

A captura de escravos no Sudoeste Africano para o tráfico a longa distância / José Capela
In: Africana Studia: (2010), no. 14, p. 39-51 : tab.

Africanists and Africans of the Maghrib : casualties of analogy / Mohamed Hassan Mohamed
In: The Journal of North African Studies: (2010), vol. 15, no. 3, p. 349-374.

Benevolent masters and voiceless subjects : slavery and slave trade in southern Wällo (Ethiopia) in the 19th and early 20th centuries / Hussein Ahmed
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2010), vol. 25, p. 197-208.

De UMCA over slavenhandel in Oost-Afrika : een discoursanalyse : het discours van de missionarissen van de Universities' Mission to Central Africa over de gevolgen van de slavenhandel in Oost-Afrika, van 1860 tot 1890/ Simone Olsthoorn. - [S.l. : s.l.], 2010

La traite négrière atlantique et ses conséquences / Auguste René Gambou
In: Histoire générale du Congo des origines à nos jours. 2: Le Congo moderne / sous la dir. de Théophile Obenga. - Paris : L'Harmattan: (cop. 2010), p. 43-60.

Les traites et les esclavages : perspectives historiques et contemporaines / Myriam Cottias, Elisabeth Cunin, & António de Almeida Mendes (ed.). - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2010. - (Esclavages)

Mlozi of Central Africa : trader, slaver and self-styled Sultan : the end of the slaver/ David Stuart-Mogg. - Blantyre : Central Africana Limited, 2010

Slavery and the colonial State in German South West Africa 1880s to 1918 / Jakob Zollmann
In: Journal of Namibian Studies: (2010), no. 7, p. 85-118.

Slaves and Ivory, continued : letters from Capt. Richard C.R. Whalley British Consul at Maji, S.W. Abyssinia 1930-1936 / Cynthia Salvadori (ed.). - Addis Ababa : Shama Books, 2010

The life and letters of Philip Quaque : the first African Anglican missionary / Philip Quaque, Vincent Carretta, & Ty Michael Reese (ed.). - Athens [etc.] : University of Georgia Press, 2010. - (Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900)

The slave trade and culture in the Bight of Biafra : an African society in the Atlantic world/ G. Ugo Nwokeji. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010

The trans-Atlantic slave trade database and African economic history / Paul E. Lovejoy & José C. Curto (ed.). - Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin, 2010. - (African economic history, ISSN 0145-2258 ; vol. 38)

Transatlantischer Sklavenhandel und Sklaverei in Westafrika / Andreas Eckert
In: Afrika 1500-1900 : Geschichte und Gesellschaft / Andreas Eckert, Ingeborg Grau, Arno Sonderegger (Hg. ). - Wien : Promedia: (2010), p. 72-88.

Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s : symbiosis of slave and legitimate trades/ George E. Brooks. - Bloomington, IN : Authorhouse, 2010book cover "Western Africa and Cabo Verde"

Back to Africa : a Liberian tragedy/ M. Teah Wulah. - Bloomington, IN : AuthorHouse, 2009

Empreintes de la servitude dans les sociétés de l'océan Indien : métamorphoses et permanences/ Christiane Rafidinarivo. - Paris : Karthala, 2009. - (Hommes et sociétés, ISSN 0290-6600)

Enjeux politiques de la mémoire de l'esclavage dans l'Atlantique sud : la reconstruction de la biographie de Francisco Félix de Souza / Ana Lúcia Araujo
In: Lusotopie: (2009), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 107-131.

Esclaves : roman/ Kangni Alem. - Paris : JC Lattès, 2009

Imaginaire national et mise en patrimoine dans l'Atlantique sud : candomblé de Bahia et cultes vodun au Sud-Bénin / Emmanuelle Kadya Tall
In: Lusotopie: (2009), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 133-155.

Osopo's first adventure with the anti-slave trade guerrilla group/ Safohen Kojo Blankson. - Accra-North : Sam-Woode, 2009. - (The adventures of Osopo ; 1)

Osopo's second adventure with the anti-slave trade guerrilla group/ Safohen Kojo Blankson. - Accra-North : Sam-Woode, 2009. - (The adventures of Osopo ; 2)

Slavery and its transformation in the kingdom of Kongo: 1491-1800 / Linda M. Heywood
In: The Journal of African History: (2009), vol. 50, no. 1, p. 1-22.

The adventures of Osopo/ Safohen Kojo Blankson. - Accra-North : Sam-Woode, 2009

The history of sovereigns in Madagascar: new light from old sources/ Stephen Ellis
In: Madagascar revisitée : en voyage avec Françoise Raison-Jourde / sous la dir.de Didier Nativel et Faranirina V.Rajaonah.- Paris : Karthala: (2009), p.405-431 : krt.

The slave trade and its abolition in the Ikale-Yoruba country, 1650-1890 / Olukoya Ogen
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2009), vol. 9, p. 68-82.

'Ogaranya' (wealthy men) in late nineteenth century Igboland: chief Igwebe Odum of Arondizuogu, c. 1860-1940 / Raphael Chijioke Njoku
In: African Economic History: (2008), no. 36, p. 27-52.

Africa and trans-Atlantic memories : literary and aesthetic manifestations of diaspora and history / Naana Opoku-Agyemang, Paul E. Lovejoy, & David V. Trotman (ed.). - Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2008. - ([The Harriet Tubman series on African diaspora])

La traite des noirs et ses acteurs africains du 15e au 19e siècle/ Tidiane Diakité. - Paris : Berg International, 2008

Les évêques africains et la traite négrière : "pardon de l'Afrique à l'Afrique"/ Jean Mpisi. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008. - (Collection dossiers, études et documents)

Les premières explorations arabes du Congo d'après une source omanaise: le "Juhaynat al-ahbar fi tarih Zinjibar" de Said bin Ali al-Mugiri / Xavier Luffin
In: Annales aequatoria: (2008), no. 29, p. 425-445.

Mozambique Réunion : esclavages, mémoire et patrimoines dans l'océan Indien / Séverine Cachat (ed.). - Saint-Maur-des-Fosses : Editions Sépia, 2008

Restaurer le futur : sur la Route de l'Esclave à Ouidah (Bénin) / Gaetano Ciarcia
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2008), vol. 48, cah. 192, p. 687-705.

The constant demand of the French: the Mascarene slave trade and the worlds of the Indian Ocean and Atlantic during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries / Richard B. Allen
In: The Journal of African History: (2008), vol. 49, no. 1, p. 43-72 : tab.

The organization of the Atlantic slave trade in Yorubaland, ca. 1777 to ca. 1856 / Olatunji Ojo
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2008), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 77-100.

The trans-Saharan slave trade of Ottoman Tunisia, 1574 to 1782 / Ismael Muasah Montana
In: The Maghreb Review: (2008), vol. 33, no. 2/3, p. 132-150 : krt.

African voices of the Atlantic slave trade : beyond the silence and the shame/ Anne Caroline Bailey. - Kingston [etc.] : Randle, 2007book cover "African voices"

Early slavery at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652-1717/ Karel Schoeman. - Pretoria : Protea Bookhuis, 2007

Esclavage et traite des esclaves dans les manuels de l'enseignement secondaire du Sénégal / Ibrahima Seck
In: Afrika Zamani: (2007/08), no. 15/16, p. 99-124.

Informations sur l'esclavage/ Guy Thilmans. - Gorée [etc.] : Éditions du Musée historique [etc.], 2007

Into the bush of ghosts: specters of the slave trade in West African fiction / Laura Murphy
In: Research in African Literatures: (2007), vol. 38, no. 4, p. 141-152.

L'envers de l'épopée portugaise en Afrique (XVe-XXe siècles)/ Abou Haydara. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2007. - (Études africaines)

Merchants and the business of the slave trade at Benguela, 1750-1850 / Mariana P. Candido
In: African Economic History: (2007), no. 35, p. 1-30.

Shipboard slave uprisings on the Malagasy coast : the 'Meermin' (1766) and 'De Zon' (1775) / Andrew Alexander
In: Kronos: (2007), no. 33, p. 84-111.

Slavery and the birth of an African city : Lagos, 1760-1900/ Kristin Mann. - Bloomington, IND : Indiana University Press, 2007

Sudanese trade in black ivory : opening old wounds/ Abdel Ghaffar Ahmed. - Cape Town : CASAS, 2007. - (Occasional paper, ISSN 1560-3385 ; no. 31)

The slave route in Benin = La route de l'esclave au Bénin : proceedings of the Special Round Table, 17th December 2005 / T. Yaovi Tchitchi (ed.). - Cotonou : Ablodè and Tundé Publishers, 2007

Transatlantic slave trade : landmarks, legacies, expectations : proceedings of the International Conference on Historic Slave Route held at Accra, Ghana on 30 August - 2 September, 2004 / James Kwesi Anquandah, Naana Jane Opoku-Agyemang, & Michel R. Doortmont (ed.). - Accra : Sub Saharan Publishers, 2007

1755 au Galam et à l'île Bourbon : l'odyssée de Niama, "des portes de l'or aux plantations de café"/ Frédéric Mocadel. - Sainte-Marie : Azalées Éditions, 2006

A double-edged sword : slavery in Ghana/ Akosua Perbi. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

De l'Afrique à l'Extrême-Orient/ Behnaz A. Mirzai & others. - Nantes : Les anneaux de la mémoire, 2006. - (Cahiers des anneaux de la mémoire, ISSN 1280-4215 ; 9)

Islam's black slaves/ Ronald Segal. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

Literature list on slave trade (available in ASC library) / Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

Mzee Ali : the biography of an African slave-raider turned askari & scout/ Bror Urme MacDonell. - Johannesburg : 30° South, 2006

Pastoralism, slavery, commerce, culture and the fate of the Nubians of northern and central Kordofan under Dar Fur rule, ca. 1750-ca. 1850 / Jay Spaulding
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2006), vol. 39, no. 3, p. 393-412.

Résistances africaines sur la Côte d'Angole au XVIIIe siècle / Alain Anselin
In: Présence africaine: (2006), no. 173, p. 189-205.

Slave trade with Madagascar : the journals of the Cape slaver Leijdsman, 1715 = Slawehandel met Madagaskar : die joernale van die Kaapse slaweskip Leijdsman, 1715 / Piet Westra & James C. Amstrong (ed.). - Kaapstad : Africana Uitgewers, 2006book cover "Slave trade wtih Madagascar"

Social outcomes of a trading relationship : ties between Africans and Europeans in the hubs of the slave trade/ Natalie Everts. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

The African slave trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands / Robert O. Collins
In: African and Asian Studies: (2006), vol. 5, no. 3/4, p. 325-346 : krt. , tab.

The Amazing Grace / Jeta Amata, Nick Morgan, & others. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2006. - 1 dvd-video (100 min.). : kleur, gel.

The invitation/ Kwakuvi Azasu. - Accra : Ghana University Press, 2006

The Portuguese, the Dutch, and the Sephardim : networks and cross-cultural mediation in the Atlantic slave trade, 1580-1654/ Jessica Roitman. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006

A symbol of power : Christiansborg Castle in Ghanaian history / Per Hernæs
In: Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana: (2005), n. s. , no. 9, p. 141-156.

Ambaca society and the slave trade c. 1760-1845 / Jan Vansina
In: The Journal of African History: (2005), vol. 46, no. 1, p. 1-27 : krt.

Archaeological research at Kasana : a search for evidence on the historic slave traffic in the Upper West Region of Ghana / J. Boachie-Ansah
In: Journal of Environment and Culture: (2005), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 35-57 : fig. , krt.

Beyond Elmina : the slave trade in northern Ghana / Joachim Jack Agamba
In: Ufahamu: (2005/06), vol. 32, no. 1/2, p. [39]-72.

L'or et les esclaves : histoire des forts du Ghana du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle/ Jean Michel Deveau. - Paris : Karthala, 2005. - (Mémoire des peuples. La route de l'esclave)book cover "L'or et les esclaves"

Pirates, slavers, and the indigenous population in Madagascar, c. 1690-1715 / Arne Bialuschewski
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2005), vol. 38, no. 3, p. 401-425 : krt.

Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans / Kwesi Kwaa Prah (ed.). - Cape Town : The Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, 2005. - (CASAS book series ; no. 35)

Slave routes and oral tradition in Southeastern Africa / Benigna Zimba, Edward Alpers, & Allen Isaacman (ed.). - Maputo : Filsom Entertainment, 2005

Slavery, exchange and Islamic law : a glimpse from the archives of Mali and Mauritania / Ghislaine Lydon
In: African Economic History: (2005), no. 33, p. 117-148.

The trade in slaves in Ovamboland, ca. 1850-1910 / Kalle Gustafsson
In: African Economic History: (2005), no. 33, p. 31-68.

Up from slavery : slaves at the Cape, their origins, treatment and contribution/ R. E. van der Ross. - Cape Town : Ampersand Press, 2005

'This horrid hole': royal authority, commerce and credit at Bonny, 1690-1840 / Paul E. Lovejoy & David Richardson
In: The Journal of African History: (2004), vol. 45, no. 3, p. 363-392 : tab.

Asen Praso in history and memory / Susan Benson & T. C. MacCaskie
In: Ghana Studies: (2004), vol. 7, p. 93-113.

Climat et histoire en Afrique centrale aux XVIIIe-XIXe siècles : l'expansion Baare-Tchamba de la Haute-Bénoué (Cameroun). Vol. 1/ Eldridge Mohammadou / Yoshihito Shimada & Djingui Mahmoudou (ed.). - Nagoya : Comparative Studies in Social and Human Sciences, Nagoya University, 2004. - (African kingdoms collection ; 2)

Enslaving spirits : the Portuguese-Brazilian alcohol trade at Luanda and its hinterland, c. 1550-1830/ José C. Curto. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2004. - (The Atlantic world, ISSN 1570-0542 ; vol. 2)

Historical archaeology of Bagamoyo : excavations at the caravan-serai/ Felix Chami, Eliwasa Maro & others. - Dar es Salaam : Dar es Salaam University, 2004

Les traites négrières : essai d'histoire globale/ Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau. - [Paris] : Gallimard, 2004. - (Bibliothèque des histoires)

Ouidah : the social history of a West African slaving 'port', 1727-1892/ Robin Law. - Oxford : Currey, 2004. - (Western African studies)

Slavery on the frontiers of Islam / Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.). - Princeton, NY : Markus Wiener Publishers, 2004

Slavery, institutional development, and long-run growth in Africa, 1400-2000/ Nathan Nunn. - Toronto : University of Toronto, 2004

Socio-political and economic impact of the trans-Saharan slave trade on Kanem Borno empire 14th - 16th centuries / Abdulrahman B. Hamid
In: Annals of Borno: (2004/05), vol. 21/22, p. 48-56.

The politics of memory : Ghana's Cape Coast Castle Museum exhibition "Crossroads of People, Crossroads of Trade" / Christine Mullen Kreamer
In: Ghana Studies: (2004), vol. 7, p. 79-91 : foto's.

Traites et esclavages / Elikia M'bokolo
In: L'Afrique : les Rendez-vouz de l'Histoire, Blois 2003 / textes de Adama Ba Konaré . . . [et al]. - Nantes : Éditions Pleins Feux: (cop. 2004), p. 41-80.

Abou-Bakr Ibrahim, Pacha de Zeyla, marchand d'esclaves : commerce et diplomatie dans le Golfe de Tadjoura 1840-1885/ Marc Fontrier. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2003. - (Bibliothèque Peiresc)

African merchants, notables and the slave trade at Old Calabar, 1720 : evidence from the National Archives of Scotland / Stephen D. Behrendt & Eric J. Graham
In: History in Africa: (2003), vol. 30, p. 37-61 : tab.

Esclavage et traite négrière au Sénégal : le devoir de mémoire et le devoir d'histoire / Mansour Aw
In: Notes africaines: (2003), no. 206, p. 8-12.

Le commerce des esclaves sur la côte swahili, 1500-1750 / Thomas Vernet
In: Azania: (2003), vol. 38, p. 69-97 : krt.

Mechanisms of slave acquisition and exchange in late eighteenth century Anomabu : reconsidering a cross-section of the Atlantic slave trade / Trevor R. Getz
In: African Economic History: (2003), no. 31, p. 75-89.

Planting rice and harvesting slaves : transformations along the Guinea-Bissau coast, 1400-1900/ Walter Hawthorne. - Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann, 2003. - (Social history of Africa, ISSN 1099-8098)

The ascendance of Angoche : the politics of kinship and territory in nineteenth century northern Mozambique / Liazzat J. K. Bonate
In: Lusotopie: (2003), p. 115-140 : foto's.

Selected Web Resources
(The ASC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites)


Middelburgsche Commercie Compagnie (MCC)
The archives of the MCC (Trade Company of Middelburg) consist of 100 metres of documentary heritage on the so-called triangle trade in slaves from Middelburg, capital of the province of Zeeland  in the Netherlands, via West Africa, across the Atlantic in the 18th century. An inventory of the archives by W.S. Unger was first published in 1951. It was put online on the website of the Zeeuws Archief in 2000. The archive was inscribed  in the UNESCO International Register ‘Memory of the World’ in 2011.

The National Institute for the Study of Dutch Slavery and its Legacy (Nationaal Instituut Nederlands slavernijverleden en erfenis) promotes  research and the dissemination of information on the Dutch slaving past and its consequences for contemporary society. Every year, on the 1st of July, NiNsee organizes a celebration in the Oosterpark, Amsterdam, to commemorate the abolition of slavery in the Dutch colonies on 1 July 1863.


Moderated discussion list "to promote interaction and exchange among scholars engaged in research on slavery, the slave trade, abolition, and emancipation....dedicated to the dissemination of information about the history of slavery and antislavery in all time periods and parts of the world."

International Slavery Museum
The International Slavery Museum opened in Liverpool, England, in August 2007,  the bicentenary of the abolition of the British slave trade. It focuses on aspects of historical and contemporary slavery, and on the history of the transatlantic slave trade (the trade triangle, European traders, life on board, slave ship arrival in the Americas, archaeology).

Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation
This website, maintained by Dr. Brycchan Carey, lecturer in English Literature at Kingston University, U.K., offers resources for the study of slavery, abolition, and emancipation, including historical, biographical, and bibliographical data. It also contains an extensive slavery chronology.

Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
Information on almost 35,000 16th-19th century ‘slave voyages’. Essays by David Eltis and others. Statistics, images, maps.