Early African press

Printing class, Lovedale Institution (Wikimedia Commons, Source: The redemption of Africa by Frederick Perry Noble, 1899)

On the occasion of two seminars on early African press organized by the African Studies Centre in October and November 2021, the ASCL Library has compiled a web dossier on this subject with a focus on pre-independence African newspapers. The dossier consists of selected titles from the ASCL Library Catalogue, extended with sources available through the broader Leiden University Library collection. Title links to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, where available, provide additional details and abstracts. The dossier is introduced by Ursula Oberst and concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites. In addition to the compilation of the web dossier, the ASCL library has also started to document early African newspapers in Wikidata.

Introduction

Annonces, affiches, et avis divers pour les colonies des Îles de France et de BourbonThe presumable first newspaper in Africa Annonces, affiches, et avis divers pour les colonies des Îles de France et de Bourbon was established in Mauritius in 1773 by Pierre Nicolas Lambert. The newspaper was printed in French and published on a weekly basis. It contained advertisements, local and foreign news, publication of government announcements and educational articles on agriculture and trade. Roughly 30 years later, the first government gazettes were published on the African continental mainland, beginning with the bilingual Cape Town Gazette and African Advertiser in 1801, and followed by The Sierra Leone Gazette in 1802.

The history of newspaper publishing in Africa is interwoven with the history of the Christian mission in Africa. In South Africa, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society in Grahamstown began publishing the Xhosa periodical Umshumayeli Wendaba (The Preacher of the News) in 1837. In Nigeria, the first newspaper was the Yoruba-language fortnightly Iwe Irohin (The Paper with the News) which was set up in 1859 by the Church Missionary Society missionary Henry Townsend. Iwe Irohin did not only feature church news, such as recorded and advertised clergy movements, sermons and missionary visits; topics ranged widely from history and geography to current affairs, including foreign news.

The production of the first newspapers on government or missionary printing presses quickly inspired the creation of independent newspapers.  From May 1855, an independent newspaper called New Era, was published by William Drape in Freetown, Sierra Leone. New Era was a trail blazer, and others soon followed. By the late nineteenth century, West and South Africa were homes to a lively African press.

In East Africa, the first newspapers appeared later, beginning with Msimulizi (The Storyteller), published by the Anglican Universities Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) on the island of Zanzibar from 1888. Mainland Tanzania’s Swahili-language print media in the first half of the twentieth century was missionary and government owned, at least until the rise of the nationalist press in the 1950s. In her talk, Emma Hunter will explore Tanzania’s Swahili-language print media as an area in which writers reflected on their place in an increasingly unequal world.

The content of early African newspapers was not restricted to local and foreign news, the publication of government announcements and advertisements. Early African newspapers were also important sites for literary works. The first African novels often appeared in newspapers, published as serials. This was the case of Marita: or the Folly of Love, which has some claim to be first West African novel written in English, published in instalments by the Western Echo, a local Gold Coast newspaper from 1886 to 1888. This is also true of the first Yoruba novel Life Story of Me, Segilola published in the Yoruba newspaper Akede Eko between July 1929 and March 1930. I.B. Thomas's Segilola is one of the subjects of Karin Barber’s talk.

Ursula Oberst (Main sources: Dictionnaire des journaux: 1600-1789 & Emma Hunter: Newspapers as sources for African history)

Selected publications

Subsaharan Africa | Northeast Africa West and West Central Africa | East Africa | Southeast Central and Southern Africa

Subsaharan Africa

General

‘Our common humanity’: print, power, and the colonial press in interwar Tanganyika and French Cameroun / Emma Hunter.
In: journal of global history, vol.7, no. 2, p.279-301 (2021).

Colonial public spheres and the worlds of print / edited by Emma Hunter & Leslie James. - Leyden: State University, 2020. (Itinerario, vol. 44, no. 2)

Authorship and print sociability in African and African-American newspapers / edited by Isabel Hofmeyr and Derek Peterson. - Rondebosch: University of Cape Town. Faculty of Social Science, 2019. (Social Dynamics, vol. 45, no.1)

Newspapers as sources for African history / Emma Hunter. In: SPEAR, T. (ed.) Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2018.
https://www.pure.ed.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/51214576/Hunter_2018_Oxf...

The German colonial settler press in Africa, 1898-1916 : a web of identities, spaces and infrastructure / Corinna Schäfer. - Falmer: University of Sussex, 2017.

African print cultures : newspapers and their publics in the twentieth century / edited by Derek R. Peterson, Emma Hunter, and Stephanie Newell. - University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, 2016.book cover "African print cultures"

African journalism studies : the first 60 years / Jo Ellen Fair.
In: African journalism studies, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 22-29 (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23743670.2015.1008126

Not 'Iwe Irohin' but 'Umshumayeli' : a revisit of the historiography of the early African language press / Abiodun Salawu.
In: African identities, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 157-170 (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2014.1002383

Connaître les médias d'Afrique subsaharienne : problématiques, sources et ressources / sous la dir. de Annie Lenoble-Bart et André-Jean Tudesq. - Karthala [etc.]: Paris [etc.], 2008. 

Africa's hidden histories : everyday literacy and making the self / Karin Barber. - Bloomington, IN [etc.] : Indiana University Press, 2006.

»Mit mittelmaessigen Geistesgaben und Vorkenntnissen ausgerüstet«: Über das Verhältnis von kaiserlichen Behörden und Presse in den deutschen Kolonien 1898 bis 1914 / Rainer Pöppinghege.
In: Jahrbuch für Kommunikationsgeschichte, 3. Jahrg., pp. 157-169 (2001).
https://www.jstor.org/stable/20852071

Journaux et radios en Afrique aux XIXe et XXe siècles / André-Jean Tudesq; Serge Nédelec. - Paris: Groupe de recherche et d'échanges technologiques, 1998.

Early printing from Africa in the British Library / Carol Holden.
In: The Electronic British Library Journal (1997).
https://www.bl.uk/eblj/1997articles/article1.html

Feuilles d’Afrique : Étude de la presse de l’Afrique subsaharienne / André-Jean Tudesq. - Pessac: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine, 1995. https://doi.org/10.4000/books.msha.14151

Mass media and the African society / ed. by Jerry Domatob, Abubakar Jika, Ikechukwu Nwosu. - African Council on Communication Education (ACCE): Nairobi, 1987.

The press of Africa : persecution and perseverance / Frank Barton. - London [etc.] : Macmillan, 1979

French-speaking Africa

Journalismes d'Afrique / Marie-Soleil. - Louvain la Neuve : DeBoeik supérieur, 2020

La conquête de l'espace public colonial : prises de parole et formes de participation d'écrivains et d'intellectuels africains dans la presse à l'époque coloniale (1900 - 1960) / Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink. - IKO - Verl. für Interkulturelle Kommunikation ;;NB - Ed. Nota Bene: Frankfurt am Main ;;London;Québec, 2003.

La presse en Afrique occidentale française : des origines aux indépendances, et conservée à la bibliothèque / Pascal, France. - Villeurbanne: École supérieure des bibliothèques (ENSB), 1982.
https://www.enssib.fr/bibliotheque-numerique/documents/63203-presse-en-a...

Situation de la presse dans les états de l'Union africaine et malgache en Guinée, au Mali, au Togo / Jaqueline Gras. - Paris Documentation Française, 1963.

Portuguese-speaking Africa

A imprensa e o império na África Portuguesa, 1842-1974 / Isadora de Ataíde Fonseca. - Lisboa Universidade de Lisboa 2014.
http://hdl.handle.net/10451/15605

Imprensa das colônias de expressão portuguesa: visão de conjunto / Antonio Hohlfeldt, Caroline Corso de Carvalho, Júlia Manzano, Júlia Pereira Tarragó.
In: Curitiba, v. 12, n. 2, jul./dez. 2011 (2011).
https://seer.utp.br/index.php/i/article/download/182/155

The development of Lusophone Africa's literary magazines / George Alao.
In: Research in African literatures, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 169-183 (1999).

Northeast Africa

The historical development of media in unconquered Africa : a historical review of Ethiopian media / Menychle Meseret Abebe.
In: Media history, vol.26, no. 4, p.373-390 (2020).

The quest for press freedom: one hundred years of history of the media in Ethiopia / Meseret Chekol Reta. - Lanham, MD The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 2013.book cover "he quest for press freedom: one hundred years of history of the media in Ethiopia"

Two early periodical publications : 'Djibouti' and 'Le Semeur d'Éthiopie' as sources for late 19th and early 20th century Ethiopian history / Richard Pankhurst.
In: Annales d'Éthiopie , vol. 19, p. 231-256 (2003).
https://www.persee.fr/doc/ethio_0066-2127_2003_num_19_1_1045

Survey of the private press in Ethiopia: 1991-1999 / Shimelis Bonsa. - Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies, 2000.
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/1017

Ethiopia and its press / by Tegegne Yetesha-Work. - Boston: Boston University, 1961.
https://hdl.handle.net/2144/31431

West and West Central Africa

General

Disconnecting the ’phone: Anglo-scribes and Anglo-literates in early twentieth-century West African newspaper / Stephanie Newell. 2021.
In: Routledge Handbook of African Popular Culture. Forthcoming

Paradoxes of press freedom in colonial West Africa / Stephanie Newell.
In: Media history, vol.22, no. 1, p.101-122 (2016).

The power to name : a history of anonymity in colonial West Africa / Stephanie Newell. - Ohio University Press: Athens, 2013.

Articulating empire: newspaper readerships in colonial West Africa / Stephanie Newell.
In: New Formations, vol. 73, pp. 26-42 (2011).

Sierra Leone and Ghana : nineteenth century pioneers in W. African journalism / K.A.B. Jones-Quarty.
In: Sierra Leone studies : the journal of the Sierra Leone Society, no. 12, p. 230-244 (1959).

Angola

Imprensa, raça e civilização: José de Fontes Pereira e o pensamento intelectual angolano no século XIX / Eduardo Antonio Estevam Santos.
In: Afro-Ásia, núm. 61 (2020).
https://www.redalyc.org/jatsRepo/770/77065180004/html/index.html

Os jornais diários de Luanda em vésperas da guerra colonial / João Manuel Rocha.
In: Ler história, vol.74 (74), p.213-238 (2019).
https://journals.openedition.org/lerhistoria/4898

Ideias republicanas na consolidação de um pensamento angolano urbano (1880 c.-1910 c.) : convergência e autonomia / Maria Cristina Portella Ribeiro. - Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa, 2012.
http://hdl.handle.net/10451/7937

A imprensa angolana no âmbito da história da imprensa colonial de expressão portuguesa / Antonio Hohlfeldt; Caroline Corso de Carvalho.
In: Intercom, Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Comun. vol.35 no.2 São Paulo July/Dec. 2012, p. 85-100 (2012).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1809-58442012000200005

Cabo Verde

A imprensa em Cabo Verde e no Brasil: um olhar duas histórias / Rossana Pina Ribeiro. - Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2013.
http://hdl.handle.net/11422/4209

Cameroon

Le Cameroun vu par la presse, 1944-1955 : aux origines de la révolution de mai 1955 / Hermenegildo Adala ; préface d'Ananie Rabier Bindji ; postface d'Owono Zambo. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2020.

Cohabitation des langues dans les médias au Cameroun 1884-1960 / Paul Zang Zang.
In: Annales de la Faculté des Arts, Lettres et Sciences Humaines, no. 15, p. 85-109 (2013).

La liberté de la presse écrite au Cameroun : ombres et lumières / Erik Essousse ; préf. de Abwa Daniel. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2008.

Journalism and mass communication in Africa : Cameroon / Festus Eribo; Enoh Tanjong. - Lanham [etc.]: Lexington Books, 2002.

L'Effort camerounais ou la tentation d'une presse libre / Jean Paul Bayémi. - Paris: Éditions L'Harmattan, 1989.

Congo (Brazzaville)

Médias et pouvoir politique au Congo Brazzaville : des origines à nos jours / Léon Bemba. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2014.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Médias pionniers au Congo : Su Kukianga (1891) et Minsamu Miayenge (1892) / Jean-Chrétien D. Ekambo ; préface de Bertrand Cabedoche. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2018.book cover "Médias pionniers au Congo : Su Kukianga (1891) et Minsamu Miayenge (1892)"

Histoire du Congo RDC dans la presse : des origines à l'indépendance / Jean-Chrétien D. Ekambo ; préf. d'Isidore Ndaywel è Nziem. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2013.

L'arbre-qui-parle : regards sur la presse congolaise, du Congo Belge à celui des Kabila, sans oublier le Zai͏̈re de Mobutu / [réd. en chef Polydor-Edgard Kabeya] ; [ont collab. à ce numéro: Roger Mazanza Kindulu ... et al.]. - L'Harmattan [etc.]: Paris [etc.], 2003.

Het belang van de periodieke koloniale pers in Afrikaanse talen / door Honoré Vinck.
In: Bulletin des séances, année 48, no. 3, p. 269-295 (2002).

Un aperçu de la presse congolaise écrite par les noirs de 1885 à 1960 / Albert Oscar Bolela.
In: Congo-Afrique : economie, culture, vie sociale, vol. 11, no. 51, p. 5-23 (1971).

Equatorial Guinea

History of the press in Equatorial Guinea in the 20th century : periodicals published in Equatorial Guinea 1901–2000 / Carlos González Echegaray.
In: Africa bibliography, vol.2014, p.vii-xxix (2015).

Ghana

The African press coverage of Japan and British censorship during World War II : a case study of the Ashanti pioneer, 1939-1945 / Yasu'o Mizobe.
In: Tinabantu : journal of African national affairs, vol. 4 no. 2, p. 26-36 : ill (2012).

"""Accra is changing, isn't it?"" : urban infrastructure, independence, and nation in the Gold Coast's 'Daily Graphic', 1954-57 / by Nate Plageman.".
In: The international journal of African historical studies, vol. 43, no. 1, p. 137-159 (2010).

Fifty years of the media's struggle for democracy in Ghana : legacies and encumbrances / Audrey Gadzekpo.
In: Ghana studies, vol. 10, p. 89-106 (2007).

A survey of Gold Coast (Southern Ghanaian) newspapers in the latter half of the nineteenth century / Yasuo Mizobe. - CASAS: Cape Town, 2007.

"""Untold difficulties"": the indigenous press and the economic effects of the First World War on Africans in the Gold Coast, 1914-1918 / Kwabena O. Akurang-Parry.".
In: African economic history, no. 34, p. 45-68 : tab (2006).

Literary culture in colonial Ghana : 'how to play the game of life' / Stephanie Newell. - Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2002.

Marita: or the folly of love : a novel by A. Native / edited by Stephanie Newell. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2002.

The Ashanti Times : a footnote to Ghanaian press history / John D. Chick.
In: African affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society, vol. 76, no. 302, p. 80-94 (1977).

The Gold Coast press 1822-c 1930, and the Anglo-African press 1825-c 1930 : the chronologies / K.A.B. Jones-Quartey.
In: Research review , vol. 4, no. 2, p. 30-46 (1967/68).
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/11513

The ''Royal Gold Coast Gazette'' and the Ashanti / K.A.B. Jones-Quartey.
In: Research Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 19-29 (1967).
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/11465

Guinea

Un siècle de journaux en Guinée : histoire de la presse écrite de la période coloniale à nos jours / Mamadou Dindé Diallo. - Toulouse: Université Toulouse le Mirail, 2013.
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00904374/document

Guinea-Bissau

A Guerra Colonial na imprensa portuguesa da Guiné. A cobertura jornalística do conflito feita pelos jornais O Arauto, Notícias da Guiné e Voz da Guiné, entre 1961 e 1974 / Sílvia Torres.
In: PRISMA.COM (33), p. 33-46 (2017).
http://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/prismacom/article/download/2851/2603

Liberia

A tradition of dissent: West Indians and Liberian journalism, 1830-1970 / Carl Patrick Burrowes.
In: Ecquid novi : Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir navorsing in die joernalistiek, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 71-86 : ill., tab (2012).

Power and press freedom in Liberia, 1830-1970 : the impact of globalization and civil society on media-government relations / Carl Patrick Burrowes. - Africa World Press: Trenton, NJ [etc.], 2004. 

The press in Liberia, 1826-1996 : a select chronology / Momo K. Rogers, Sr.
In: Liberian studies journal, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 95-120 (1997).

Nigeria

The flying newspapermen and the time-space of late colonial Nigeria / Leslie James.
In: Comparative studies in society and history, vol.60 (3), p.569-598 (2018).

Vindicating “true occupation” for the progress of society : technical and agricultural associations in early Lagos newspapers / Nozomi Sawada.
In: Comparative studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, vol.38, no. 3, p.473-490 (2018).

"Beyond religious news : a descriptive analysis of editorial themes in ""Iwe Irohin"", Nigeria's first newspaper / Chris Ogbondah and Etim Anim.".
In: Journal of communication and media research, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 15-33 (2016).

Selecting those “worthy” of remembering : memorialization in early Lagos newspapers / Sawada, Nozomi.
In: Journal of West African history, vol.2, no 2, p.79-108 (2016).

A re-examination of pioneering newspaper enterprises in 1860s and 1880s Southwestern Nigeria / Nozomi Sawada.
In: Journal of Swahili and African Studies, 26, p. 40-59 (2015).

Indigenous language newspapers in Nigeria from 1914-2013 : a review / Aisha Imam Omoloso and Aishat Abdulrauf-Salau. - 2014. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293973692_Indigenous_Language_N...

Journeys to the hinterland : early twentieth-century Nigerian domestic travel writing and local heterogeneity / Rebecca Jones.
In: Postcolonial Text, vol. 9, no. 4 (2014). https://www.postcolonial.org/index.php/pct/article/viewFile/1754/1776

The benefits of travel: travel writing in the Lagos newspapers 1912-1931 / Rebecca Jones.
In: Journal of History and Cultures, no. 2, pages 39-56 (2013).
https://historyandcultures.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/jhac-2-rebecca-jones-the-benefits-of-travel-writing1.pdf

The colonial public sphere in Nigeria, 1920-1943 / Katharina Oke.
In: Stichproben, Jg. 13, Nr. 25, S. 29-52 (2013).
http://stichproben.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/p_stichproben/Arti...

History and development of mass media in Nigeria / by Ifedayo Daramola. - Rothan Press Ltd: Lagos, 2013.

NUJ : a history of Nigeria press / Jola Ogunlusi. - John West Publications Ltd: Lagos, 2013.

Print culture and the first Yoruba novel : I.B. Thomas's 'Life Story of Me, Sẹgilọla' and other texts / Isaac Babalola Thomas; Karin Barber. - Leiden: Brill, 2012.book cover "Print culture and the first Yoruba novel : I.B. Thomas's 'Life Story of Me, Sẹgilọla' and other texts"

Researching colonial childhoods: images and representations of children in Nigerian newspaper press, 1925-1950 / Saheed Aderinto.
In: History in Africa : a journal of method, vol. 39, p. 241-266 : tab (2012).

The educated elite and associational life in early Lagos newspapers : in search of unity for the progress of society / Nozomi Sawada. - Birmingham: University of Birmingham, 2012. https://etheses.bham.ac.uk/id/eprint/3274/

Mass media in Nigerian democracy / ed. by Fred I.A. Omu, Godwin Ehiarekhian Oboh. - Stirling-Horden: Lagos, 2008.

Africa's media empire: 'Drum''s expansion to Nigeria / Tyler Fleming and Toyin Falola.
In: History in Africa : a journal of method, vol. 32, p. 133-164 (2005).

'Iwe Irohin' and the representation of the universal in nineteenth-century Egbaland / Oluwatoyin B. Oduntan.
In: History in Africa : a journal of method, vol. 32, p. 295-305 (2005).

Translation, publics and the vernacular press in 1920s Lagos / Karin Barber.
In: FALOLA, T. (ed.) Christianity and social change in Africa : essays in honor of J.D.Y. Peel. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.

Walking a tight rope : power play in daily times / Isma'il Babatunde Jose. - University Press: Ibadan, 1987.

The historical development of the Nigerian Press / Idowu A. Sobowale.
In: Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa / ed. by F. Okwu Ugboajah, p. 27-35 (1985).

The newspaper press in Southern Nigeria, 1880-1900 / Fred I.A. Omu.
In: Studies in Southern Nigerian history / ed. and introd. by B.I. Obichere, p. 103-125 (1982).

Sir Kitoye Ajassa and the pioneer : a reassessment / R. Chude Okonkwor.
In: Nigeria magazine, no. 140, p. 44-53 (1982).

The 'Iwe Irohin', 1859-1867 / Fred I.A. Omu.
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, vol. 4, no1., pages 35-44 (1967).

Senegal

Histoire de la presse sénégalaise : Tome 1: Des origines à la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1856-1945) : Diégane Sène ; préface du professeur Iba Der Thiam. - L'Harmattan Editions Distribution: Paris, 2017.

Histoire des médias au Sénégal : de la colonisation à nos jours / Moustapha Barry. - L'Harmattan: Paris, 2013.

Les débuts de la presse au Sénégal / R. Pasquier.
In: Cahiers d'études africaines, vol. 2, no. 7, p. 477-490 (1962).

Togo

The right to write in German colonies of the early twentieth century : pugnacious settler newspapers, anxious governors and African journalism in exile / Corinna Schäfer.
In: Cultural and social history, vol.15, no. 5, p.681-698 (2018).

Intermédialité en situation coloniale et postcoloniale : l'exemple du Togo / Dotsé Yigbe & Joël Glasman (éds.). - Dschang University Press: Dschang, 2016.

East Africa 

General

The bearers of news: print and power in German East Africa / Fabian Krautwald.
In: The journal of African history, 08 March 2021 (2021).

Modernity, print media, and the middle class in colonial East Africa / Emma Hunter.
In: The global bourgeoisie : the rise of the middle classes in the age of empire, p. 105-122 (2019)

Pressing interests : the agenda and influence of a colonial East African newspaper sector / Phoebe Musandu. - McGill-Queen's University Press: Montreal ;;Kingston ;;London ;;Chicago, 2018.

Special issue: print cultures, nationalisms and publics of the Indian Ocean / edited by Isabel Hofmeyr & Preben Kaarsholm. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Imperiale Propaganda : die ostafrikanische Militärpresse im Zweiten Weltkrieg / Katrin Bromber. - Berlin: Schwarz, 2009.book cover "Imperiale Propaganda : die ostafrikanische Militärpresse im Zweiten Weltkrieg"

Kenya

Guidance (Uwongozi) by Sheikh al-Amin Mazrui : selections from the first Swahili Islamic newspaper : a Swahili-English edition / Kai Kresse. - Koninklijke Brill NV: Leiden, 2016.

Friends or foes? : a critique of the development of the media and the evolving relationship between press and politics in Kenya / Lusike Mukhongo.
In: Critical arts : a journal of media studies, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 59-76 (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2015.1009678

Imagining Arab communities: colonialism, Islamic reform, and Arab identity in Mombasa, Kenya, 1897-1933 / Nathaniel Mathews.
In: Islamic Africa, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 135-163 (2013).
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.5192/2154099...

Staking claims : the Kenyan newspaper sector, 1899-1990 / by Phoebe Atieno Musandu. - s.n.: S.l., 2013.
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6jv3b3cq

Writing for Kenya : the life and works of Henry Muoria / Henry Muoria, Wangari Muoria-Sal. - Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Inventing the African nation : the influence of missionary publishing on language, literacy and identity in colonial Kenya 1895-1963 / David N. Dixon. - UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, MI, 2002.

The labors of 'Muigwithania' : Jomo Kenyatta as author, 1928-45 / Bruce Berman & John Lonsdale.

In: Research in African literatures, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 16-42 (1998).

The African Press in Kenya 1945–1952 / Fay Gasden.
In: The journal of African history , vol. 21, no. 4, p. 515-535 (1980).

Tanzania

'House of believers' : irony and commensurability in Tanganyikan colonial discourse / R. Ronnenberg.
In: African identities, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 33-54 : ill (2012).

Politics and business in the Indian newspapers of colonial Tanganyika / James R. Brennan.
In: Africa, vol.81, no. 1, p.42-67 (2011).

Biashara nzuri - biashara mbaya: eine textlinguistische Untersuchung zum Abgrenzungsdiskurs in der tansanischen Presse (Mambo Leo, 1923) / Katrin Bromber.
In: Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere : Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik, No. 64, p. 97-125 (2000).

The media history of Tanzania / by Martin Sturmer. - Afro-Asiatisches Institut: Salzburg, 1998.
http://www.asclibrary.nl/docs/242799752.pdf

An episode of colonial history : the German press in Tanzania, 1901-1914 / Ida Pipping-van Hulten. - Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1974.
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:nai:diva-552

Uganda

Press politics and public policy in Uganda : the role of journalism in democratization / Jim Ocitti. - Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, NY, 2005.

The media, constitutionalism and democracy in Uganda / by Zie Gariyo. - Centre for Basic Research (CBR): Kampala, 1993.

The first African press in East Africa : protest and nationalism in Uganda in the 1920's / James F. Scotton.
In: The international journal of African historical studies , vol. 6, no. 2, p. 211-228 (1973). https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/216775.pdf

Southeast Central and Southern Africa

General

Words of Batswana: letters to the editor of 'Mahoko a Becwana', 1883-1896 / Stephen Volz.
In: History in Africa : a journal of method, vol. 34, p. 349-366 (2007).

The black press in South Africa and Lesotho : a descriptive bibliographic guide to African, coloured and Indian newspapers, newsletters and magazines 1836-1976 / Les Switzer; Donna Switzer. - Boston, MA Hall, 1979.
http://blackpressresearchcollective.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Black...

Malawi

Media in the Service of Human and Social Development.
In: Journalism Practice in Malawi: History, Progress, and Prospects, p. 127-150 (2011).
http://www.asclibrary.nl/docs/356407144.pdf

Mozambique

A imprensa moçambicana e o discurso anticolonial / Josilene Silva Campos. - Goiânia: V Congresso Internacional De História, 2016. http://www.congressohistoriajatai.org/2016/resources/anais/6/1479241482_...

Anticolonialismo, literatura e imprensa em Moçambique / Josilene Silva Campos. - Florianópolis: XXVIII Simpósio Nacional De História, 2015. http://www.snh2015.anpuh.org/resources/anais/39/1439765325_ARQUIVO_Texto...

Pioneers of the press in Mozambique: João Albasini and his brother / Antonio Hohlfeldt; Fernanda Grabauska
In: Brazilian journalism research, vol.6 (1), p.187-205 (2010).
https://doi.org/10.25200/BJR.v6n1.2010.234

The Mozambican press : a historical overview and a political analysis / Aida Gomes da Silva. - Third World Centre/Development studies Catholic University of Nijmegen: Nijmegen, 1996.

Namibia

'The public danger of rumor-mongering': news in German colonial South West Africa during the First World War / Krista Molly O'Donnell.
In: Journal of Namibian studies : history, politics, culture, no. 19, p. 69-89 (2016).

Women journalists in Namibia's liberation struggle, 1985-1990 / Maria Mboono Nghidinwa ; introd. by Henning Melber. - Basler Afrika Bibliographien: Basel, 2008.

Deutschsprachige Medien in Namibia : vom 'Windhoeker Anzeiger' zum Deutschen Hörfunkprogramm der 'Namibian Broadcasting Corporation' : Geschichte, Bedeutung und Funktion der deutschsprachigen Medien in Namibia 1898-1998 / Carsten von Nahmen. - Windhoek: Namibia Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft 2001.

São Tomé e Príncipe

A imprensa e o império colonial em São Tomé e Príncipe (1857-1974) / Isadora de Ataíde Fonseca.
In: Comunicação pública, vol.9, nº16 (2014).
https://journals.openedition.org/cp/842

South Africa

Africa, empire and Fleet Street : Albert Cartwright and West Africa magazine / Jonathan Derrick. - Oxford University Press: Oxford ;;New York, 2018.

"Four South African ""sunrises"", four cartoons, four eras and the cyclical nature of history / Lizette Rabe.".
In: Historia : amptelike orgaanvolume 63, no. 1, pages 178-200 (2018).

De Zuid-Afrikaan se kommentaar op vraagstukke rakende bruin en swart mense in die Kaapkolonie tydens die redakteurskap van J.H. Hofmeyr (1871-1883) / Pieter De Clerk.
In: Historia : amptelike orgaan, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 101-120 (2016).

The imperial British newspaper, with special reference to South Africa, India and the 'Irish model' / Donal P. McCracken.
In: Critical arts : a journal of media studies, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 5-25 : graf., tab (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2015.1009675

Reuters and the South African press at the end of Empire / Peter Putnis.
In: Critical arts : a journal of media studies, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 41-58 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2015.1009677

'De Zuid-Afrikaan' se standpunt oor stemreg vir bruin mense voor die totstandkoming van die Kaapse koloniale parlement in 1854 / Pieter de Klerk.
In: Historia : amptelike orgaan, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 1-17 (2014).

Gandhi's printing press : experiments in slow reading / Isabel Hofmeyr. - Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London, England: Harvard University Pres, 2013.

Imperial running dogs or wild geese reporters? : Irish journalists in South Africa / Donal P. McCracken.
In: Historia : amptelike orgaan, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 122-138 : tab (2013).

Stunted growth : an exploration into the failures of African-language newspapers, Imvo Zabantsundu in focus / Abiodun Salawu.
In: Ecquid novi : Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir navorsing in die joernalistiek, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 73-92 (2013).

CV Bate, grondlegger van die 'Potchefstroom Herald' / H.S. Gouws, Johannes D. Froneman.
In: New contree : a journal of historical and human sciences for Southern Africa, no. 63, p. 67-90 : foto's (2012).

The people's paper : a centenary history & anthology of Abantu-Batho / edited by Peter Limb. - Johannesburg : Wits University Press, [2012]book cover "The people's paper : a centenary history & anthology of Abantu-Batho"

The rise and demise of Scope magazine : a media-historical perspective / Johannes Froneman.
In: Ecquid novi : Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir navorsing in die joernalistiek, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 49-65 : foto's (2011).

Laughing with Sam Sly : the cultural politics of satire and colonial British identity in the Cape Colony, c. 1840-1850 / Christopher Holdridge.
In: Kronos : 'n geleentheidspublikasie van die Wes-Kaaplandse Instituut vir Historiese Navorsing, no. 36, p. 28-53 : ill (2010).

Paging through history : 150 years with the Cape Argus, 1857-2007 / [Michael Morris, Jim McLagan]. - Jonathan Ball: Johannesburg, 2007.

The modern girl and racial respectability in 1930s South Africa / by Lynn M. Thomas.
In: The journal of African history, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 461-490 : foto's (2006).

All the news that's fit to print: the print media of the Second World War and its portrayal of the gendered and racial identities of the war's participants / Suryakanthie Chetty.
In: South African historical journal, no. 54, p. 30-53 : foto's (2005).

The long road to freedom =Inkundla Ya Bantu (Bantu Forum) and the African Nationalist Movement in South Africa, 1938-1951 / Ime Ukpanah. - Africa World: Trenton, NJ [etc.], 2005.

The world paper famine and the South African press 1938-1955 / by Adrian Hadland.
In: The South African journal of economic history, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 40-64 (2005).

The Cape Times : an informal history / Gerald Shaw. - David Philip: Cape Town, 1999.

John L. Dube, his Ilanga Lase Natali and the Natal African Administration, 1903-1910 / Enoch Doctor Gasa. - Empangeni: University of Zululand, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/10530/486

Other voices : the ambiguities of resistance in South Africa's resistance press / Les Switzer and Elizabeth Ceiriog Jones.
In: South African historical journal, no. 32, p. 66-113 : tab (1995).

"The struggle to be independent" : a history of the black press in South Africa 1836 - 1960 / Tim Couzens. - Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand, 1990. http://hdl.handle.net/10539/7761

Bantu world and the origins of a captive african commercial press in south africa / Les Switzer.
In: Journal of Southern African studies, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 351-370 : graf., tab (1987).

The early African press in Natal : Inkanyiso Yase Natal, April 1889 - June 1896 / Sheila Meintjes.
In: Natalia, no. 16, pages 6-11 (1986).
http://natalia.org.za/Files/16/Natalia%20v16%20article%20p6-11%20C.pdf

The African Christian community and its press in victorian South Africa / Les Switzer.
In: Cahiers d'études africaines , vol. 24, no. 96, p. 455-476 (1984).

Evolution de la presse anglophone sud-africaine 1900-1940 / A. Bullier.
In: Le mois en Afrique, vol. 20, no. 225/226, p. 144-151 (1984).

La presse anglaise et son histoire jusqu'a la guerre des boers / A. Bullier.
In: Le mois en Afrique, vol. 19, no. 217/218, p. 138-152 (1984).

Naissance de la presse afrikaans / A. Bullier.
In: Le mois en Afrique, vol. 19, no. 15-153 (1984).

Die Keeromstraatkliek : die Burger en die politiek van koalisie en samesmelting 1932-1934 / At van Wyk. - Tafelberg: Kaapstad, 1983.

A manner of speaking : the origins of the press in South Africa / Wessel de Kock. - Saayman & Weber: Cape Town, 1982.

Les origines de la presse Afrikaner / Antoine J. Buller.
In: Revue française d'études politiques africaines, vol. 10, no. 110, p. 70-80 (1975).

Pseudonyms in black South African writing, 1920-1950 / Tim Couzens.
In: Research in African literatures : official journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the Modern Language Association, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 226-231 (1975).

Some beginnings : the 'Cape Times' (1876-1910) / [by] Gerald Shaw. - Oxford University Press: London [etc.], 1975.

Zambia

Anti anti-colonialism : vernacular press and emergent possibilities in colonial Zambia / Harri Englund.
In: Comparative studies in society and history, vol.57 (1), p.221-247 (2015).

The state of the media in Zambia : from the colonial era to December 2003 / by Kenny Makungu. - Media Institute of Southern Africa Zambian Chapter: Lusaka, 2004.

The press in Zambia : the development, role and control of national newspapers in Zambia 1906-1983 / Francis Peter Kasoma. - Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1986.

Mutende: the newspaper for Africans / S.R. Denny.
In: The Northern Rhodesia journal , vol. 5, no. 3, p. 255-260 (1963).

Zimbabwe

African Newspapers Limited and the Growth of Newspapers for Africans in Southern Rhodesia / Sylvester Dombo.
In: Media history, vol.25, no. 2, p.183-207 (2019).

Press and politics in Zimbabwe / Stanford D. Musaka.
In: African studies quarterly, vol.7, no. 2-3, pages 171-183 (2003).
https://asq.africa.ufl.edu/previous-issues/volume-7/issues-2-3/

Web resources

African Newspapers at the World Newspaper Archive (restricted access)
 
African Newspaper Union List
A centralized electronic database of holdings information for newspapers (all formats and all languages) published in sub-Saharan Africa.
 
The British Library’s Endangered Archives Project
A database including rare digitized newspapers, for example the Hausa-language newspaper Gaskiya ta fi kwabo.
http://eap.bl.uk
 
Gallica
A database including a growing number of historical digitized Francophone African newspapers.
https://gallica.bnf.fr/accueil/

Global Journals Project
An inventory of non-European or diasporic critical and cultural journals produced during the 19th and 20th centuries, between 1817 and 1989.
https://sismo.inha.fr/s/en/page/welcome

The Handwritten Newspapers Project
An annotated bibliography & historical research guide to handwritten newspapers from around the world
https://handwrittennews.com/category/africa/