Children’s rights in Africa

book cover "The impact of war on children"To mark the conferring of an honorary doctorate on human rights and child rights activist Graça Machel on 8 February 2021, the ASCL Library has compiled this web dossier on children’s rights in Africa. The dossier includes titles from the ASCL Library collection, extended with sources available through the broader Leiden University Library collection. Titles link to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, and include subject headings, abstracts, and links to full text, where available. The dossier is introduced by Ton Liefaard, professor of Children's Rights at Leiden University. It concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites.

On the occasion of Graça Machel’s 2023 visit to Leiden University and the ASCL, this dossier has been updated. To receive updates on scientific publications on children's rights in Africa, subscribe to the ASCL Library alert service and indicate "children's rights" under free search terms.

Introduction | Selected titles | Selected web resources


During her rich career, Mrs. Graça Machel’s has made a significant and undeniable contribution to the promotion of the rights of children and women in Africa and beyond. Among others, she has, in her capacity as independent expert for the United Nations, paved the way for the protection of children in the context of armed conflict. The groundbreaking 1996 ‘Machel Report’ on the impact of armed conflict on children has reformed the international agenda and stimulated concrete action at the regional and domestic level. In addition, she has served as a leading advocate for the protection of girls and young women against inequality and discrimination, harmful traditional practices, including forced marriage, and the lack of access to basic services, including equal access to quality education. In doing so, she has highlighted the importance of empowering girls and young women for the development of communities, countries and the African continent as a whole.

With the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989 and the adoption of its regional equivalent, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child in 1990, children’s human rights and fundamental freedoms are no longer debatable. This has generated attention for the protection of children’s interests and rights across the globe and in Africa in particular. All countries in Africa and in total 196 countries in the world have committed themselves to the protection of the rights of all children. The success of the implementation of international legal instruments such as the children’s rights conventions, however, is very much dependent on the work done by professionals at the grass roots level. The role of Mrs Graça Machel, as a renowned advocate for human and children’s rights, has proven to be of fundamental importance for securing change with tangible and sustainable outcomes for children across generations.

This dossier not only provides insight in the important work of Mrs. Graça Machel herself, but also shows the breadth and richness of academic scholarship around the rights of children in Africa, which provides an important foundation of the studies and work of students, academics and professionals across the world.

Ton Liefaard

Selected titles

Publications by Graça Machel | Children and Law, Children’s Rights | Children and War, Child Soldiers | Children and Work, Child Labour, Street Children

Publications by Graça Machelbook cover Graca's dream

Good early development—the right of every child / Graça Machel.
In: Lancet, vol. 389, no. 10064, p. 13-14, 2016.

Back from the brink : The 2008 mediation process and reforms in Kenya / Graca Machel. - Geneva : African Union Commission, 2014.

The world we want: an end to child marriage / Graça Machel, Emilia Pires, Gunilla Carlsson.
In: Lancet, vol. 382, no. 9897, p. 1005-1006, 2013.

The impact of war on children : a review of progress since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children / Graça Machel ; photogr. by Sebastião Salgado ; contrib. ed.: Jennifer F. Klot and Theo Sowa. - Hurst : London, 2001.

The impact of conflicts on children and youth in Southern Africa : with particular reference to Angola, Mozambique and South Africa / Graca Machel. - [S.l.] : University of Swaziland, 1997.

Impact of armed conflict on children : selected highlights / report of Graça Machel. - United Nations Department of Public Information ; United Nations Children's New York : Fund, 1996.

Impact of armed conflict on children : note / by the Secretary-General. - [New York] : UN, 26 Aug. 1996.
Transmits report of the expert of the Secretary-General, Graça Machel.

Children and Law, Children's Rights

Children displaced in a changing climate : preparing for a future already underway / Verena Knaus, Danzhen You (eds.). - [Place of production not identified] : UNICEF, 2023.

Dust and rain : Chipo and Chibwe save the green valley / Ruth Hartley. - Lusaka : Gadsden Publishers, 2022.

Bodies of knowledge : children and childhoods in health and affliction / edited by Efua Prah and Susan Levine. - Stellenbosch, South Africa : SunMedia, 2021.

Law, religion and family in Africa / edited by M. Christian Green and Faith Kabata . - Stellenbosch, South Africa : Africa Sun Media the Sun Press imprint, 2021.

The African Children's Charter @ 30: A distinction without a difference? / Benyam Dawit Mezmur
In: The International journal of children's rights, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 693-714, 2020.

The African report on child wellbeing 2020 : how friendly are African governments towards girls?/ African Child Policy Forum . - Addis Ababa : African Child Policy Forum ACPF, 2020.

Birth Certificates, Birth Registration and the Denial of Human Rights: Evidence from Tanzania National Panel Data 2010/11 / Amana Talala Mbise
In: The International journal of children's rights, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 243-257, 2020.

Childhood vulnerabilities in South Africa : some ethical perspectives / edited by Jan Grobbelaar & Chris Jones. - Stellenbosch : African Sun Media under the Sun Press imprint, 2020.

Governing governments or governments governing? UNICEF's twofold approach to strengthen the level of protection by Ethiopian government to protect children's rights during refugee crises / Judith Hendrikse. - Leiden : Leiden University, 2020.

Media and its role in protecting the rights of children in Africa / Olusola Oyero. - Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference an imprint of IGI Global, 2020.

 book cover "Media and its role in protecting the rights of children in Africa"

Monitoring tool for assessing compliance with concluding observations and recommendations issued to the government of Kenya under CEDAW, CRC, and CRPDA : Color Scheme Score Card / National Gender and Equality Commission . - Nairobi : National Gender and Equality Commission, 2020.

Plataforma 3R : na imprensa. - [Maputo, Moçambique] : [publisher not identified], 2020.

The role of National Human Rights Institutions in enhancing the impact of children’s rights reporting in Africa / J.J. Sloth-Nielsen.
In: State party reporting and the realisation of children’s rights in Africa / Edited by Remember Miamingi. - Pretoria : Pretoria University Law Press (PULP), 2020.

State party reporting and the realisation of children’s rights in Africa / edited by Remember Miamingi. - Pretoria : Pretoria University Law Press (PULP), 2020.

Examining the Role of Informal Justice Systems in Child Rights Protection in Kenya: A Case Study of the Kipsigis / David Otieno Ngira. - Utrecht : Utrecht University, 2019.

Children’s rights jurisprudence in South Africa – a 20 year retrospective / J.J. Sloth-Nielsen.
In: De Jure, vol.52 (spe), p. 501-520, 2019.

Imagining children constitutionally-strategic litigation and advocacy for children's rights in South Africa / Sarisa van Niekerk.
In: De Jure, vol.52 (spe), 2019.

Legal implementation of the UNCRC: lessons to be learned from the constitutional experience of South Africa / Ursula Kilkelly, Ton Liefaard.
In: De Jure, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 521-539, 2019.

Les normes juridiques internationales relatives à laprotection des droits de la femme et de l’enfant en Afrique : le cas du Sénégal / Remy Bernard Ngombe. - Le Havre : Université Le Havre Normandie, 2019.

Observações finais sobre o terceiro e quarto relatórios combinados de Moçambique do Comité das Nações Unidas para os direitos da criança / Plataforma 3R. - [place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified], 2019.

Off the rights spectrum : the treatment of child offenders deprived of liberty in Nigeria / Chisom Oke-Chinda. - Leiden : Leiden University, 2019.

Radio waves, children’s rights and community communication: A radio for children’s rights project in Africa / Vicensia Shule, Hugo Boothby, Samah Ahmed, Anders Høg Hansen.
In: Journal of African media studies, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 3-19, 2019.

South Africa case study : Producing change in law and practice on children's wellbeing / Rene Loewenson, Marie Masotya, Norma Rudolph. - [Harare] : TARSC, October 2019.

The state's obligation to realise the socioeconomic rights of vulnerable groups: a case study of children on the Cape Flats / Brilaine Lisa Manasse. - Cape Town : University of the Western Cape, 2019.

The Africanisation of Children's Rights in South Africa: Quo Vadis? / Rushiella Songca.
In: International journal of African renaissance studies, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 77-95, 2018.

An analysis of the situation of children in the juvenile justice system in Tanzania / report written by Jones John. - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA), 2018.

Child Justice in South Africa: Application of International Instruments in the Constitutional Court / Ann Skelton.
In: The International journal of children's rights, vol. 26 no. 3, p. 391-422, 2018.

Child Poverty and Deprivation in Refugee-Hosting Areas : Evidence from Uganda / Unicef Uganda. - Kampala : Unicef Uganda, 2018.

Children's rights and the environment / Thokozani Kaime.
In: International human rights of children - Singapore : Springer Nature Singapore, p. 563-586. - 2018.

The child safeguarding policy / TAWLA. - [Dar es Salaam, Tanzania] : Tanzania Women Lawyer Association (TAWLA), 2018.

Combating child trafficking : a manual for teachers / written by Sophie Otiende, Shukri Dass, Pauliina Sillfors. - Nairobi, Kenya : Awareness Against Human Trafficking (HAART), 2018.

Combattre le travail des enfants? : politiques et acteurs d'une lutte controversée au Burkina Faso / Joséphine Wouango ; préface de Bernard Schlemmer. - Paris : L'Harmattan, cover :Combattre le travail des enfants? : politiques et acteurs d'une lutte controversée au Burkina Faso"

Community views on child marriage in Kassala : Prospects for change / Samia El Nagar, Manal Mahjoub, Adil Idris, Liv Tønnessen. - Bergen : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2018. (Free access)

Comparative analysis of state and civil society discourse on the implementation of the United Nations convention on the rights of the child in North Africa / Paul Chaney.
In: The journal of North African studies, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 6-34 : tab, 2017.

Cultural Practices and Children's Rights: The Case of Male Initiation in South Africa / Neo Morei.
In: The Journal of Pan African studies, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 1-17, 2017.

Excision, mariages d'enfants, droits sexuels et reproductifs : socioanalyse d'une dialectique des normes / Cheikh Moussa Camara. - Dakar : L'Harmattan Sénégal, 2017.

Girls, child marriage, and education in Red Sea State, Sudan : Perspectives on girls' freedom to choose / Samia El Nagar, Sharifa Bamkar, Liv Tønnessen. - Bergen : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2017. (Free access)

Idéologie des droits de l’enfant et réalité en Afrique subsaharienne, quels paradigmes mobilisateurs? / Étienne Kola.
In: Éthique en éducation et en formation, no. 3, p. 69-83, 2017.

La protection de l'enfant à Madagascar : accompagner la lutte contre la maltraitance / Olga Noelivao Phan Van Hien ; préf. d'Hélène Bezille. - Paris : Karthala, 2017.

AGENDA 2040, Africa's Agenda for children: fostering an Africa fit for children. - African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC), 2016.

The awareness of primary caregivers in South Africa of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities: Primary caregivers' awareness of children's rights / K. Huus, S. Dada, J. Bornman, F. Lygnegård.
In: Child : care, health & development, vol. 42, no. 6, p. 863-870, 2016.

British colonialism and women's welfare in the Gold Coast colony / Ebenezer Ayesu, Francis Gbormittah and Kwame Adum-Kyeremeh.
In: Africa today, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 3-30, 2016.

The child’s right to be heard in South Africa and the United States of America : analysis of the Hague Abduction Convention / Juliette Duchesne. - Leiden: Leiden University, 2016.

Children's rights and girl child marriages: a case study for Malawi / Theodora Talumba Mkali. - Cape Town : University of the Western Cape, 2016.

Children's Rights in Africa: A Legal Perspective / Julia Sloth-Nielsen. - Abingdon : Routledge, 2016.

Code de l'enfant : Loi no. 2015-08 du 08 Décembre 2015, portant Code de l'enfant en République du Benin. - [Cotonou] : [Assemblée nationale], 2016.

Implementing Child Rights in Tanzania : What is working well, what is not? Backgroundpaper to the African Report on Child Wellbeing 2016 / Richard Mabala. - Addis Ababa : The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF), 2016.

Implementing the convention on the rights of the child in Lusophone Africa : a socio-legal perspective / Aquinaldo Celio Mandlate. - The Hague : Eleven International Publishing, 2016.

Judicial application of the 'best interest of the child' principle in Ethiopia : policy, law and praxis / Kokebe Wolde (edr.). - Addis Ababa : Center for Human Rights Addis Ababa University, 2016.

Literacy through a foreign language and children's rights to education : an examination of Kenya's medium of instruction policy / Kembo-Sure and Nathan O. Ogechi.
In: Nordic journal of African studies, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 92-106, 2016.

The rights of children in Ethiopia : empirical investigations from multidisciplinary perspectives / edited by Alula Pankhurst, Yeraswork Admassie, Yitayew Alemayehu. - Addis Ababa : Center for Human Rights Addis Ababa University, 2016.

Training manual on gender based violence : violence against women and children laws and procedures for training magistrates, judges and law enforcers. - Dar es Salaam : UN Women, 2016.

Whose foot is in the tight shoe? Negotiating inclusive pathways for the eradication of child marriage in West Africa / Elizabeth Kitson.
In: The International journal of children's rights, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 718, 2016.

2015 situation analysis of children in Uganda. - Kampala : Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development ; UNICEF, 2015.

Advancing children's rights through budgets in Uganda : the case of Nakasongola, Amuru and Napak districts / Uganda Debt Network. - Kampala : Ugandan Debt Network, 2015.

Argumentaire islamique pour la promotion des droits de la femme et de l'enfant au Niger / Cheick Mahaman Bachir Elh Oumarou et Elh Malam Moustapha Ahmed. - [Niger] : [publisher not identified], 2011. (free access)

Basic principles of human rights and selected cases / James Jesse. - Dar es Salaam : Theophilus Enterprises, 2015.

Children's experiences of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in an urban township of South Africa / Alison Breen, Karen Daniels, Mark Tomlinson.
In: Child abuse & neglect, vol.48, p.131-139, 2015.

Co-incidence or collusion : an analysis of the relationship between the proposal in ban the use of contraceptives and lowering the age of consent in Zimbabwe / Barbra C. Manyarara.
In: Zimbabwe journal of educational research, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 371-393, 2015.

Comprehensive analysis of national budget prioritisation and allocations for child centred areas for the 2016 budget. - Lusaka, Zambia : Civil Society for Poverty Reduction, 2015.

Female adolescents' evolving capacities in relation to their right to access contraceptive information and services : a comparative study of South Africa and Nigeria / Oluremi A. Savage-Oyekunle and Annelize Nienaber.
In: The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa, vol. 48, no. 1, p. 98-123, 2015.

Journal of the Tanzania Women Judges Association (TAWJA) / Tanzania Women Judges Association. - [Dar es Salaam] : Tanzania Women Judges Association, 2015.

La traite des enfants en Afrique : l'application des conventions internationales relatives aux droits de l'enfant en République du Bénin / Sakinatou Bello. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

The law and child rights in Nigeria / Abdulmumini Bala Ahmed. - Lagos : Malthouse Press Limited, 2015.

Women and girls caught between rape and adultery in Sudan : Criminal Law reform, 2005-2015 / Liv Tønnessen and Samia al-Nagar. - Bergen : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2015. (Free access)

Children in detention manual : discussing the rights of children in detention and those in child labour. - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA), 2012.

Dhibtu waalidka maahee dhaqankaa naga eexday / [w.q.: Maymuuna Aw Daahir Cabdi]. - [Somalia] : [publisher not identified], [2009?].

Kimmie / directed by Hazel Chandler. - New South Wales : Wilderness Productions, 2007.


Children and War, Child Soldiers

Le spectre de Boko Haram / a film by Cyrielle Raingou. - Montreuil : Label vidéo [etc.], 2023.

L'exploitation et les abus sexuels des casques bleus en Centrafrique et en RD-Congo : cadre juridique général de protection des enfants / Futher-de-Borgia Toumandji and préface de Jean Didier Boukongou. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2022.

"Ceux qui combattent beaucoup sans peur, qui tuent sans pitié": effets du recrutement d'enfants de moins de 15 ans par les Anti-Balaka (2013-2014) / J.C. Both, C. Mouquia, and M.E. de Bruijn. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2020.

Protection de l'enfant en temps de guerre en RD Congo : le cas de la guerre de six jours à Kisangani / Norbert Ngoyi Muepu Lumami, Dieudonné Ngoie Mpanya Kabululu ; préface de Mwayila Tshiyembe. - Paris : L'Harmattan, cover "Protection de l'enfant en temps de guerre en RD Congo : le cas de la guerre de six jours à Kisangani"

Rebel funding and child soldiers: Exploring the relationship between natural resources and forcible recruitment / R. Haer; C.M. Faulkner; B.E. Whitaker.
In: European Journal of International Relations, vol. 26, no.1, p. 236-262, 2020.

Slaves, virgin concubines, eunuchs, gun-boys, community defenders, child soldiers : the historical enlistment and use of children by armed groups in the Central African Republic / J.C. Both, C. Mouquia, and M.E. de Bruijn. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2020.

Ingane yamalungelo : idrama yesiZulu / Jabulani Owne Nene, Celani Lucky Zwane. - Johannesburg, South Africa : Bhiyoza Publishers, 2019.

Kindersoldaten im Medienwechsel : Uzodinma Iwealas Roman 'Beasts of No Nation' in der Filmadaption und Hörspielfassung / Charlott Schönwetter und Marlene Schneider.
In: Stichproben,Jahrgang 19, Nummer 37, Seiten 73-91, 2019.

Peace-building in post-conflict societies : rehabilitation of former child soldiers in Northern Uganda / Arthur Bainomugisha. - London : Adonis & Abbey Publishers, 2019.

Reading Emmanuel Jal's War Child as spiritual autobiography / Nick Mdika Tembo.
In: Nordic Journal of African Studies,volume 28, issue 4, 2019.

Research handbook on child soldiers / ed. by Mark A. Drumbl and Jastine C. Barrett. - Northampton : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019.

True teen stories from Somalia : surviving war and al-Shabaab / Anna Maria Johnson. - New York : Cavendish Press, 2019.

Armed conflict and child mortality in Africa: a geospatial analysis / Zachary Wagner ... [et al.]
In: Lancet, vol. 392, no. 10150, p. 857-865, 2018.

Child to Soldier : Stories from Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army / Opiyo Oloya. - Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2018.

Liberia's women veterans : war, roles and reintegration / Leena Vastapuu ; illustrated by Emmi Nieminen. - London : Zed Books, 2018.

Sierra Leone : revolutionary united front : blood diamonds, child soldiers and cannibalism, 1991-2002. - Barnsley, South Yorkshire : Pen & Sword Military, 2018.

Tools of war, tools of state : when children become soldiers / Robert Tynes. - Albany : SUNY Press, 2018.

Child Soldiers As Agents of War and Peace: A Restorative Transitional Justice Approach to Accountability for Crimes under International Law / Leonie Steinl. - The Hague : T.M.C. Asser Press, 2017.

Life after Guns : Reciprocity and Respect among Young Men in Liberia. - New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 2017.

Rebels in Northern Uganda after their return to civilian life: between a strong we-image and experiences of isolation and discrimination / Artur Bogner and Gabriele Rosenthal.
In: Canadian journal of African studies, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 175-197, 2017.

Representing the child soldier : authenticity and humanitarian consumption in Uzodinma Iweala's "Beasts of no nation" and Chris Abani's "Song for night" / Lauren Devine.
In: African studies bulletin, no. 79 (Winter 2017/18), pages 84-112, 2017.

A troublesome transition: social reintegration of girl soldiers returning 'home' / Milfrid Tonheim. - Bergen : University of Bergen, 2017.

The accountability of juveniles for crimes under international law / Nortje Windell. - Cape Town : University of the Western Cap3, 2016.

L'oeil du cyclone / un film de Sékou Traore ; avec Abidine Dioari ... [et al.]. - Paris : Avalon, 2016.Cover " L'oeil du cyclone"

Money and control : rebel groups and the forcible recruitment of child soldiers / Christopher M. Faulkner.
In: African security, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 211-236, 2016.

Squaring the Circle?: Prosecuting Sexual Violence against Child Soldiers by their ‘Own Forces’ / Tilman Rodenhäuser.
In: Journal of international criminal justice, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 171-193, 2016.

Umwana mu muryango nyarwanda : uburenganzira n'Inshingano / inkuru yashushanyijwe na Rupert Bazambaza and yandikwa n'itsinda rishinzwe ubwanditsi muri. - Kigali, Rwanda : Bakame Editions, 2016.

Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries / Holly Foster & Jeanne Brooks-Gunn.
In: Social science & medicine, vol. 146, p. 292-299, 2015.

The culture of mental illness and psychiatric practice in Africa / ed. by Emmanuel Akyeampong, Allan G. Hill, and Arthur Kleinman. - Bloomington, IN [etc.] : Indiana University Press, 2015.

Enfants et jeunes hors les liens en Afrique de l'Est / Valérie Golaz et Christian Thibon (éd.). - Paris : Karthala [etc.], 2015.

La violence des jeunes dans la ville de Lubumbashi : mémoire des victimes et des bourreaux / Donatien Dibwe dia Mwembu ; préf. de Bogumil Jewsiewicki. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

Last train to Biafra : the memoirs of a Biafran child / by Diliorah Chukwurah. - Ibadan : Constellation (Nigeria) Publishers, 2015.

A legal analysis of how the International Committee of the Red Cross's interpretation of the revolving door phenomenon applies in the case of Africa's child soldiers / Shannon Bosch.
In: African security review, vol. 24, no. 1, p. 3-22, 2015.

L'enrôlement des jeunes dans les groupes armés au Cameroun : un projet de recherche-action du réseau Service Civil pour la Paix au Cameroun / sous la direction de: Dynamique Mondiale des Jeunes ; en collaboration avec: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Service Civil pour la Paix, Brot für die Welt, AJP CEDES Foumban, Saare Tabitha, Développement Sans Frontières. - Yaoundé : Éditions Clé, 2015.

Machel study 10-year strategic review : children and conflict in a changing world. - New York : Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict : United Nations Children's Fund, 2009.


Children and Work, Child Labour, Street Children

Cobalt red : how the blood of the Congo powers our lives / Siddharth Kara. - New York, NY : St. Martin's Press, an imprint of St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2023.

How does adoption of mobile money technology affect child labour and school enrolment? / Joseph B. Ajefu, Falecia Massacky. - Nairobi : African Economic Research Consortium, 2023.

Les jeunes de la rue à Dakar : être faqman, entre marginalisation et reconnaissance sociale / Safietou Diack. - Paris : Karthala, 2022.

La mendicité des enfants au Sénégal (1848-2013) : histoire d'une innocence meurtrie / Sawrou Fall. - Dakar : L'Harmattan Sénégal, 2022.

Le panthéon de la joie = The pantheon of joy / realized written, produced, choreographed, staged and in music by Jean Odoutan. - [France] : 45 rdlc/Tabou-Tabac Films, 2022.

Impact of school quality on schooling and child labour in selected zones of Ivory Coast / Abou Pokou Edouard. - Nairobi : African Economic Research Consortium, 2021. (free access)

Temoignages des anciens beneficiaires du Centre Abadacogora et Intwani de la Caritas Kigali / Centre Abadacogora - Intwari. - Kigali : Centre Abadacogora -Intwari, [2021].

Quand le moule Abadacogora-Intwari fait transformer les mayibobo en citoyens respectables et respectés / Centre Abadacogora-Intwari. - Kigali : Centre Abadacogora-Intwari, [2020].

Causes and Consequences of Streetism among Street Children in Harar City, Ethiopia / Sofiya Endris, Galata Sitota.
In: International journal of education and literacy studies, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 94-99, 2019.

Child Labour in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence and New Perspectives / Raymond Boadi Frempong. - Bayreuth : University of Bayreuth, 2019.

Enfants des rues au Sénégal : le point de vue d'un médecin / Clément Diarga Basse. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2019.

Les pires formes de travail des enfants à Kinshasa / Joseph Arthur Mondimo Abenje ; préface d'Abraham Wufela Y'Aekolingo André L. - Paris : L'Harmattan, cover " Les pires formes de travail des enfants à Kinshasa"

Petits bandits, petits voleurs, petits sorciers : méthodologie d'accompagnement et de réconciliation des enfants de la rue à Kinshasa / Jean-Pierre Godding, Arnold Mushiete ; préface de François Michon. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2019.

La répression du vagabondage et de la mendicité en droits congolais et camerounais / Daniel Butoki Kirindera, préface de professeur Aristide Kahindo Nguru. -
Kampala : Editions Blessing, 2019.

Talibé : enfant des rues, roman / Gregory Bernard. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2019.

Working for better lives : mobilities and trajectories of young people in West and Central Africa. - Lisboa : Centro de Estudos Africanos, 2019.

Culture sociale de l'aumône et phénomène des enfants des rues au Sénégal / Pascal Sène ; préface de Jean-Claude Angoula. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2018.

La protection des enfants de l'exploitation minière artisanale dans la province du Lualaba : analyse des mécanismes et des pistes de solution / Laurent Makal et Dieudonné Kantenga.
In: KAS African law study library,volume 5 (2018), issue 3, pages 402-420, 2018.

Les enfants de personne en RD Congo / Masiala Ma Solo ; préface de Florentin Azia Dimbu. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2018.

Maana surunw denmisɛnninw ka baarako masalakun kan / baabu bayɛlɛmanenw ka bɔ tubabukan na Mori Tarawore fɛ. = Histoires courtes sur le thème du travail des enfants / traduites du français par Mory Traoré. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2018.

Resilience pathways for schooling reunified former street children in Harare / Samson Mhizha, Patrick Chiroro and Tinashe Muromo.
In: Zimbabwe journal of educational researchvolume 30, number 2, pages 169-185, 2018.

Sexual and physical abuse and its determinants among street children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2016 / Ayana Chimdessa, Amsale Cheire.
In: BMC Pediatr, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 304, 2018.

Symbiotic link between street children and street vending in the city of Kigali : an appraisal / by Murangira Thierry. - In: ULK Scientific Journal, volume 38 (2018), pages 125-178.

Ton étoile brillera : roman / Souleymane Katié Ouattara. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2018.

Children's agency and development in African societies / edited by Yaw Ofosu-Kusi = La capacité d'agir et le développement des enfants dans les sociétés africaines / sous la direction de Yaw Ofosu-Kusi. - Dakar : CODESRIA Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017.

Combattre le travail des enfants? : politiques et acteurs d'une lutte controversée au Burkina Faso / Joséphine Wouango ; préface de Bernard Schlemmer. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2017.

De la rive sud à la rive nord : roman / Issa Kanté. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2017.

The education of children entangled in khat trade in Ethiopia : the case of two khat market centers / Girma Negash. - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies, 2017.

Enfances ambiguës : anthropologie des enfants accusés de sorcellerie au Katanga (RDC) / Edoardo Quaretta ; préf. de Bogumil Jewsiewicki. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2017.

"Home is always home" : (former) street youth in Blantyre, Malawi, and the fluidity of constructing home / Tanja D. Hendriks. - Leiden : Afrika Studiecentrum, 2017.

Is child work detrimental to the educational achievement of children?results from young lives study in Ethiopia / Tassew Woldehanna, Aregawi Gebremedhin, Mesele W. Araya.
In: Ethiopian journal of economics,vol. 26, no. 1, p. 125-151 : tab, 2017.

La marchandisation des enfants au Burkina Faso : trafic, traite et exploitation / Sien So Sabine Léa Somé. - Paris : Éditions L'Harmattan, 2017.

Noloshii sillooneyd / Cabdiraxiin H. Galayr. - Katrineholm : Laashin, 2017.

Perspectives on African witchcraft / edited by Mariano Pavanello. - Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.

Problems and Solutions when Dealing with Street Children: A qualitative study based on experiences from Social Workers' in Bloemfontein, South Africa / Amanda Friberg & Viktoria Martinsson. - Jönköping : Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, 2017.

Young voices, new dreams / directed written, produced by Menen Hailu. - New York : Menen Pictures ; New Heritage Theatre Group, 2017.

Children for ewes : child indenture in the post-emancipation Great Karoo: c. 1856-1909 / Lance van Sittert.
In: Journal of Southern African studies, vol. 42, no. 4, p. 743-762 : ill., graf., tab, 2016.

Growing in darkness = Crescer na escuridão = Grandir dans les ténèbres / Mário Macilau and Roger Ballen [texts, Mia Couto, Simon Njami, Olivia Nitis, Gabriela Salgado] - Heidelberg : Kehrer, [2016].

The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience / Frances Hill ... [et al.].
In: Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being, vol. 11, no. 1, p.30302-30302, 2016.

The need for a contextual approach in identifying street-connected children for purposes of intervention / Emma Charlene Lubaale.
In: International journal of African renaissance studies, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 70-86, 2016.

Pauvreté et résilience des enfants dans les mines de diamants (Kasaï-Oriental) / Hubert Mukendi Mpinga ; préface Clément Mwabila Malela. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2016.

Relative contribution of child labour to household farm and non-farm income in Ghana : simulation with child's education / Isaac Koomson and Simplice A. Asongu.
In: African development review, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 104-115, 2016.

Re-Thinking the Child Labor “Problem” in Rural sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone’s Half Shovels / Roy Maconachie & Gavin Hilson.
In: World development, vol. 78, p. 136-147, 2016.

Tropique de la violence : roman / Nathacha Appanah. - Paris : Gallimard, cover " The pavement bookworm : a true story"

Enfants et jeunes hors les liens en Afrique de l'Est / Valérie Golaz et Christian Thibon (éd.). - Paris : Karthala [etc.], 2015.

La violence des jeunes dans la ville de Lubumbashi : mémoire des victimes et des bourreaux / Donatien Dibwe dia Mwembu ; préf. de Bogumil Jewsiewicki. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

Le destin d'Amina : roman / Moussa Soumahoro. - Abidjan : Nouvelles Éditions Balafons, 2015.

Parental education and children's school and work status in urban Ethiopia : a note on gender bias / Eskander Alvi and Seife Dendir.
In: South African journal of economics : the quarterly journal of the Economic Society of South Africa : die kwartaalblad van die Ekonomiese Vereniging van Suid-Afrika, vol. 83, no. 1, p. 101-116 : tab, 2015.

The pavement bookworm : a true story / Philani Dladla ; [foreword by Busani Ngcaweni]. - Auckland Park : BlackBird Books, 2015.

Penser la sorcellerie en Afrique / sous la dir. de Sandra Fancello ; préf. de Peter Geschiere. - Paris : Hermann, 2015.

The Religious—Spiritual Self-Image and Behaviours Among Adolescent Street Children in Harare, Zimbabwe / Mhizha Samson.
In: J Relig Health, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 187-201, 2015.

Lezare : for today / directed by Zelalem Woldemariam. - Addis Ababa : Zeleman Production, 2010.

These are our children : saving the children of Kenya, one dream at a time / A Perennial Films Production and a film by Joanne Hershfield. - Harriman, N.Y. : New Day Films, 2010.

Understanding the street children phenomenon : a study of street children in Accra, Ghana / Agya Boakye-Boaten. - Saarbrücken : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, [2008?].


Web resources

African Child Policy Forum (ACPF)
The African Child Policy Forum is an independent, pan-African advocacy organization working for the realization of children’s rights. The work of the Forum is rights-based, inspired by universal values and informed by global experiences and knowledge. The ACPF publishes the African Report on Child Wellbeing which regularly assesses the extent to which African governments are living up to their commitments. It also provides critical analyses of national efforts to formulate and implement child-sensitive laws and policies.

African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC) draws its mandate from articles 32-46 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, which was adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the OAU on 11th July 1990 and came into force on 29th November 1999. The site contains the text of the Charter, country reports and the The African Child Rights Case Law Database, a collection of judgments from domestic courts in various African countries on cases related to the rights and welfare of children.

African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect
Pan-African network that promotes child rights and child protection in Africa, founded in 1986 in Enugu, Nigeria, at the first Child Labour Conference. It has national chapters in 22 African countries and is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

Children in Africa
ASCL web dossier 2008

Charlotte Phillips
Personal website of judge and educationalist Charlotte Phillips that includes a bibliography and a link collection on children's rights.

Kinderrechte Afrika (KiRA)
KiRA is a non-profit organization for the protection of children’s rights in African countries. Its website includes instructional materials and free resources on law and social intervention in French.çais/publications/

The Graça Machel Trust
The GMT works across the African continent to amplify women’s movements, influence governance and advocate for the protection of children’s rights. Its website includes publications and a blog.


Children's rights in the digital sphere in Africa
Webinar organised by the Children’s Rights Unit of the Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, on the occasion of the 35th Ordinary Session of the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC) on 8 September 2020.

Remarks by H.E. Mrs. Graça Machel at the launch of The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2018
The African Report on Child Wellbeing is published by the African Child Policy Forum's (ACPF’s). The report regularly assesses the extent to which African governments are living up to their commitments and provides critical analyses of national efforts to formulate and implement child-sensitive laws and policies.