Dutch involvement in the transatlantic slave trade

Slavery monument Oosterpark Amsterdam Arthena, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia CommonsDuring the national Slavery Memorial Year in the Netherlands extra attention will be paid to the history and aftermath of slavery throughout the Kingdom. To mark this occasion, the ASCL Library has updated its 2013 web dossier on Dutch involvement in the transatlantic slave trade and abolition.

The dossier contains new and historical titles on the transatlantic slave trade from the ASCL Library collection, complemented with titles from the larger UL Leiden collection. Some titles from the 2013 web dossier have been maintained. In the selection of titles the focus has been on Dutch involvement, African perspectives, and personal narratives of enslaved persons and those involved in the trade.

The introduction highlights data and infographics from the many online databases that can be accessed around this subject. An overview of those, and other, sources can be found in the web resources section.

The dossier will be updated regularly throughout the Memorial Year. If you wish to receive updates, subscribe to the ASCL Library alert service and indicate "transatlantic slave trade" under free search terms.

Introduction | Transatlantic slave trade - Africa | Transatlantic slave trade - Dutch involvement | Transatlantic slave trade - Biography and historical sources | Transatlantic slave trade - Biography and historical sources - The Netherlands | Transatlantic slave trade - Reference works | Transatlantic slave trade - Literature (fiction) | Transatlantic slave trade - Films | Transatlantic slave trade - Web resources | Transatlantic slave trade - Web resources The Netherlands



The involvement of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade took place between the end of the 16th century and the late 19th century. While the Spanish and Portuguese can be seen as the pioneers of the transatlantic trade, the Dutch were eager to join as the trade turned out to be profitable.

During this time span, according to estimates from the SlaveVoyages website, the number of enslaved persons forcibly transported across the Atlantic on Dutch vessels was over 550,000. Of those individuals embarked, only an estimated 475,000 reached the other shore alive. In addition to the transatlantic trade, the Dutch were also involved in the Indian Ocean slave trade.

The total estimate of persons enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade according to this website was around 12,500,000, of which Portugal transported around 5,800,000, and Britain over 3,000,000.

Source: https://www.slavevoyages.org/assessment/estimates


The majority of those enslaved came from the inlands of West Africa and Central Africa. From there, they were brought to trading posts in the coastal areas. Important trading posts of the Dutch West Indian Company (WIC), formally known as the Geoctroyeerde West-Indische Compagnie (GWC), were situated along the Senegambia Coast, the Dutch Gold Coast and in the Bight of Benin, and in Dutch Loango-Angola, along the coast lines of the contemporary Republic of Congo and Angola. The most important destinations for the Dutch were at first Brazil, and later the Dutch Americas, notably the Caribbean islands and Dutch Guiana, including Surinam.

Source of data: https://www.slavevoyages.org/assessment/estimates

The West Indian Company operated from a number of forts along the African coast line. Many were situated along the Gold Coast, the most well-known of which is Elmina castle. Elmina castle is now a UNESCO World Heritage site. Elmina and other African heritage sites related to the transatlantic slave trade can be found through the website of the Zamani project, which offers 3D-models, virtual tours, and other tools.


The stories of those enslaved, however, cannot be captured in numbers or places. Personal stories of those enslaved can best show the devastating impact of the trade on people’s lives, of those who were captured, but also on those staying behind. Sources of such sorts are limited, but some names and stories have been preserved.

One of those stories is that of Olaudah Equiano. According to his autobiography, he was captured in modern-day Nigeria, then shipped to the Caribbean and the US. After he regained his freedom, he travelled to London where he became active as an abolitionist, and wrote his famous autobiography “The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano”, also included in this dossier.
Other stories include a reconstruction of the turbulent life of Rufino José Maria, a Nigerian Muslim who was enslaved, as a freedman became involved in the slave trade himself, and later on was accused of being involved in a slave revolt. And there is the story of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, better known as Job Solomon, a Fulani prince, involved in the slave trade, who was kidnapped, enslaved and trafficked to the United States.

In the Netherlands, the best documented story is that of Johannes Capitein. Capitein was captured and enslaved in Ghana, and brought to the Netherlands as a boy. Here he received education at the Latin School in The Hague, was baptised, and studied Theology at Leiden University. He completed a dissertation in defence of slavery, and returned to Africa as a minister and missionary.

For more stories and sources, see a selection of biographical and personal accounts, included in this dossier.

Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo by William Hoare of Bath, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons Olaudah Equiano, Daniel Orme, after W. Denton, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons Jacobus Capitein by Pieter Tanjé, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


On 1 July 1863, slavery in the Dutch colonies of Surinam and the Caribbean islands was officially abolished. However, as a means of compensation for the slave owners, a large number of enslaved persons had to continue their labour on the plantations for another 10 years. For many, therefore, slavery only came to an end on 1 July 1873, now 150 years ago. After 1873, those enslaved were often replaced by contract labourers from Asia, allowing hardship and toil to continue in a different form for many years.

Germa Seuren


Transatlantic slave trade - Africa


Afrika - Atlantik - Amerika : Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel in Afrika, auf dem Atlantik und in den Amerikas sowie in Europa/ Michael Zeuske Cover Routes sanglantes de la traite negriere
Berlin ; Boston : De Gruyter, 2022.

Droit et esclavages : théorie et pratiques en Afrique et dans les Amériques (XVe-XIXe siècles)/ Annie Fitte-Duval (ed.)
Paris : Karthala, 2022.

Mastering the worst of trades : England's early Africa companies and their traders/ Julie M. Svalastog
Leiden ; Boston : BRILL, 2021.

Routes sanglantes de la traite négrière : Soundjata Keïta versus Napoléon Bonaparte/ Boubacar Diallo
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2020.

Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean : a history of enslavement and identity since the 18th century/ Olatunji Ojo and Nadine Hunt (eds.)
London : Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.

United States and Africa relations, 1400s to the present/ Toyin Falola and Raphael Chijioke Njoku
New Haven : Yale University Press, 2020.

German entanglements in transatlantic slavery/ Heike Raphael-Hernandez and Pia Wiegmink (eds.)
Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2019.

African Kings and Black Slaves : Sovereignty and Dispossession in the Early Modern Atlantic/ Herman L. Bennett
Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Les routes de l'esclavage : histoire des traites africaines, VIe-XXe siècle/ Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch
Paris : Albin Michel, Arte Éditions, 2018.

The Popes, the Catholic Church and the Transatlantic enslavement of black Africans 1418-1839/ Pius Onyemechi Adiele
Hildesheim, [Germany] ; Zürich, [Switzerland] ; New York : Georg Olms Verlag, 2017.

Slavery and abolition in the Atlantic World : new sources and new findings/ Jane Landers (ed.)
London : Routledge, 2017.

African voices on slavery and the slave trade. Volume 2, Essays on sources and methods/ Alice Bellagamba, et al.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2016.

The rise and demise of slavery and the slave trade in the Atlantic world/ Philip Misevich and Kristin Mann (eds.)
Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press, 2016.

The archaeology of slavery : a comparative approach to captivity and coercion/ Lydia Wilson Marshall
Carbondale, IL : Southern Illinois University Press, 2015.

Before middle passage : translated Portuguese manuscripts of Atlantic slave trading from West Africa to Iberian territories 1513-26/ Trevor P. Hall
Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2015.

Networks and trans-cultural exchange : slave trading in the South Atlantic/ David Richardson and Filipa Ribeiro da Silva
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2015.

Special issue: Exploring post-slavery in contemporary Africa/ Baz Lecocq and Eric Hahonou (eds.)
Boston, MA : Boston University, 2015.

Africains et Européens dans le monde atlantique : XVe-XIXe siècle/ Guy Saupin
Rennes : Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2014.

Africans into Creoles slavery, ethnicity, and identity in colonial Costa Rica/ Russell Lohse
Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 2014.

Atlas of slavery/ James Walvin
London : Routledge, 2014.

Biography and the black Atlantic/ John Wood Sweet and Lisa A. Lindsay
Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

The economic consequences of the Atlantic slave trade/ Barbara L. Solow
Lanham, Maryland : Lexington Books, 2014.

Extraversion, creolization, and dependency in the Atlantic slave trade/ Lisa A. Lindsay
In: The journal of African history , vol. 55, no. 2, p. 135-145 (2014)

Naming and framing a crime against humanity : African voices of the transatlantic slave system, ca. 1500-1900/ Kwasi Konadu
In: African voices of the global past : 1500 to the present , Pagina 1-37 (2014)

Reimagining the African-Atlantic archive : method, concept, epistemology, ontology/ James Hoke Sweet
In: The journal of African history , vol. 55, no. 2, p. 147-159 (2014)

Slavery and slaving in African history/ Sean Arnold Stilwell
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2014.

African voices on slavery and the slave trade/ Alice Bellagamba, et al. Cover African voices on slavery and the slave trade
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Crossings : Africa, the Americas and the Atlantic slave trade/ James Walvin
London : Reaktion Books, 2013.

Être esclave : Afrique-Amériques (XVe-XIXe siècle)/ Catherine Coquery, et al.
Paris : La Découverte, 2013.

Exposer les voix d'esclaves : une mémoire confisquée/ Ibrahima Thioub
In: Africultures, Vol.n° 91 (1), p.26-30 (2013)

Missionaries, enslavement and antislavery/ John M. Cinnamon
Leiden : Brill, 2013.

Shaping the New World : African slavery in the Americas/ Eric Nellis
Toronto, Ontario : University of Toronto Press, 2013.

The West African ethnicity of the enslaved/ Simon P. Newman
In: Slavery & abolition : a journal of comparative studies Vol. 34, No. 3, p. 376-400 (2013)

New perspectives on slavery and colonialism in the Caribbean/ Stephen Small and James Walvin (eds.)
Den Haag : Amrit ; [Amsterdam] : Ninsee 2012.

Africa, slavery, and the slave trade, mid-seventeenth to mid-eighteenth centuries/ David Eltis
In: The Oxford handbook of the Atlantic world, c.1450-c.1850 , P. 271-286 (2011)

The Cambridge world history of slavery. Volume 3, AD 1420-AD 1804/ David Eltis and Stanley L. Engerman (eds.)
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Flux et reflux de la traite des nègres entre le Golfe de Bénin et Bahia de Todos os Santos du XVIIe au XIXe siècle/ Pierre Verger
Berlin ; Boston : De Gruyter Mouton, 2011.

Freedom narratives of transatlantic slavery/ Paul E. Lovejoy
In: Slavery & abolition : a journal of comparative studies Vol. 32, No. 1, p. 91-107, (2011)

Paths of the Atlantic slave trade : interactions, identities, and images/ Ana Lucia Araujo
Amherst, N.Y : Cambria Press, 2011.

The Routledge history of slavery/ Gad Heuman and Trevor Burnard
London [etc.] : Routledge, 2011.

The slave trade/ James Walvin
London : Thames & Hudson, 2011.

Slavery in Africa : archaeology and memory / ed. by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. Macdonald.
Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press published for the British Academy, 2011.

Transformations in slavery : a history of slavery in Africa/ Paul E. Lovejoy
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Treatment of African slaves : a critical reflection of an unhealed wound/ Igboin Benson Ohihon
In: Orita : Ibadan journal of religious studies , vol. 43, no. 1, p. 131-151 (2011)

Histoire des traites négrières : Critique afrocentrée d'une négrophobie académique/ Popo Klah Cover Histoire des Traites Negrieres critique Afrocantree
Paris : ANIBWE EDITIONS, 2010.

Les traites et les esclavages : perspectives historiques et contemporaines / Elisabeth Cunin et António de Almeida Mendes sous la direction de Myriam Cottias, et al.
Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2010.

Migration, trade, and slavery in an expanding world essays in honor of Pieter Emmer/ Wim Klooster and P. C. Emmer
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2009.

200 years later ... : commemorating the 200 year anniversary of the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade / [ed. by] Nadja Ofuatey-Rahal.
Berlin : AfricaAvenir [etc.], 2008.

Extending the frontiers essays on the new transatlantic slave trade database/ David Eltis and David Richardson
New Haven : Yale University Press, 2008.

The impact of the Atlantic slave trade upon Africa/ Robin Law
Berlin [etc.] : LIT-Verlag, 2008.

La traite des noirs et ses acteurs africains du 15e au 19e siècle / Tidiane Diakité.
Paris : Berg International, 2008.

African voices of the Atlantic slave trade : beyond the silence and the shame / Anne C. Bailey.
Kingston [etc.] : Randle, 2007.

Informations sur l'esclavage / Guy Thilmans.
Gorée [etc.] : Éditions du Musée historique [etc.], 2007.

Saltwater slavery : a middle passage from Africa to American diaspora/ Stephanie E. Smallwood
Cambridge, MA [etc.] : Harvard University Press, 2007.

The Atlantic slave trade/ Herbert S. Klein
Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Source material for studying the slave trade and the African diaspora : papers from a conference of the Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling, April 1996/ Robin Law
[Stirling] : University of Stirling, Centre of Commonwealth Studies, 1997.

The Atlantic slave trade/ David Northrup
Lexington, Mass. [etc.] : Heath, 1994.

Les Églises chrétiennes et la traite atlantique du XVe au XIXe siècle/ Alphonse Quenum
Paris : Karthala, 1993.

Africa and Africans in the making of the Atlantic world, 1400-1680/ John K. Thornton
Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1992.

The Atlantic slave trade : effects on economies, societies, and peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe/ Joseph E. Inikori and Stanley L. Engerman
Durham, NC [etc.] : Duke University Press, 1992.

L'esclavage des noirs africains dans les colonies françaises et la Révolution française de 1789/ Augustin Awak'Ayom
In: Zai͏̈re-Afrique : économie, culture, vie sociale , année 32, no. 265, p. 287-310 : foto's, krt (1992)

Slavery and the rise of the Atlantic system/ Barbara L. Solow (ed.)
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1991.

De la traite à l'esclavage/ Serge Daget
Paris : Société française d'histoire d'outre-mer ; Nantes : Centre de recherche sur l'histoire du monde Atlantique, Faculté des Lettres, 1988.

The transatlantic slave trade : a history/ James A. Rawley
New York : Norton, 1981.

La traite négrière du XVe au XIXe siècle : documents de travail et compte rendu de la Réunion d'experts organisée par l'Unesco à Port-au-Prince, Hai͏̈ti, 31 janvier-4 février 1978/
Paris : UNESCO 1979.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/1e3kn0k/TN_cdi_bnf_primary_oai_bnf_fr_gallica_ark_12148_bpt6k938479t (Online version)

West Africa

Esclavage et pouvoir colonial en Afrique-Occidentale française/ Martin A. Klein Cover Afro-European trade in the Atlantic world
Paris : Karthala, 2021.

Commercial transitions and abolition in West Africa 1630-1860/ Angus Dalrymple-Smith
Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Brill, 2020.

A fistful of shells : West Africa from the rise of the slave trade to the age of revolution/ Toby Green
London : Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books, 2019.

Slave traders by invitation : West Africa's Slave Coast in the precolonial era/ Finn Fuglestad
New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2019.

West Africa during the Atlantic slave trade : archaeological perspectives/ Christopher R. DeCorse (ed.)
London : Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.

Afro-European trade in the Atlantic world : the Western slave coast, c. 1550- c.1885/ Silke Strickrodt
Woodbridge : James Currey, 2015.

Pawnship, debt, and 'freedom' in Atlantic Africa during the era of the slave trade : a reassessment/ Paul E. Lovejoy
In: The journal of African history , vol. 55, no. 1, p. 55-78 : ill (2014)

The bitter legacy : African slavery past and present/ Alice Bellagamba, et al.
Princeton : Markus Wiener Publishers, 2013.

Commercial Agriculture, the Slave Trade and Slavery in Atlantic Africa/ Robin Law, et al.
Suffolk : Boydell & Brewer, 2013.

Using African names to identify the origins of captives in the transatlantic slave trade : crowd-sourcing and the Registers of Liberated Africans/ Richard Anderson
In: History in Africa : a journal of method , vol. 40, p. 165-191 : ill., tab (2013)

Africans and Luso-Africans in the Portuguese slave trade on the Upper Guinea coast in the early seventeenth century / by Linda A. Newson.
In: The journal of African history (2012), vol. 53, no. 1, p. 1-24 : krt., tab

Metaphor and the slave trade in West African literature / Laura T. Murphy.
Athens, OH : Ohio University Press, 2012.

The rise of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in western Africa, 1300-1589 / Toby Green.
New York : Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Slavery, freedom, and failed ransom negotiations in West Africa/ Jennifer Lofkrantz and Olatunji Ojo
In: The journal of African history , vol. 53, no. 1, p. 25-44 (2012)

L'Afrique centrale atlantique / contrib. de Ahmadou Séhou ... [et al.]
Nantes : Les Anneaux de la Mémoire, 2011.

Public memory of slavery : victims and perpetrators in the South Atlantic/ Ana Lucia Araujo
Amherst, NY : Cambria, 2010.

The trans-Atlantic slave trade database and African economic history / ed. Paul E. Lovejoy and José C. Curto
Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin, 2010.

Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s : symbiosis of slave and legitimate trades / George E. Brooks.
Bloomington, IN : Authorhouse, 2010.

Le refus de l'esclavitude : résistances africaines à la traite négrière/ Alain Anselin
Paris : Duboiris, 2009.

Reconfiguring slavery : West African trajectories/ Benedetta Rossi
Liverpool : Liverpool University Press, 2009.

The Portuguese, the Dutch, and the Sephardim : networks and cross-cultural mediation in the Atlantic slave trade, 1580-1654 / Jessica Roitman.
Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Social outcomes of a trading relationship : ties between Africans and Europeans in the hubs of the slave trade / Natalie Everts.
Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Fighting the slave trade : West African strategies / ed. Sylviane A. Diouf
Athens ; Oxford : Ohio University Press ; Currey, 2004.

West Africa during the Atlantic slave trade : archaeological perspectives/ Christopher R. DeCorse (ed.)
London [etc.] : Leicester University Press, 2001.

Slave trade and western civilisation in Badagry = Le commerce d'esclaves et la civilisation occidentale à Badagry : a brief history of human enslavement in West Africa and the New World/ Ashamu Sewanu Fadipe
Lagos : Media Ace, 2000.

Archaeology of slavery in West Africa/ Yaw Bredwa-Mensah Cover l'Esclavage ses origines et ses repercussions en Afrique
In: Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana , n.s., no. 3, p. 27-45 : krt (1999)

Competing markets for male and female slaves: prices in the interior of West Africa, 1780-1850/ Paul E. Lovejoy and David Richardson
In: The international journal of African historical studies , vol. 28, no. 2, p. 261-293 : tab (1995)

The slave trade in seventeenth-century Allada: a revision/ Robin Law
In: African economic history , no. 22, p. 59-92 : tab (1994)

The trade between western Africa and the Atlantic world, 1600-90: estimates of trends in composition and value/ E. van den Boogaart
In: The journal of African history , vol. 33, no. 3, p. 369-385 : tab (1992)

The slave coast of West Africa 1550-1750 : the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on an African society/ Robin Law
Oxford [etc.] : Clarendon Press [etc.], 1991.

L'esclavage, ses origines, ses répercussions en Afrique : Gorée, historique et vie de la population sous la traite négrière la maison des esclaves avec citations de l'auteur/ Joseph Ndiaye
[S.l. : s.n.], 1983.

The uncommon market: essays in the economic history of the Atlantic slave trade / H.A. Gemery and J.S. Hogendorn (ed.)
New York, N.Y. [etc.]: Academic Press. 1979.

Africa remembered : narratives by West Africans from the era of the slave trade/ Philip Curtin
Madison, Milw. ; London : The University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/1e3kn0k/TN_cdi_alexanderstre... (Online version, Restricted access)


Forts, castles and society in West Africa : Gold Coast and Dahomey/ John Kwadwo Osei-Tutu (ed.)
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2019.

Thoughts on two late 18th century histories of Dahomey relating to the anti-slavery debate/ Arno Sonderegger
In: Stichproben, Jahrgang 18, Nummer 35, Seiten 83-93 (2018)

Le revers de l'oubli : mémoires et commémorations de l'esclavage au Bénin/ Gaetano Ciarcia
Paris : Karthala, 2016.

The pre-colonial state in West Africa : building power in Dahomey/ J. Cameron Monroe
New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Dahomey and the ending of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade : the journals and correspondence of Vice-Consul Louis Fraser, 1851-1852/ Louis Fraser and Robin Law
Oxford : Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press, 2012.

Enjeux politiques de la mémoire de l'esclavage dans l'Atlantique sud : la reconstruction de la biographie de Francisco Félix de Souza / Ana Lúcia Araujo.
In: Lusotopie : enjeux contemporains dans les espaces lusophones (2009), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 107-131

The slave route in Benin =La route de l'esclave au Bénin : proceedings of the Special Round Table, 17th December 2005 / ed. by Toussaint Yaovi Tchitchi
Cotonou : Ablodè and Tundé Publishers, 2007.

Ouidah : the social history of a West African slaving 'port', 1727-1892 / Robin Law. Cover Forts, castles and society in West Africa
Oxford ; Athens, OH : Currey ; Ohio University Press, 2004.

Ports of the slave trade (Bights of Benin and Biafra) : papers from a conference of the Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling, June 1998/ Robin Law and Silke Strickrodt
Stirling : Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling, 1999.

The kingdom of Allada/ Robin Law
Leiden : Research School CNWS, School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies, 1997.

Dahomey and the end of the Atlantic slave trade/ Robin Law
Boston, Mass. : African Studies Center, Boston University, 1992.

Routes des esclaves au Bénin (ex-Dahomey) dans une approche régionale/ Justin Fakambi
Ouidah : [Musée d'Histoire de Ouidah], 1990.

Cabo Verde

Traite négrière entre les îles du Cap-Vert et l'Amérique espagnole : formation et développement d'une route commerciale atlantique au seizième siècle/ Maria Manuel Ferraz Torrão
In: African economic history , no. 39, p. 1-34 : graf., tab (2011)


Elmina, 'the little Europe' : European impact and cultural resilience/ Joseph K. Adjaye
Accra, Ghana : Sub-Saharan Publishers, 2018.

Slavery and its legacy in Ghana and the diaspora/ Rebecca Shumway and Trevor R. Getz (eds.)
London : Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2017.

The wound and the voice : verbal articulations of enslavement among the Bulsa and Kasena of Ghana/ Emmanuel Saboro
In: Nordic journal of African studies , volume 26, number 1, pages 34-61 (2017)

Daughters of the Trade : Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast/ Pernille Ipsen
Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

The 'golden age' in the history of the pre-colonial Gold Coast : the era of gold exports (15th to 17th centuries) re-examined/ Robin Law
In: Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, new series, no. 17, pages 108-135 (2015)

The transatlantic slave trade and social stratification on the Gold Coast/ Klas Rönnbäck
In: Economic history of developing regions , vol. 30, no. 2, p. 157-181 : graf., tab (2015)

Where the Negroes are masters : an African port in the era of the slave trade/ Randy J. Sparks
Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press, 2014.

The impact of European presence on slavery in the sixteenth to eighteenth-century Gold Coast/ Kwabena Adu-Boahen
In: Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana , n.s., no. 14, p. 165-199 (2012)

Studies in West African coastal history before 1800/ Silke Strickrodt and Adam Jones
In: Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana , n.s., no. 14, p. 1-130 : foto's (2012)

The Fante and the transatlantic slave trade / Rebecca Shumway.
Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press, 2011.

West African narratives of slavery : texts from late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ghana / Sandra E. Greene.
Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, 2011.

Routes of remembrance : refashioning the slave trade in Ghana/ Bayo Holsey
Chicago, IL [etc.] : University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Transatlantic slave trade : landmarks, legacies, expectations : proceedings of the International Conference on Historic Slave Route held at Accra, Ghana on 30 August - 2 September, 2004 / ed. Cover The transatlantic slave trade landmarks, legacies, expectationsJames Kwesi Anquandah and assistant ed. Naana Jane Opoku-Agyemang and Michel R. Doortmont.
Accra : Sub Saharan Publishers, 2007.

A double-edged sword : slavery in Ghana / Akosua Perbi.
Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Beyond Elmina : the slave trade in northern Ghana / Joachim Jack Agamba.
In: Ufahamu : journal of the African Activist Association (2005/06), vol. 32, no. 1/2, p. [39]-72

Archaeological research at Kasana : a search for evidence on the historic slave traffic in the Upper West Region of Ghana / J. Boachie-Ansah.
In: Journal of environment and culture (2005), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 35-57 : fig., krt

L'or et les esclaves : histoire des forts du Ghana du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle / Jean-Michel Deveau.
Paris : Karthala ; UNESCO, 2005.

Mechanisms of slave acquisition and exchange in late eighteenth century Anomabu : reconsidering a cross-section of the Atlantic slave trade / Trevor R. Getz.
In: African economic history (2003), no. 31, p. 75-89

An archaeology of Elmina : Africans and Europeans on the Gold Coast, 1400-1900/ Christopher R. DeCorse (ed.)
Washington, DC : Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

The slave trade in northern Ghana/ Benedict G. Der
Accra : Woeli, 1998.


Making money : life, death, and early modern trade on Africa's Guinea Coast/ Colleen E. Kriger
Athens, Ohio : Ohio University Press, 2017.


Planting rice and harvesting slaves : transformations along the Guinea-Bissau coast, 1400-1900 / Walter Hawthorne.
Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann, 2003.


Krumen and the suppression of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade from West-Africa/ Jarvis L. Hargrove
In: Liberian studies journal , vol. 36, no. 2, p. 72-98 : tab (2011)


Calabar on the Cross River : historical and cultural studies/ David Imbua, et al.
Trenton, New Jersey : Africa World Press, 2017.

Elem Kalabari of the Niger Delta : the transition from slave to produce trading under British imperialism/ Waibinte E. Wariboko
Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2014.

Interrogating the memories of slavery and the slave trade among the Ikale-Yoruba, c 1640-1890 : the poverty of European accounts and response to Olatunji Ojo's critique/ Olukoya Ogen
In: Lagos historical review : a journal of the Department of History, University of Lagos , vol. 11, p. 113-148 : tab (2011)

Repercussions of the Atlantic slave trade : the interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African diaspora/ Carolyn A. Brown, et al.
Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2011.

The slave trade and culture in the Bight of Biafra : an African society in the Atlantic world / by G. Ugo Nwokeji
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Slavery and slave trade in Nigeria : from earliest times to the nineteenth century/ J.F. Ade Ajayi and Okon Edet Uya Cover Slavery and slave trade in Nigeria
Ibadan : Safari Books, 2010.

The slave trade and its abolition in the Ikale-Yoruba country, 1650-1890 / Olukoya Ogen.
In: Lagos historical review : a journal of the Department of History, University of Lagos (2009), vol. 9, p. 68-82

The organization of the Atlantic slave trade in Yorubaland, ca. 1777 to ca. 1856 / by Olatunji Ojo.
In: The international journal of African historical studies (2008), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 77-100

The aftermath of slavery : transitions and transformations in southeastern Nigeria / ed. by Chima J. Korieh and Femi J. Kolapo.
Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2007.

Slavery and the birth of an African city : Lagos, 1760-1900 / Kristin Mann.
Bloomington, IND : Indiana University Press, 2007.

'This horrid hole': royal authority, commerce and credit at Bonny, 1690-1840 / by Paul E. Lovejoy and David Richardson.
In: The journal of African history (2004), vol. 45, no. 3, p. 363-392 : tab

African merchants, notables and the slave trade at Old Calabar, 1720 : evidence from the National Archives of Scotland / Eric J. Graham. Stephen D. Behrendt
In: History in Africa : a journal of method (2003), vol. 30, p. 37-61 : tab


Captivité et abolition de l'esclavage dans les colonies françaises ouest-africaines : analyse juridique, historique et anthropologique/ Mamadou Badji and Ibrahima Thioub
Dakar : Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 2015.

Gorée, la porte sans retour : la mortalité des captifs à bord de navires négriers/ Sofiane Boudhiba
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014.

Histoire et mémoire de Gorée dans la traite atlantique : paramnésie de localisation/ Pape Chb. Akandijack Bassène
In: Africa development : a quarterly journal of the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa : revue trimestrielle du Conseil pour le développement de la recherche économique et sociale en Afrique (2014)vol. 39, no. 2, p. 93-103

Saint-Louis et l'esclavage : actes du Symposium international sur La traite négrière à Saint-Louis du Sénégal et dans son arrière-pays : (Saint-Louis, 18, 19 et 20 décembre 1998)/ Djibril Samb
Dakar : IFAN, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, 2000.

Senegambia and the Atlantic slave trade/ Boubacar Barry and Ayi Kwei Armah
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Gorée et l'esclavage : actes du séminaire sur 'Gorée dans la Traite atlantique : mythes et réalités' (Gorée, 7-8 avril 1997)/ Djibril Samb
Dakar : Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, IFAN, 1997.

West African slavery and Atlantic commerce : the Senegal River valley1860/ James F. Searing
Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Sierra Leone

Slavery, abolition and the transition to colonialism in Sierra Leone/ Paul E. Lovejoy and Suzanne Schwarz (eds.)
Trenton, New Jersey : Africa World Press, 2015.

Central Africa

La traite négrière sur la baie de Loango pour la colonie Suriname/ Arsène-Francoeur Nganga Cover La traite negriere sur la baie de Loango
Saint Denis : Edilivre, 2018.

The Atlantic slave trade from West Central Africa/ Daniel B. Domingues da Silva
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Slavery and its transformation in the kingdom of Kongo: 1491-1800 / by Linda M. Heywood.
In: The journal of African history (2009), vol. 50, no. 1, p. 1-22


An African slaving port and the Atlantic world : Benguela and its hinterland/ Mariana P. Candido
Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 2015.

The Atlantic slave trade from Angola : a port-by-port estimate of slaves embarked/ Daniel B. Domingues da Silva
In: The international journal of African historical studies , vol. 46, no. 1, p. 105-122 : graf., krt., tab (2013)

'Negreiros' in the South Atlantic: the community of Brazilian slave traders in late eighteenth century Benguela/ Estevam C. Thompson
In: African economic history , no. 39, p. 73-128 : krt., tab (2011)

Merchants and the business of the slave trade at Benguela, 1750-1850 / Mariana P. Candido.
In: African economic history (2007), no. 35, p. 1-30

Résistances africaines sur la Côte d'Angole au XVIIIe siècle / Alain Anselin.
In: Présence africaine : revue culturelle du monde noir (2006), no. 173, p. 189-205

Ambaca society and the slave trade c. 1760-1845 / by Jan Vansina.
In: The journal of African history (2005), vol. 46, no. 1, p. 1-27 : krt

Way of death : merchant capitalism and the Angolan slave trade 1730-1830/ Joseph C. Miller
Madison, Wisc. : University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.


The Isubu of Bimbia in the trans-Atlantic slave trade1885/ E. S. D. Fomin
In: Annales de la Faculté des Arts, Lettres et Sciences Humaines , numéro 17, pages 209-224 (2015)

Exposing Cameroon's connection to the transatlantic slave trade via its slavery disaspora and Bimbia : research impetus, methodology, and initial findings/ Lisa Marie Aubrey
In: Annales de la Faculté des Arts, Lettres et Sciences Humaines , no. 15, p. 191-221 (2013)

Congo (Brazzaville)

Historiographie de la traite négrière au Congo : faits, sociétés mémoires/ Jean Félix Yekoka and Joseph Zidi (eds.)
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2019.


La traite des esclaves au Gabon du XVIIe au XIXe siècle : essai de quantification pour le XVIIIe siècle/ Nathalie Picard-Tortorici and Michel François
Paris : Centre français sur la population et le développement, 1993.


Transatlantic slave trade - Dutch involvement

The Dutch Republic and the Spanish Slave Trade, 1580-1690/ C.A.P. Antunes and R. Negrón Cover Colonialism and slavery an alternative history of the port city of Rotterdam
In: Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis/The Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History (2022)

Het slavenschip : een verhaal over mensen/ Marcus Rediker, author. and Rob de Ridder, translator.
Amsterdam : Spectrum, Uitgeverij Unieboek | Het Spectrum bv, 2022.

Het slavernijverleden van historische voorlopers van ABN AMRO : een onderzoek naar Hope & Co en R. Mees & Zoonen/ Pepijn Brandon and Gerhard de Kok
IISG, 2022.

Verborgen Noord-Holland: Atlantische slavernij in beeld/ Alex van Stipriaan Luiscius
Provincie Noord-Holland, 2022.

Colonialism and Slavery: an alternative history of the port city of Rotterdam/ Gert Oostindie (ed.)
Leiden University Press (LUP), 2021.

The Dutch Overseas Empire/ P. C. Emmer and Jos J.L. Gommans
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Nederlands slavernijverleden : historische inzichten en het debat nu/ H. J. den Heijer
Zutphen : WalburgPers, 2021.

Slavernij : een geschiedenis/ Dirk J. Tang
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2021.

Slavernij : het verhaal van João, Wally, Oopjen, Paulus, Van Bengalen, Surapati, Sapali, Tula, Dirk, Lohkay/ E. Sint Nicolaas and Valika Smeulders ... [et al.]
Amsterdam : Rijksmuseum ; Amsterdam : Atlas Contact, 2021.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/q6ue0j/UBL_ALMA21382271300002711 (English version)

Slavernij en de stad Utrecht/ Nancy Jouwe, et al.
Zutphen : WalburgPers, 2021.

Tracing slavery : the politics of Atlantic memory in the Netherlands/ Markus Balkenhol
New York ; Oxford : Berghahn Books, 2021.

De slavernij in Oost en West : het Amsterdam-onderzoek/ Pepijn Brandon, et al.
Amsterdam : Spectrum, 2020.

Beyond law and order: encounters at Arguin and the beginnings of the Dutch slave trade, 1633-1634/ M. van Groesen
In: Imagining the Americas in print: books, maps, and encounters in the Atlantic world (2019), pages 144-163

Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse slavenhandel/ P. C. Emmer
[Amsterdam] : Nieuw Amsterdam, 2019.

Walcherse ketens : de trans-Atlantische slavenhandel en de economie van Walcheren, 1755-1780/ G.J. de Kok
Leiden : Leiden University, 2019.

The Dutch moment : war, trade, and settlement in the seventeenth-century Atlantic world/ Wim Klooster
Leiden : Leiden University Press, 2016.

Slavenopstand op de Neptunus : kroniek van een wanhoopsdaad/ Ruud Paesie
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2016.

Tarnished gold : the Netherlands and Ghana, 1593-1872/ Gijs van der Ham, et al.
Amsterdam [etc.] : Rijksmuseum [etc.] 2016.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/q6ue0j/UBL_ALMA21234930330002711 (Dutch version at UBL)

20 questions and answers on Dutch slavery and its legacy/ Stephen Small and Sandew Hira
The Hague : Amrit, 2014.

Het kasteel van Elmina : in het spoor van de Nederlandse slavenhandel in Afrika / Marcel van Engelen.
Amsterdam : De Bezige Bij, 2013.

Nederland & de slavernij/ Gert Oostindie and The Park Studio (Amsterdam).
[Diemen] : Veen Media, 2013.

Grote atlas van de West-Indische Compagnie = Comprehensive atlas of the Dutch West India Company. II: De nieuwe WIC = The new WIC/ Henk den Heijer
Voorburg [etc.] : Asia Maior/Atlas Maior [etc.], 2012.

House of slaves and 'door of no return' : Gold Coast/ Ghana slave forts, castles and dungeons and the Atlantic slave trade/ Edmund Abaka Cover House of slaves and door of no return
Trenton, NJ : Africa World 2012.

Living history : the legacy of slavery in the Netherlands/ Stephen Small
[Amsterdam] : Ninsee ; Den Haag : Amrit, 2012.

Slavernij in perspectief : mondialisering en erfgoed in Suriname, Ghana, Zuid-Afrika en Curaçao/ Valika Terry Smeulders
Rotterdam : Erasmus Universiteit, 2012.

Wat is winst? : de economische impact van de Nederlandse trans-Atlantische slavenhandel/ Matthias Van Rossum and Karwan Fatah-Black
In: Tijdschrift voor sociale en economische geschiedenis (2012), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 3-29,

Acces to the Netherlands of enslaved and free black Africans : exploring legal and social historical practices in the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries/ Dienke Hondius.
In: Slavery & abolition : a journal of comparative studies (2011), vol. 32, no. 3

The Dutch Atlantic : slavery, abolition and emancipation/ Kwame Nimako and Glenn Willemsen
London : PlutoPress, 2011.

Het slavenschip 'Leusden' : slavenschepen en de West Indische Compagnie1738/ Leo Balai
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2011.

Beperkte contacten, hardnekkige beelden : Afrikaanse kinderen en Europese volwassenen tijdens de Atlantische slavenhandel/ Dienke Hondius
In: Kind aan de ketting : opgroeien in slavernij toen en nu , p. 18-33 (2010)

Het begin van de Nederlandse slavenhandel in het Atlantisch gebied/ Wim Klooster
In: Alle streken van het kompas : maritieme geschiedenis in Nederland , p. 249-262 (2010)

The Dutch and the Portuguese in West Africa : empire building and Atlantic system (1580-1674)/ F.I. Ribeiro da Silva
Leiden : Leiden University, 2009.

Public memories of the Atlantic slave trade and slavery in contemporary Europe/ Gert Oostindie
In: European review : interdisciplinary journal of the Academia Europaea (2009), vol. 17, no. 3-4, p. 611-626,

The slave trade and slavery, a round table discussion/ Richard Benjamin
In: European review : interdisciplinary journal of the Academia Europaea , (2009), vol. 17, no. 3-4, p. 569-591

Dutch colonialism, migration and cultural heritage/ Gert Oostindie
Leiden : KITLV, 2008.

Lorrendrayen op Africa : de illegale goederen- en slavenhandel op West-Afrika tijdens het achttiende-eeuwse handelsmonopolie van de West-Indische Compagnie, 1700-1734 / Rudolf Paesie.
Amsterdam : De Bataafsche Leeuw, 2008.

Blijvende herinneringen : een reis door het Nederlandse slavernijverleden in Ghana/ Hans van Rhoon and Jeroen Junte
[Rotterdam : Wereldmuseum], 2007.

Dutch and Portuguese slave trade to Brazil : a comparative approach (1630-1650) / Filipa Ribeiro da Silva.
Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Elmina en de Nederlandse slavenhandel : een zoektocht naar historische waarheid/ Johan Vos
Rotterdam : Erasmus Universiteit, 2004.

De Nederlandse slavenhandel 1500-1850 / P.C. Emmer.
Amsterdam [etc.] : De Arbeiderspers, 2003.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/q6ue0j/UBL_ALMA21230157330002711 (English version at UBL)

Johannes de Mey over slavenhandel en slavernij/ L.J. Joosse
In: Documentatieblad voor de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse zending en overzeese kerken (2003) vol. 10, no. 1, p. 29-51

Johannes de Mey: slavernij en slavenhandel als ethisch probleem/ L.J. Joosse
In: Documentatieblad voor de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse zending en overzeese kerken (2003), vol. 10, no. 2, p. 61-84

Riches from Atlantic Commerce : Dutch Transatlantic Trade and Shipping, 1585-1817/ Victor Enthoven and Johannes Postma (eds.)
Leiden ; Boston : BRILL, 2003.

De geschiedenis van de WIC/ Henk den Heijer
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2002.

Merchants, missionaries & migrants : 300 years of Dutch-Ghanaian relations/ Ineke van Kessel Cover Merchants, missionaries, and migrants
Amsterdam : KIT Publishers ; Accra : Sub-Saharan Publishers, 2002.

Beknopte geschiedenis van de Nederlandse vertegenwoordiging in de Goudkust/Ghana/ K. van IJken
Den Haag ; Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken, 2001.
https://catalogue.leidenuniv.nl/permalink/f/q6ue0j/UBL_ALMA21235112690002711 (English version)

Facing up to the past : perspectives on the commemoration of slavery from Africa, the Americas and Europe/ Gert Oostindie
Kingston : Ian Randle Publishers, 2001.

Slaven en schepen : enkele reis, bestemming onbekend/ Remmelt Daalder, et al.
Leiden : Primavera Pers ; Amsterdam : Stichting Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum, 2001.

De Nederlandse slavenhandel/ Humanistische Omroep (Hilversum)
[Hilversum] : Humanistische Omroep, 2000.

The Dutch in the Atlantic economy, 1580-1880 : trade, slavery and emancipation/ P.C. Emmer
Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate, Variorum, 1998.

The Dutch triangle : the Netherlands and the Atlantic slave trade, 1621-1664 / Willie F. Page.
New York [etc.] : Garland, 1997.

Goud, ivoor en slaven : scheepvaart en handel van de Tweede Westindische Compagnie op Afrika/ Henk den Heijer
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 1997.

Nederlandse slavenhandel (1621-1803)/ Willem Flinkenflögel and A. Doedens
Utrecht [etc.] : Kosmos-Z&K, 1994.

De rederij Radermacher & Steenhart (1730-1741) : Zeeuwsche Guinea-vaart en slavenhandel met Zuidnederlandse participatie/ Jan Parmentier
In: Tijdschrift voor zeegeschiedenis (1992), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 137-151

The Dutch in the Atlantic slave trade, 1600-1815 / Johannes Menne Postma.
Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 1990.

'Menschlievendheid en eigen belang' : de behandeling van de slaven aan boord van de schepen van de Middelburgsche Commercie Compagnie/ M.J. Eijgenraam
In: Archief : vroegere en latere mededeelingen voornamelijk in betrekking tot Zeeland (1990), p. 77-103

Africans and Europeans in West Africa : Elminans and Dutchmen on the Gold Coast during the eighteenth century/ Harvey M. Feinberg
Philadelphia : American Philosophical Society, 1989.

Zout en slaven : de geschiedenis van de Westindische Compagnie/ Ruud Spruit
Houten : De Haan, 1988.

De Nederlandse houding ten aanzien van de slavenhandel en slavernij : het gedrag van de slavenhandelaren van de Commercie Compagnie van Middelburg in de 18e eeuw/ Laurens Priester
Middelburg : Commissie Regionale Geschiedbeoefening Zeeland, 1987.

Nederland en de Goudkust, 1598-1872 : een 'vergeten' hoofdstuk?/ J. van Brakel and Theo Görtz
Oosterbeek : Sociëteit voor Afrikaanse Missiën 'De Tafelberg', 1985.

Dutch authors on West Indian history : a historiographical selection/ Yperen Roelofsz, et al.
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

Les Hollandais sur la côte de Guinée à l'époque de l'essor de l'Ashanti et du Dahomey, 1680-1740/ Albert van Dantzig
Paris : Societé française d'histoire d'outre-mer, 1980.

De Nederlandse afschaffing van de slavernij in vergelijkend perspectief/ M. Kuitenbrouwer
[S.l. : s.n.], 1978.

Engeland, Nederland, Afrika en de slavenhandel in de negentiende eeuw/ Pieter Cornelis Emmer
Leiden : Brill, 1974.

The dimension of the Dutch slave trade from Western Africa / J. Postma.
In: The journal of African history (1972), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 237-248

Dutch trade on the Nigerian coast during the seventeenth century/ A.F.C. Ryder
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria , vol. 3, no. 2, p. 195-210 (1964/67)

Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse slavenhandel/ W.S. Unger
's-Gravenhage : Nijhoff, 1956.

Slavernij-slavenhandel-emancipatie/ W.R. Menkman
In: De West-Indische gids, vol. 34 (1953), p. 103-112

Slavenhalers en slavenhandel/ L.C. Vrijman
Amsterdam : Van Kampen en zoon, 1937.


Transatlantic slave trade - Biography and historical sources

Concepts and historiographic debate from the autobiography of Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)/ Artur José Renda Vitorino and Gisele Maria Beloto Cover Equiano's travels
In: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Africanos, volume 6 (2021), no. 12, p. 87-105

A German barber-surgeon in the Atlantic slave trade : the seventeenth-century journal of Johann Peter Oettinger/ Johann Peter Oettinger, et al.
Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press, 2020.

Kunta Kinteh, the slave trade and European presence in the Gambia, 1456-1816/ Hassoum Ceesay
Banjul, Gambia : Gambia National Museum, 2019.

The story of Rufino : slavery, freedom, and Islam in the Black Atlantic/ João José Reis, et al.
New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2019.

The voyage of the slave ship Hare : a journey into captivity from Sierra Leone to South Carolina/ Sean M. Kelley
Chapel Hill : The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

A voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies in His Majesty's ships, the Swallow and Weymouth : describing the several islands and settlements, viz : Madeira, the Canaries, Cape de Verde, Sierra Leone, Sesthos, Cape Apollonia, Cabo Corfo, and others on the Guinea Coast; Barbadoes, Jamaica, andc. in the West Indies : the colour, diet, languages, habits, manners, customs, and religions of the respective natives, and inhabitants : with remarks on the gold, ivory, and slave trade : and on the winds, tides and currents of the several coasts/ John Atkins
London : Routledge, 2013.

Abina and the important men : a graphic history/ Trevor R. Getz and Liz Clarke
New York [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2012.

The African American odyssey of John Kizell : a South Carolina slave returns to fight the slave trade in his African homeland/ Kevin Lowther
Columbia, SC : University of South Carolina Press, 2011.

Crossing memories: slavery and African diaspora / Ana Lucia Araujo, et al.
Trenton, N.J : Africa World 2011.

The life and letters of Philip Quaque : the first African Anglican missionary / ed. by Vincent Carretta and Ty M. Reese.
Athens [etc.] : University of Georgia Press, 2010.

Sold as a slave/ Olaudah Equiano
London : Penguin Books, 2007.

The king's stranger : a biography of John Duncan, Scotland's forgotten explorer/ Derek O'Connor
[S.l.] : The Long Riders' Guild Press, 2006.

Hawkins in Guinea : 1567-1568/ P.E.H. Hair
Leipzig : Institut für Afrikanistik, 2000.

Memoirs of Giambattista Scala : Consul of his Italian Majesty in Lagos in Guinea (1862)/ Giambattista Scala and Robert Smith
Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2000.

Letters on West Africa and the slave trade : Paul Erdmann Isert's Journey to Guinea and the Caribbean Islands in Columbia (1788)/ Paul Erdmann Isert and Selena Axelrod Winsnes
Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 1992.

Le Golfe de Guinée 1700-1750 : récit de L.F. Römer, marchand d'esclaves sur la côte ouest-africaine/ Ludewig Ferdinand Römer, et al.
Paris : Éditions L'Harmattan, 1989.

Surprizing narrative : Olaudah Equiano and the beginnings of black autobiography/ Angelo Costanzo
New York [etc.] : Greenwood Press, 1987.

Slave testimony : two centuries of letters, speeches, interviews, and autobiographies/ John W. Blassingame
Baton Rouge, La. : Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Adventures of an African slaver : an account of the life of captain Theodore Canot, trader in gold, ivory and slaves on the coast of Guinea/ Theodore Canot, et al.
New York : Dover, 1969.

The fortunate slave : an illustration of African slavery in the early eighteenth century/ Douglas Grant
London ; New York [etc.] : Oxford U.P ;  [S.l.], 1968.

Equiano's travels : his autobiography : the interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African/ Olaudah Equiano and Paul Edwards
London [etc.] : Heinemann Educational Books, 1967.

A narrative of the life and adventures of Venture, a native of Africa but resident above sixty years in the United States of America. Related by himself/ Venture Smith and Charles Holt
New-London [Conn.] : Printed by C. Holt, at the Bee-office, 1798.

Essays: I. On the populousness of Africa - II. On the trade at the forts on the Gold Coast - III. On the necessity of erecting a fort at Cape Appolonia ill. with a new map of Africa, from Cape Blanco to the Kingdom of Angola/ John. Hippisley
London : T. Lownds, 1764.


Transatlantic slave trade - Biography and historical sources - The Netherlands

De grootste slavenhandelaren van Amsterdam : over Jochem Matthijs en Coenraad Smitt/ Ramona Negrón and Jessica den Oudsten
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2022.

Slavery at the Court of the ‘Humanist Prince’: Reexamining Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen and his Role in Slavery, Slave Trade and Slave-smuggling in Dutch Brazil/ C. Cover Jacobus Eliza Johannes CapiteinMonteiro and E.L.L. Odegard
In: Journal of Early American History (2020)

Cupido en Sideron : twee Moren aan het hof van Oranje/ Esther Schreuder
Amsterdam : Uitgeverij Balans, 2017.

Jacobus Capitein: Dutch Calvinist and Black cosmopolitan/ Christine Levecq
In: Research in African literatures : official journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the Modern Language Association (2013), vol. 44, no. 4, p. 145-166

Visioen van vrijheid : Mémoire sur la liberté des cultes (1827), Proeve eener verhandeling over den slaavenhandel (1790)/ Jan Konijnenburg, et al.
Hilversum : Verloren, 2013.

The agony of Asar : a thesis on slavery by the former slave, Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein, 1717-1747 / transl. [from the Latin] with commentary by Grant Parker.
Princeton, NJ : Markus Wiener, 2001.

Saga of a slave : Jacobus Capitein of Holland and Elmina / David Nii Anum Kpobi.
[S.l. : s.n], 2001.

Naar de koning van Dahomey : het journaal van de gezantschapsreis van Jacobus Elet naar het West-Afrikaanse koninkrijk Dahomey in 1733/ Jacobus Elet and Henk den Heijer
Zutphen : Walburg Pers, 2000.

s Heeren slaaf : het dramatische leven van Jacobus Capitein / Henri van der Zee.
Amsterdam : Balans, 2000.

Mission in chains : the life, theology and ministry of the ex-slave Jacobus E. J. Capitein (1717-1747), with a translation of his major publications/ David Nii Anum Kpobi
Zoetermeer : Boekencentrum, 1993.

Jacobus Eliza Johannes Capitein 1717-1747 : a critical study of an eighteenth century African/ Kwesi Kwaa Prah
Braamfontein : Skotaville Publishers, 1989.

Bescheiden over den slavenhandel der West-Indische compagnie/ S. van Brakel
's-Gravenhage : Nijhoff, 1918.

De negerpredikant Jacobus Elisa Joannes Capitein/ A. Eekhof and Jacobus Capitein
's-Gravenhage : Nijhoff, 1917.

Herinneringen mijner reizen naar onderscheidene werelddeelen/ G. van Lennep Coster
Amsterdam : J.F. Schleijer, 1836.

Eerste-[tweede] rapport der Staatscommissie, benoemd bij Koninklijk besluit van 29 November 1853, no. 66 tot het voorstellen van maatregelen ten aanzien van de slaven in de Nederlandsche kolonien. Tweede rapport: De Nederlandsche West-Indische eilanden en bezittingen ter kuste van Guinea. Met een-en-twintig bijlagen./ J.C. Baud
's Gravenhage : Van Cleef 1856.

Opmerkingen omtrent den Afrikaanschen slavenhandel en de emancipatie in de Britsche koloniën, met aanbeveling van middelen om Afrika te beschaven, den bloei der West-Indiën te herstellen, en de slaven in de kolonie Suriname te emanciperen/ George Severijn Veer
's Gravenhage : Gebroeders Belinfante, 1848.

De zaak der negerslaaven, en der inwooneren van Guinéa ... : of, historie van den handel, en de slavernij der negers; bewijzen van derzelver onwettigheid .../ Benjamin Sigismond Frossard
's Graavenhaage, : bij Isaac van Cleef; Cleef, Isaak van., 1790.

Nauwkeurige beschryving van de Guinese Goud-Tand- en Slavekust, nevens alle desselfs landen, koningryken, en gemenebesten: van de zeeden der inwoonders, hun godsdienst, regeering, regtspleeging, oorlogen, trouwen, begraven, enz. Mitsgaders de gesteldheid des lands, veld- en boomgewassen, alderhande dieren, zo wilde als tamme, viervoetige en kruipende, als ook 't pluim-gedierte, vissen en andere zeldzaamheden meer, tot nog toe de Europeërs onbekend/ Willem Bosman
t'Amsterdam : By Isaak Stokmans// Stokmans, Isaac., 1709.


Transatlantic slave trade - Reference works


Guide des sources de la traite négrière, de l'esclavage et de leurs abolitions / établi sous la dir. de Claire Sibille avec le concours des services d'archives publics.
Paris : La Documentation française, 2007.

Literature list on slave trade (available in ASC library)/
Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2006.

Slavery : a worldwide bibliography, 1900-1982/ Joseph C. Miller
White Plains, N.Y. : Kraus International, 1985.

An index to the slavery and slave trade enquiry : the British Parliamentary House of Commons Sessional Papers/ Paul E. Lovejoy and Vanessa S. Oliveira
In: History in Africa : a journal of method , vol. 40, p. 193-255 (2013)

The Netherlands

Sources for the mutual history of Ghana and the Netherlands : an annotated guide to the Dutch archives relating to Ghana and West Africa in the Nationaal Archief, 1593-1960s/ M.R. Doortmont and J. Smit
Leiden [etc.] : Brill 2007.

Inventaris van de archieven van de firma's Coopstad & Rochussen (1734-1777), (WED.) Ferrand Whaley & Zoon (1719-1746), Ferrand Whaley Hudig, Ferrand Whaley & Jan Hudig (1759-1856) en stukken betreffende de firma's Hudig & Blokhuijzen (1796-1853), John Hudig (& Sons) (1818-1918), D. Hudig & Co. (1837-1925)/ K.M. Pompe and F.A.M. Schoone
Rotterdam : Gemeentelijke Archiefdienst, 1992.

The history of the Dutch slave trade : a bibliographical survey/ Pieter C. Emmer
[New York, N.Y.] : New York University , Graduate School of Business Administration, 1972.


Transatlantic slave trade - Literature (fiction)

The prince and the slave/ Kofi Akpabli Cover Ama
Madina, Accra, Ghana : Sedesel Publications, 2019.

Ama : a story of the Atlantic slave trade/ Manu Herbstein
[Place of publication not identified] : Manu Herbstein, 2016.

The history of a slave/ Harry Johnston
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2011.

When the moon caught fire/ Michael Afenfia
Ikeja : HoofbeatDotCom, 2010.

The adventures of Osopo / Safohen Kojo Blankson.
Accra-North : Sam-Woode, 2009.

The invitation / Kwakuvi Azasu.
Accra : Ghana University Press, 2006.

The slave raiders/ Kwakuvi Azasu
Accra : Yamens Press, 2002.


Transatlantic slave trade - Films


Slavery routes = Les routes de l'esclavage/ Directed by Daniel Cattier, Juan Gélas and Fanny Glissant DVD Cover Les routes de l'esclavage
Paris : Cie des Phares et Balises, 2018.

Mémoire promise = Promised memory/ Directed by Jean-Christophe Monferran and Gaetano Ciarcia
Meudon : CNRS Images, 2014.

Slave routes: a global vision/ Directed by Sheila Walker and Georges Collinet
New York : UNESCO, 2010.

Equiano in Africa/ Directed by Jason Young
[London] : Clapham South Productions, 2008.

The Amazing Grace / written and dir. by Jeta Amata, starr.: Nick Morgan ... [et al.]
[S.l. : s.n.],, 2006.

The Netherlands

Katibo Ye ye : getekend door het verleden/ Frank Zichem
Hilversum : RVU, 2003.

Slavernij/ Frank Zichem and Wim A. van der Spek
Hilversum : Teleac/NOT, 2003.


Transatlantic slave trade - Web resources

Enslaved: Peoples of the Historical Slave Trade
Enslaved: Peoples of the Historical Slave Trade is a portal offering access to information on the slave trade from a large number of datasets and digital projects.

Enslaved spaces
The Enslaved Spaces project, hosted by The African Diaspora Institute of Cultural Exchange and Historical Research (CEHR), aims to illustrate locations connected to the movement, containment, punishment, and trade in human capital within the Black Atlantic from 1440 until 1880. Their map illustrates the history and geography of the slave trade in West and Central Africa between 1440 and 1860. It is based on secondary and primary sources, and both written and oral accounts.

Recovered Histories
Recovered Histories contains the narratives of enslaved, enslavers, and others involved in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. The website is based on the digitisation of Anti-Slavery International’s collection of 18th and 19th century literature on the Transatlantic Slave Trade, holding over 40,000 pages.

UN Outreach Programme on the Transatlantic Slave Trade and Slavery
The UN Outreach Programme on the Transatlantic Slave Trade and Slavery raises awareness of the history of the transatlantic slave trade, its impact on the modern world, and its legacies, including racism and prejudice.

SA History online classroom
The SA History Online website’s classroom feature includes the history curriculum lessons for grade 4 to 12, plus past exam questions and answers. The history topics are linked to articles on the main website. The lesson on the transatlantic slave trade includes multimedia and links on this topic.

Slave Voyages
The Slave Voyages website makes records from the Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American slave trade databases publicly accessible. It contains information about more than 36,000 voyages that transported enslaved Africans across the Atlantic between 1514 and 1866. The website features infographics and options for data visualisation. The contents of the website are freely available for private study, scholarship and research, and educational purposes.

Slavery and Remembrance
Slavery and Remembrance aims to show the multiple perspectives on the topic of slavery by bringing together information on museums and memorial sites across the globe. The website was created in partnership between The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and UNESCO’s Slave Route Project in creating Slavery and Remembrance.

Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora
This website is a digital archive for historical images, paintings, lithographs, and photographs illustrating enslaved Africans and their descendants before c. 1900. The website contains over 1200 images, which can be browsed by location on an map, or by different categories.

The Transatlantic Slave Trade Report
This report by the Equal Justice Initiative examines the economic legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the United States. The report is available online and can be downloaded in PDF format.

UNESCO Routes of Enslaved Peoples: Resistance, Liberty and Heritage
Since its launch in 1994, the UNESCO "Routes of Enslaved Peoples: Resistance, Liberty and Heritage" Project has contributed to the production of knowledge, the development of scientific networks and the support of memory initiatives on the theme of slavery, its abolition and the resistance it generated. The website holds publications, educational materials, and multimedia.

African History through the lens of Economics
The Wheeler Institute for Business and Development / London Business School course “African History through the lens of Economics”, offers a lecture series including a session on the slave trade, with lectures by Nathan Nunn and Patrick Manning. The course materials and lecture recordings can be viewed online.

Zamani project
An online database recording dimensions, shapes and GIS-positions of monuments, architectural structures and rock shelters in Africa. It includes panorama views, 3D-models and images of the sites. Included are many heritage sites related to the Transatlantic slave trade, including Elmina Castle in Ghana.

Transatlantic slave trade - Web resources - The Netherlands

Dutch National Archive - Slavery
Through this page the Dutch National Archive offers access to archives on Dutch involvement in the slave trade. It also contains an overview of collections on slavery held by other institutes.

The National Institute for the Dutch Slavery Past and Legacy (NiNsee) is committed to keeping the Dutch slavery past alive through commemoration and education. The NiNsee annually organizes the National Commemoration of Slavery History, the Keti Koti Celebration, and the Tula commemoration. The NiNsee also supports local commemoration committees. In 2023 and 2024, NiNsee organises a number of activities in the context of the 2023-2024 Memorial Year.

Tropenmuseum: Our colonial heritage
The exhibition 'Our Colonial Inheritance', focuses on Dutch colonial history and presence in overseas territories. Dutch involvement in the slave trade is also addressed in the exhibition.

UB Leiden - Themaprogramma Caribische collecties
Het themaprogramma Caribische collecties, in het kader van 150/160 jaar afschaffing van de Slavernij in de Nederlandse koloniën, omvat tentoonstellingen, wandelingen, blogs, podcasts, leeslijsten, boekensalons en talkshows, over de geschiedenis van de slavernij in de Cariben. Zie de Online Boekensalon Slavernij in de Oost en West, en podcasts over De Nederlandse slavenhandel tussen Angola en Brazilië en Slavernij en opstand in de kolonie Suriname

De Volkskrant: Ons koloniale verleden in vijftig voorwerpen
De Volkskrant nodigde elf experts uit om een lijst samen te stellen van vijftig voorwerpen die een verrassende blik werpen op onze koloniale geschiedenis. De vijftig verhalen die hier uit voort kwamen zijn geschreven door verschillende auteurs, van jonge historici tot bekende schrijvers. De verhalenreeks bevat een hoofdstuk over de koloniale slavernij.