Water in Africa

This web dossier on Water in Africa has been compiled by the library of the African Studies Centre to coincide with  the international conference ‘Water Management Issues in Africa’, organized by the Network of African Science Academies (NASAC) in collaboration with the Netherlands Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) in Port Louis, Mauritius, 29-31 March 2012. Water and sanitation is also one of the focal points of  Dutch development cooperation policy in Africa in line with the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the number of people without access to safe drinking water.

The web dossier is based on the ASC library collection and contains the titles of books, articles, book chapters, DVDs and online resources on water, water supply,  sanitation, water scarcity, water management, and climate change.  Besides sections on Africa in general and African river basins, it includes sections devoted to ‘country cases’,  covering the African countries selected by the Dutch government for development cooperation in the coming years, namely Benin, Burundi, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda.

Each title in the dossier links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue. This provides further bibliographic details, abstracts and links to full-text publications if available. The dossier starts with an introduction by Marcel Rutten  and concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites.

For further information, please email us at asclibrary@ascleiden.nl or phone us on +31 (0)71 527 3354.

Water in Africa: introduction

webdossier_water_tap“Among the many things I learnt as a president, was the centrality of water in social, political and economic affairs of the country, the continent and the world.”  (Nelson Mandela)

Millions of people around the world do not have enough water to sustain their livelihoods. Inadequate access to water is one of the main reasons for poverty and it affects people’s basic needs, health, food security and livelihoods. The 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of halving the percentage of people who do not have access to safe drinking water by 2015. It also created two new Pan-African entities – the ‘African Ministers’ Council on Water’ (AMCOW) and the ‘African Water Facility’ (AWF) – to stress the urgent need to address the continent’s precarious water situation.

The World Bank recently concluded that, with the exception of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA), all the other regions were on track for meeting this water target. Only 58% of the population in SSA had access to safe drinking water in 2005. Achieving the MDG7 goal would be of huge economic benefit mainly due to savings in time and health benefits. The Africa Water Vision 2025 that aims to counter Africa’s water problems summarizes the key obstacles as follows:

  • High spatial and temporal variations in rainfall
    Mean annual rainfall figures are comparable to those of other continents but evaporation rates are much higher in Africa and rainfall there is highly variable and unreliable.
  • Growing water scarcity
    25 African countries will be water stressed by 2025 compared to 13 in 1995.
  • Inadequate institutional and financing arrangements
    There is an ongoing debate about the commercialization of water management and water as an economic good versus decentralized community management and water as a human right.
  • Inadequate data and human capacity
    The inadequate collection, analysis and dissemination of data on water resources for developing, planning and implementing projects is problematic.
  • Inadequate development of water resources
    Water scarcity in Africa is not due entirely to natural phenomena but also to low levels of development and exploitation of water resources. Only 3.8% of internal renewable resources are being withdrawn for the three major water uses, namely agriculture, community water supplies and industries.
  • Depletion of water resources by human actions
    The pollution of streams through industrial and agricultural activities, salinization due to overpumping, the drying out of wetlands, the eutrophication of lakes and the proliferation of invasive aquatic plants are all contributing to water shortages.

By 2025, no fewer than 25 of the 48 countries that are expected to be facing water shortages will be African. This means that approximately 230 million Africans (16% of the projected population) will be living in water-scarce areas (<1,000 cubic metres of water/capita/year) with another 460 million (32%) in water-stressed areas (1,000-1,700 cubic metres/capita/year). In addition to a growing population, agriculture will also be making added demands on water supplies. Of the total amount of water used, 85% is for agriculture, 9% is for community water webdossier_water_scarcity kaartsupplies and 6% is for industry. However, political, economic and institutional factors can and often do lead to water deprivation even in areas where resources are generally plentiful. Commercial export agriculture is resulting in the drying up of water sources. This is the other side of the coin of some of Africa’s recent economic success stories where virtual water flows to other regions.

On a continental basis, rainfall in Africa is about 670 mm per year. This is comparable to Europe and North America but higher evaporation rates in Africa are resulting in substantially lower percentages of precipitation contributing to renewable water resources. African rainfall patterns are also showing significant variations in place and time. Temporal variations in rainfall are typically 40% around the mean, which is much higher than in temperate zones. The spatial distribution of rainfall also varies with the Indian Ocean island countries (1,700 mm/year) and Central African countries (1,430 mm/year) on the higher and North African countries (71.4 mm) at the lower end. In addition, temporal and regional variability is exacerbated by unpredictability.

Africa has 17 rivers with catchment areas greater than 100 000 km2 and it has more than 160 lakes larger than 27 km2, most of which are in the equatorial region and the sub-humid East African Highlands within the Rift Valley. Since many of Africa’s water basins are international, cooperation between countries sharing the same basin is of utmost importance. Some argue that the potential for conflict among riparian countries has increased in recent years and is likely to intensify in the future as water scarcity increases.

Groundwater is extremely important in Africa. It is estimated that over 40% of Africans use groundwater as their main source of drinking water, particularly in North and Southern African countries. Piped water is still the most important source of drinking water (39%) in urban areas, yet boreholes are becoming more important (24%).

How important is water for the continent’s economy? Africa is losing 5% of its GDP as a result of poor water and sanitation infrastructure, 2% to power outages, between 5%-25% to drought and floods, and perhaps a further 5% to the (future) impact of climate change. The estimated amount of investment required to meet Africa’s deficient water situation is US$ 50 billion per annum for the period from 2010 to 2030 and US$ 30 billion annually for the following thirty years. This figure significantly exceeds the US$ 20 billion originally estimated in 2000 in the Africa Water Vision 2025. There has been a near ten-fold increase in the estimated cost of water-related infrastructure to support economic growth, food and energy securities and adaptations to climate change and hazard management.

Africans are facing increased water scarcity. Access to clean water and sanitation has been earmarked as the most crucial resource for life and for agriculture and industry. At the same time, water is expected to trigger new wars – some claim it already has – but it could also be a reason for countries and groups cooperating to prevent conflicts.

Marcel Rutten

Water and sanitation Africa

book cover Africa's water and sanitation infrastructureAfrica's water and sanitation infrastructure : access, affordability, and alternatives / Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee & Elvira Morella (ed.). - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2011

La sécheresse au Sahel : vers une gestion concertée/ Nathalie Dubus & Jean Dubus. - Paris : Hermès science publications, 2011. - (Territoires, analyse, modélisation et simulation)

The politics of water / Lliane Loots (ed.). - Durban : Agenda Feminist Media, 2011. - (Agenda, ISSN 1013-0950 ; no. 88)

Africa water atlas / United Nations Environment Programme. - Nairobi [etc.] : United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2010

Green hills, blue cities : an ecosystems approach to water resources management for African cities : a rapid response assesssment / Clever Mafuta & others (ed.). - Nairobi : UNEP, 2010

Histoires d'eaux africaines : essais d'anthropologie impliquée/ Michael Singleton. - Louvain-la-Neuve : Academia Bruyland, 2010. - (Anthropologie prospective, ISSN 2030-5702 ; no 6)

Provision of water to the poor in Africa : experience with water standposts and the informal water sector/ Sarah Keener, Manuel Luengo & Sudeshna Banerjee. - Washington, D.C. World Bank, 2010. - (Policy research working paper ; 5387)

Public-private partnerships for small piped water schemes : a review of progress in seven African countries : serving the rural and small town poor/ Luc Hoang-Gia & Thomas Fugelsnes. - Nairobi : Water and Sanitation Program - African Region, 2010. - (WSP Field Note)

Ressources naturelles et environnement en Afrique / Adeniyi S. Gbadegesin, Michel Boko, & Bano Nadhèl Diallo (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Collection Maîtrise de l'espace et développement ; 2)

Strategic financial planning for water supply and sanitation in Africa : rationale, methodology, experience, lessons learned/ James Winpenny. - Stockholm : EU Water Initiative, Finance Working Group, 2010

Africa regional paper: bridging divides in Africa's water security, an agenda to implement existing political commitments/ Kwabena Sarpong Manu. - [Abidjan] : African Development Bank, 2009

Africa's infrastructure : a time for transformation / Vivien Foster & Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia (ed.) / World Bank; Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic. - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2009. - (Africa development forum)

Agriculteurs dans les villes ouest-africaines : enjeux fonciers et accès à l'eau/ Ndèye Fatou Diop Guèye, Salimata Seck Wone & Moussa Sy. - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2009. - (Hommes et sociétés, ISSN 0290-6600)

La géopolitique de l'eau / Henri Mova Sakanyi & Eddie Tambwe (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2009. - (Dounia ; 1)

The role of international NGOs? : partnerships for the provision of water and sanitation services to low-income areas/ Maria Rusca. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2009. - (MSc Thesis WM ; 09.02)

Dossier eau / Lucas Patriat
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2008), année 62, no. 3243, p. 5-7 : foto.

Privatization and alternative public sector reform in Sub-Saharan Africa : delivering on electricity and water / Kate Bayliss & Ben Fine (ed.). - Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2008

Sharing lessons and experiences for better implementation of wetlands management plans : proceedings of the International Wetlands Conference held at Maun Lodge, Maun, Botswana, 31st January to 1st February 2008 / Lin Cassidy (ed.). - [Gaborone] : Dept. of Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism, 2008

Special issue: The power of water: landscape, water and the state in Southern and Eastern Africa / Joost Fontein, Rebecca Marsland, & JoAnn McGregor (ed.). - [Abingdon] : Routledge, 2008. - (Journal of Southern African studies, ISSN 0305-7070 ; vol. 34, no. 4)

Biopolitics, climate change and water security : impact, vulnerability and adaptation issues for women / Nidhi Tandon
In: Agenda / Feminist Media: (2007), no. 73, p. 4-17 : foto's, krt.

Dossier eau / Anne Vigna & others
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2006), année 60, no. 3146, p. 7-13 : ill.

Getting Africa on track to meet the MDGs on water and sanitation : a status review of sixteen African countries / African Ministers' Council on Water, AMCOW. - Nairobi : Water and Sanitation Program - African Region, 2006

La carence sanitaire des états / Charles Raymond Dotou
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2006), no. 21, p. [151]-158.

Land and water rights in the Sahel : tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture / Lorenzo Cotula (ed.). - [London : International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)], 2006. - (Issue paper / International Institute for Environment and Development, ISSN 1357-9312 ; no. 139)

Observatoires de développement local = Local development observatories : dialogue politique sur la production sociale d'habitat. - Dakar : Enda éditions, 2006. - (Etudes et recherches, ISSN 0850-8526 ; no. 253-254-255)

African water histories : transdisciplinary discourses / Johann Tempelhoff (ed.). - Gauteng : North-West University, 2005

Getting to boiling point : turning up the heat on water & sanitation
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2005), vol. 32, no. 103, p. 179-185.

Services d'eau en Afrique subsaharienne : la fragmentation urbaine en question/ Sylvy Jaglin. - Paris : CNRS, 2005. - (Espaces et milieux, ISSN 0224-2702)

book cover The age of commodityThe age of commodity : water privatization in Southern Africa / David A. MacDonald & Greg Ruiters (ed.). - London [etc.] : Earthscan, 2005

Watershed management to counter farming systems decline : toward a demand-driven, systems-oriented research agenda/ Laura A. German, Berhane Kidane & Kindu Mekonnen. - London : Overseas Development Institute, 2005. - (AgREN network paper ; no. 145)

Politiques d'équipement et services urbains dans les villes du sud : étude comparée / Chantal Chanson-Jabeur, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, & Odile Goerg (ed.). - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2004

Privatisation of water in southern Africa : a human rights perspective / Danwood Mzikenge Chirwa
In: African Human Rights Law Journal: (2004), vol. 4, no. 2, p. 218-241.

Water reforms and privatisation processes in Southern Africa / Larry A. Swatuk
In: African Development Perspectives Yearbook: (2004), vol. 10, p. [405]-430 : tab.

Conservation, ecology, and management of African fresh waters/ Thomas L. Crisman & others. - Gainesville [etc.] : University Press of Florida, 2003

Grands aménagements hydro-agricoles d'Afrique subsaharienne: poursuivre les évolutions institutionnelles / Jean Claude Devèze, Jean François Julien & Vatche Papazian
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2003), no. 205, p. 193-203.

International waters in Southern Africa / Mikiyasu Nakayama (ed.). - Tokyo [etc.] : United Nations University Press, 2003. - (Water resources management and policy)

L'eau, enjeu vital pour l'Afrique / Pierre Alain Roche
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2003), no. 205, p. 39-75 : graf. , tab.

Utility privatisation in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study of water / Kate Bayliss
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2003), vol. 41, no. 4, p. 507-531 : tab.

Water transfer versus desalination in North Africa : sustainability and cost comparison / Saad A. Alghariani
In: Libyan Studies: (2003), vol. 34, p. 147-152 : tab.

Defining and mainstreaming environmental sustainability in water resources management in Southern Africa / Rafik Hirji (ed.). - Harare [etc.] : Southern African Research & Documentation Centre [etc.], 2002

Dossier eau / Frédéric Lejeal & Samuel Vallée
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2002), année 57, no. 2934, p. 203-225 : foto, krt. , tab.

Eau, genre et développement durable : expériences de la coopération française en Afrique subsaharienne/ D. Allély & others. - Paris : Gret [etc.], 2002. - (Études et travaux)

Human values in water education : creating a new water-use ethic in African cities. - Nairobi : United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2002

Water and sanitation: country cases

More than water : impact evaluation of drinking water supply and sanitation interventions in rural Mozambique. - The Hague : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Policy and Operations Evaluation Department (IOB), 2011

Peace beyond borders : a documentary about conflict in the border region of Sudan, Uganda and Kenya and the quest for peaceful alternatives / Nanno Jiskoot. - Utrecht : Jisk Film, 2011. - 1 dvd-video (35 min.). : kleur, gel.

Policy and governance issues in Kenya's border towns : the case of Wajir groundwater management / Abdi Dahir Osman & others
In: The Australasian Review of African Studies: (2011), vol. 32, no. 1, p. 32-58.

Rummaging through reform : strategies of Gezira irrigation scheme actors to cope with irrigation management reforms in the face of strict state control, Sudan/ Koen Antonius Mathot. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2011

Des pompes et des hommes: état des lieux des pompes à motricité humaine d'une commune du Gourma malien / Fabrice Gangneron, Sylvia Becerra & Amadou Hamath Dia
In: Autrepart: (2010), no. 55, p. 39-56 : krt.

Disturbing 'development': the water supply conflict in Canhane, Mozambique / João Afonso Baptista
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2010), vol. 36, no. 1, p. 169-188 : fig. , foto's, krt.

Sustaining good governance in water and sanitation in Uganda/ Rose Mwebaza. - Pretoria : Institute Security Studies, 2010. - (Monograph ; 168)

'Water wars' in Kumasi, Ghana/ Tom C. McCaskie
In: African cities: competing claims on urban spaces / ed.by Francesca Locatelli, Paul Nugent.- Leiden [etc.] : Brill: (2009), p.135-155.

book cover Natural lakes of EthiopiaNatural lakes of Ethiopia/ Ayenew Tegaye Tenalem. - Addis Ababa : Addis Ababa University Press, 2009

Reflections on the institutional arrangements for decentralised rural water and sanitation delivery in Ghana / Joseph mpadu-Boakye & Nii Odai Anidaso Laryea
In: Journal of Local Government Studies: (2009), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 159-169 : fig.

Urban water politics and water security in disadvantaged urban communities in Ghana/ Kweku G. Ainuson
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2009/10), vol.11, no.4, p.59-82 : tab.

Water reforms and interventions in urban Kenya : institutional set-up, emerging impact and challenges/ Samuel O. Owuor & Dick W. J. Foeken. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2009. - (ASC working paper ; 83)

Exploring farmers' perceptions of drought in Tanzania and Ethiopia/ Monique F. W. Slegers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2008. - (Tropical resource management papers ; 93)

L'approche sectorielle peut-elle renforcer les instances locales? : le secteur eau au Bénin/ Thea Hilhorst, Cyriaque Adjinacou & Philip Langley. - Amsterdam : KIT Publishers, 2008. - (Bulletin / L'Institut Royal des Tropiques, ISSN 0922-7911 ; 382)

Pipes and politics: a century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply / David Nilsson & Ezekiel Nyangeri Nyanchaga
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2008), vol. 46, no. 1, p. 133-158 : graf.

State-owned enterprises : NWSC's turnaround in Uganda / Silver Mugisha & Sanford V. Berg
In: African Development Review: (2008), vol. 20, no. 2, p. 305-334 : fig. , graf.

WASHCost Mozambique : assessment of the water and sanitation sector of Mozambique : final report/ Salomon Lda. - Maputo : Salomon Lda, 2008

Water and sanitation sector performance report 2008 / Ministry of Water and Environment, Kampala. - Kampala : Ministry of Water and Environment, 2008

Water resources in the Sudan North-South peace process : past experience and future trends / Salman M. A. Salman
In: African Yearbook of International Law: (2008), vol. 16, p. 299-328.

Analysis of the public health risks of the urban water system in Accra by microbial risk assessment/ Isabella Lunani. - [S.l. s.n.], 2007

Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia/ Melesse Temesgen. - Leiden : Taylor and Francis, 2007

Evaluation of sector approaches in the water sector : country report Benin/ Bert van Woersem, Frank Jaspers & Hamady N'Djim. - Utrecht [etc.] : CDP [etc.], 2007

Population, health and development in Ghana : attaining the millenium development goals / Chuks J. Mba & Stephen O. Kwankye (ed.). - Legon : Sub-Saharan Publishers, 2007

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy. 3: Water, natural resource and agricultural practices / Getnet Alemu (ed.) / Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA); Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. - [Addis Ababa] : Ethiopian Economic Association, 2007

The promise and perils of water reforms: perspectives from northern Ghana / Wolfram Laube
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2007), Jg. 42, H. 3, p. 419-437.

The use and management of water sources in Kenya's drylands: is there a link between scarcity & violent conflicts?/ Karen Witsenburg & Adano Wario Roba
In: Conflicts over land & water in Africa / ed.by Bill Derman, Rie Odgaard & Espen Sjaastad.- Oxford [etc.] : James Currey [etc.]: (2007)

Transboundary river floods : vulnerability of continents, international river basins and countries [Mozambique]/ Marloes H. N. Bakker. - Ann Arbor, MI : UMI, 2007

Water resources and irrigation development in Ethiopia/ Seleshi Bekele Awulachew & others. - Colombo : International Water Management Institute, 2007. - (IWMI working paper ; 123)

Caring for the land : best practices in soil and water conservation in Beressa watershed, highlands of Ethiopia/ Aklilu Amsalu Taye. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2006. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; no. 76)

Central-local relations in the provision of basic services : provision of water and sanitation services in Ghana/ George Quaye Mensah Laryea-Adjei. - Rotterdam : Erasmus Univeristeit, 2006

Climate variability and water resources degradation in Kenya : improving water resources development and management/ Hezron Mogaka & others. - Washington, DC : The World Bank, book cover Climate variability and water resources development in Kenya2006. - (World Bank working paper, ISSN 1726-5878 ; no. 69)

People and dams: environmental and socio-economic changes induced by a reservoir in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia/ Tefera Olana Bezuayehu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2006. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; 75)

State centrism, legal pluralism and management of water conflicts in Kenya / O. Mwangi
In: Lesotho Law Journal: (2006), vol. 16, no. 1, p. 75-99.

The politics of urban water reform in Ghana / Lindsay Whitfield
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2006), vol. 33, no. 109, p. 425-448.

Water vending in Tamale : water scarcity and its domestic implications : a case study of impacts on care/ Adam Bawa Yussif. - Legon : Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, 2006. - (Studies in the culture of care, ISSN 0855-7616 ; 3)

Coping with drought: options for soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya/ Elijah K. Biamah. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2005. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; no. 58)

Displaced people, displaced energy, and displaced memories : the case of Cahora Bassa, 1970-2004 / Allen Isaacman
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2005), vol. 38, no. 2, p. 201-238 : krt.

Monitoring for impact: evaluating 20 years of soil and water conservation in southern Mali/ Ferko Bodnár. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2005. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; no. 71)

Shallow wells : a sustainable and inexpensive alternative to boreholes in Kenya/ Marcel Rutten. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2005. - (ASC working paper ; 66)

Tools for catchment level soil and water conservation planning in the East African Highlands : tool for participatory soil and water conservation mapping : tool for financial analysis of soil and water conservation measures / Rik van den Bosch & Geert Sterk (ed.). - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2005. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; 65. EROAHI report ; 4)

Communication strategies in the age of decentralisation and privatisation of rural services : lessons from two African experiences [Mozambique, Uganda]/ Ricardo Ramírez & Wendy Quarry. - London : Overseas Development Institute, 2004. - (AgREN network paper ; no. 136)

La valorizzazione della valle del fiume Senegal : un'analisi socio-economica [Mali] / Costanza Ventura
In: Africa / Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente: (2004), a. 59, n. 1, p. 23-56.

Problems of the solution : intervention into small-scale irrigation for drought proofing in the Mekele Plateau of northern Ethiopia/ Aberra Yohannes. - [London] : Royal Geographical Society, 2004

Using eucalyptus for soil & water conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia/ Selamyihun Kidanu. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2004. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; 52)

Water user associations : community organisation in Kisumu, Kenya/ Erik Siepman. - Delft [etc.] : Delft University of Technology [etc.], 2004

A multidisciplinary approach for the management of Lake Victoria Basin wetlands within the framework of cultural and natural heritage [Kenya, Uganda] / Charles K. Twesigye
In: The Uganda Journal: (2003), vol. 49, p. 66-78 : krt.

Determinants of the adoption of water harvesting technologies in the marginal areas of Nakuru District, Kenya : the case of trench and water pan technologies / Job Kibiwot Lagat, Gicuru K. Ithinji & Steven K. Buigut
In: Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: (2003), vol. 19, no. 1, p. 24-32 : tab.

Drought planning and rainwater harvesting for arid-zone pastoralists: the Turkana and Maasai (Kenya) and the Negev Bedouin (Israel)/ Hendrik J. Bruins & Mirjam A. F. Ros-Tonen. - Amsterdam : KIT Publishers, 2003. - (NIRP research for policy series, ISSN 1568-279X ; 17)

From the provision of basic needs to the enhancement of local governance : a case study of the impact of a local NGO's process on the people of Kitui District, Kenya/ Hilary Jeune. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2003

L'approvisionnement en eau des zones urbaines du Ghana: la réglementation d'un partenariat public-privé / Alan Booker
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2003), no. 205, p. 171-192 : tab.

Natural resource based conflicts and pastoral livelihoods : a focus on the impact of water resource based conflicts on pastoralism in Dadajabulla Location of Wajir District, Kenya/ Eileen K. Omosa. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2003

Republic of Mali : rural drinking water supply and sanitation programme : appraisal report/ K. Ba & others. - Abidjan : African Development Fund, 2003

Rural radio in agricultural extension : the example of vernacular radio programmes on soil and water conservation in N. Ghana/ Robert Chapman & others. - London : Overseas Development Institute, 2003. - (AgREN network paper ; no. 127)

Shared aquatic ecosystems of East Africa : status and trends/ Judi W. Wakhungu & George M. Sikoyo. - Nairobi [etc.] : African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) [etc.], 2003. - (Transboundary series ; 1)

Shared terrestrial ecosystems of East Africa : towards conviviality/ Judi W. Wakhungu & George M. Sikoyo. - Nairobi [etc.] : African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) [etc.], 2003. - (Transboundary series ; 2)

Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia : the Chemoga watershed case study/ Bewket Woldeamlak. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2003. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; 44)

Common property resource management, institutional change and conflicts in African floodplain wetlands [Mali] / Tobias Haller
In: The African Anthropologist: (2002), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 25-35.

Environment and natural resources [Kenya, Uganda]/ Jim Ayorekire, Valérie Messer & Mathieu Mérino. - Nairobi : Institut français de recherche en Afrique, 2002. - (Les cahiers de l'IFRA, ISSN 1609-1906 ; 22)

Gestion de l'environnement urbain et municipalisation en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de Mopti (Mali) / Élisabeth Dorier-Apprill
In: Autrepart: (2002), no. 21, p. 119-134 : krt.

Good intentions, structural pitfalls : early lessons from urban water commercialisation attempts in Kenya/ Joseph Onjala. - Copenhagen : Centre for Development Research, 2002. - (CDR working papers, Green series, ISSN 0904-4701 ; no. 02.2)

Regulating industrial wastewater in Kenya : towards an appropriate institutional arrangement/ Joseph Onjala. - Copenhagen : Centre for Development Research, 2002. - (CDR working papers, Green series, ISSN 0904-4701 ; no. 02.8)

Sediment pollution at the north end of Lake Tanganyika [Burundi] / Alain Vandelannoote & others
In: Bulletin des séances / Académie royale des sciences d'outre-mer: (2002), année 48, no. 4, p. 515-527 : graf. , krt. , tab.

The night-soil collector : bucket latrines in Ghana/ Sjaak van der Geest. - [Abingdon : Carfax], 2002. - (Overdr. uit: Postcolonial Studies; vol. 5, no. 2, 2002, p. 197-206)

Climate change Africa

Implications of climate change in North Africa / Elizabeth M. Fusco (ed.). - New York, NY : Nova Science Publishers, 2011. - (African political, economic and security issues series)

book cover Climate change and agriculture in AfricaClimate change & trade : the challenges for Southern Africa / Peter Draper & Ivan Mbirimi (ed.). - Auckland Park : Fanele, 2010

Climate change and civil war / Carmel Davis
In: African Security Review: (2010), vol. 19, no. 1, p. 64-72 : tab.

Climate change and the right to food in Africa / Ben Kiromba Twinomugisha
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2010), vol. 16 no. 2, p. 248-267.

La conférence de Copenhague, l'Afrique et le tiers-monde / Guy Feuer
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2010), no. 36, p. 33-53.

Special issue on environment and conflict/ Urmilla Bob & others. - Umhlanga Rocks : ACCORD, 2010. - (African journal on conflict resolution, ISSN 1562-6997 ; vol. 10, no. 2)

The state of African cities 2010 : governance, inequality and urban land markets / Jos Maseland & Lusungu Kayani (ed.). - Nairobi : UN-Habitat, 2010

Achieving sustainable development in Africa through the Clean Development Mechanism : legal and institutional issues considered / Damilola S. Olawuyi
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2009), vol. 17, pt. 2, p. 270-301 : tab.

Climate change: double-edged sword for African trade and development / Godwell Nhamo
In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies: (2009), vol. 4, no. 2, p. 117-139 : graf. , tab.

Combating global warming / Rashmi Kapoor
In: Africa Quarterly: (2009), vol. 49, no. 4, p. 18-29 : foto's, tab.

Climate change and agriculture in Africa : impact assessment and adaptation strategies/ Ariel Dinar & others. - London : Earthscan, 2008

Disasters, climate change and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa : lessons and directions / Ajay Chhibber & Rachid Laajaj
In: Journal of African Economies: (2008), vol. 17, suppl. 2, p. 7-49 : graf. , tab.

Dossier climat / Sylvie Rantrua & Antoine Gazeau
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2008), année 62, no. 3249, p. 5-7 : foto, krt.

From the West to the rest : climate change as a challenge to human security in Africa / Dan Kuwali
In: African Security Review: (2008), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 18-38.

Natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa : assets and vulnerabilities/ Johan Holmberg. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2008. - (Current African issues, ISSN 0280-2171 ; 39)

Summary proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Trade & Development, Agro-biodiversity & Food Sovereignty / M. Angeline Munzara-Chawira & others (ed.). - [Harare] : Southern Africa Biodiversity Policy Initiative, 2008

The climate security divide: bridging human and national security in Africa / Denise Garcia
In: African Security Review: (2008), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 2-17.

Global change processes and impacts in Africa : a synthesis / Luanne Otter, Daniel O. Olago, & Isabelle Niang (ed.). - Nairobi [etc.] : East African Educational Publishers [etc.], 2007

Africa - up in smoke? : the second report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development / Working Group on Climate Change and Development. - London : Oxfam Publications, 2005

Climate change and Africa / Pak Sum Low (ed.). - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005

The impact of climate change on drylands : with a focus on West Africa / A. J. Dietz, R. Ruben, & A. Verhagen (ed.). - Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. - (Environment & policy, ISSN 1383-5130 ; vol. 39)

Climate change: country cases

Climate change and rural livelihoods in northern EthiopiaClimate change and rural livelihoods in northern Ethiopia : impacts, local adaptation strategies and implications for institutional interventions/ Adem Alebachew / Meheret Ayenew (ed.). - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies (FSS), 2011. - (FSS monograph series ; no. 7)

De politiek-maatschappelijke context van een terugkerend probleem [Ethiopia]/ Jan Abbink. - Utrecht : Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (KNAG), 2011. - (Overdr. uit: Geografie ; jrg. 20, nr. 9 (nov./dec. 2011), p. 10-12)

Honger in de Hoorn van Afrika : een drama in kaarten en grafieken [Ethiopia, Kenya]/ Ton Dietz. - Utrecht : Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (KNAG), 2011. - (Overdr. uit: Geografie ; jrg. 20, nr. 9 (nov./dec. 2011), p. 6-9)

Climate change vulnerability and adaptation preparedness in [name of country] [Kenya, Uganda]/ Stephen Mutimba & Nick Hepworth / Heinrich Böll Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya. - Nairobi : Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Regional Office for East and Horn of Africa, 2010

Assessment of climate change-induced hazards, impacts, and responses in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia/ Amsalu Aklilu & Adem Alebachew. - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies [etc.], 2009. - (FSS research report ; no. 4)

Changes in the production practices of the Ari people, southwestern Ethiopia/ Tatek Kebede. - Addis Ababa : Addis Ababa University, 2009

Climate change in the Southern Lowlands of Ethiopia : local level evidences, impacts and adaptation responses/ Amsalu Aklilu & Adem Alebachew. - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies, 2009

Economic impact of climate change on crop production in Ethiopia : evidence from cross-section measures / Temesgen Tadesse Deressa & Rashid M. Hassan
In: Journal of African Economies: (2009), vol. 18, no. 4, p. 529-554 : graf. , tab.

Climate change: a new threat to stability in West Africa? : evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso / Oli Brown & Alec Crawford
In: African Security Review: (2008), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 39-57.

Hydrological response of a catchment to climate change, case study on Upper Beles Sub-Basin, Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia/ Girma Yimer Ebrahim. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2008. - (MSc Thesis WSE-HI ; 08.16)

"We're managing!" : climate change and livelihood vulnerability in Northwest Ghana/ Kees van der Geest. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2004. - (Research report / African Studies Centre ; 74/2004)

Disentangling risks : livelihood-vulnerability and responses to climate variability and change of semi-urban households in Northwest Ghana/ Arjen Schijf. - Amsterdam [etc.] : University of Amsterdam [etc.], 2004

Pathways to mitigate climate variability and climate change in Mali : the districts of Douentza and Koutiala compared/ Han van Dijk, Mirjam de Bruijn & Wouter van Beek
In: The impact of climate change on drylands : with a focus on West Africa / ed.by A.J.Dietz, R.Ruben and A.Verhagen.- Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers: (cop.2004), p.173-206 : graf., krt.

The importance of socio-cultural differences and of pathway analysis for understanding local actors' responses [Mali]/ Mirjam de Bruijn & Han van Dijk
In: The impact of climate change on drylands : with a focus on West Africa / ed.by A.J.Dietz, R.Ruben and A.Verhagen.- Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers: (cop.2004), p.341-362.

Urban-rural linkages and climatic variability [Mali]/ Annelet Broekhuis, Mirjam de Bruijn & Ali de Jong
In: The impact of climate change on drylands : with a focus on West Africa / ed.by A.J.Dietz, R.Ruben and A.Verhagen.- Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers: (cop.2004), p.301-321 : krt., tab.

African river basins

La question de l'eau en Afrique / Pierre Berthelot
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2010), no. 36, p. 147-161.

No more thirst : the citizens of the Nile/ J. Gebeto Petros. - [Nairobi : P. J. Gebeto], 2010

Des fleuves entre conflits et compromis : essais d'hydropolitique africaine / Jean Pierre Raison & Géraud Magrin (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2009. - (Hommes et sociétés, ISSN 0290-6600)

Hydro-politics in the Nile basin : in search of theory beyond realism and neo-liberalism / Okbazghi Yohannes
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2009), vol. 3, no. 1, p. 74-93.

book cover Water atlas of the Volta BasinWater atlas of the Volta Basin = Atlas de l'eau du bassin de la Volta/ Jacques Lemoalle & Devaraj De Condappa. - Marseille : Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF), 2009

Water, culture and identity : comparing past and present traditions in the Nile Basin region / Terje Oestigaard (ed.). - Bergen : BRIC Press, 2009

Challenges and prospects for a new Nile water agreement : the Nile River Basin Commission/ Pius Yasebasi Ng'wandu. - Nairobi : African Centre for Technology Studies, 2008

Lourds enjeux hydrauliques dans le monde nilotique, ou les risques d'une fragmentation régionale en gestation / Barah Mikail
In: Maghreb Machrek: (2008), no. 196, p. 93-108.

New developments on health, agricultural resources and socio-economic activities in the Volta Basin / C. M. Amoah, S. G. K. Adiku, & E. O. Owusu (ed.). - Accra : Volta Basin Research Project, University of Ghana, 2008

Calming the waters: the East African Community and conflict over the Nile resources / Peter Kagwanja
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2007), vol. 1, no. 3, p. 321-337.

The riparian States of the Nile River, their national interests and regional stability / Korwa G. Adar (ed.). - Dakar : CODESRIA, 2007. - (African sociological review, ISSN 1027-4332 ; vol. 11, no. 1)

Living in the shadow of the large dams : long term responses of downstream and lakeside communities of Ghana's Volta River Project/ Dzodzi Tsikata. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2006. - (African social studies series, ISSN 1568-1203 ; vol. 11)

Hydropolitical vulnerability and resilience along international waters : Africa / United Nations Environment Programme. - Nairobi : United Nations Environment Programme, 2005

L'Afrique de l'Est et la question du Nil / Bernard Charlery de la Masselière
In: L'Afrique orientale: (2005), p. 239-269 : krt.

The Niger, a lifeline : effective water management in the Upper Niger Basin / Leo Zwarts & others (ed.). - Lelystad [etc.] : RIZA, Rijkswaterstaat [etc.], 2005

Allocating water resources for agricultural and economic development in the Volta River Basin/ Patrick Obeng-Asiedu. - Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : Lang, 2004. - (European University studies. Series V, Economics and management, ISSN 0531-7339 ; vol. 3096)

Le bassin du Niger : retour aux frontières "naturelles"? / Christian Bouquet
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2004), no. 15/16, p. [267]-280.

The Nile treaty : State succession and international treaty commitments : a case study of the Nile water treaties/ Arthur Okoth-Owiro. - Nairobi : Konrad Adenauer Foundation, 2004. - (Occasional papers. East Africa, ISSN 1681-5890 ; 9)

L'initiative Bassin du Niger (IBN): développement durable et gestion intégrée d'un grand fleuve / Awaiss Aboubakar
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2003), no. 206, p. 179-203 : krt. , tab.

Nile basin cooperation : a review of the literature/ Dahilon Yassin Mohamoda. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2003. - (Current African issues, ISSN 0280-2171 ; 26)

Africa's international rivers : an economic perspective/ Claudia W. Sadoff, Dale Whittington & David Grey. - Washington, DC : World Bank Publications, 2002. - (Directions in development)

Hydropolitics in the developing world : a Southern African perspective / Anthony Turton & Roland Henwood (ed.). - Pretoria : African Water Issues Research Unit, Centre for International Political Studies, University of Pretoria, 2002

The Nile/ Robert O. Collins. - New Haven [etc.] : Yale University Press, 2002

The Nile Basin : national determinants of collective action/ John Waterbury. - New Haven, CT [etc.] : Yale University Press, 2002

Selected web resources
The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites


Africa Water Vision 2025
Published by UNECA and UN Water/Africa, this  is a shared vision for "an Africa where there is an equitable and sustainable use and management of water resources for poverty alleviation, socio-economic development, regional cooperation and the environme

AMCOW logoAfrican Ministers’ Council on Water, AMCOW
Formed in 2002 in Abuja, Nigeria, primarily to promote cooperation, security, social and economic development and poverty eradication among member states through the management of water resources and provision of water supply services, AMCOW has become a Specialised Committee for water and sanitation in the African Union.

African Water Association = Association africaine de l’eau
AfWA (formerly Union of African Water Suppliers) aims to enhance cooperation between public and private bodies concerned with water supply and sewage management. It advances the study of economic, technical and scientific matters relating to the water industry. Its 16th Water and Sanitation Congress was held in Marrakech, Morocco, from 20-23 February 2012.

African Water Facility (AWF)
Initiative led by the African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) to mobilize resources to finance water resources development activities in Africa.

The Conference on Hygiene and Sanitation (AfricaSan) is an AMCOW initiative. The third conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda, in July 2011.


Community Water and Sanitation Agency Ghana
The Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) is committed to effective facilitation of the provision of sustainable potable water and related sanitation services as well as hygiene promotion to rural communities and small towns through resource mobilization, capacity building and standards setting with the active participation of major stakeholders.

GHARP logoGreater Horn of Africa Rainwater Partnership (GHARP)
Regional network of National Rainwater Associations (NRWA) from the Greater Horn of Africa  countries,  established in March 2001. Its  main goal is to promote integrated rainwater harvesting and management systems and complementary technologies for water supply, food security, poverty reduction, and sustainable livelihoods.

Commencing in 2006, Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nile region (RiPPLE) was a 5-year Research Programme Consortium funded by the UK's Department for International Development (DFID), aiming to advance evidence-based learning on water supply and sanitation (WSS). Reports, papers, info sheets, newsletters.

Uganda  Water and Sanitation NGO Network  (UWASNET)
National umbrella organization for civil society organizations in the water and enviroment sector, established in 2000.

Water Services Trust Fund Kenya
State Corporation established under the Water Act, 2002 with the mandate “to assist in financing the provision of water services to areas of Kenya which are without adequate water services”.


FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture; has a review of water resources statistics by country.

Global Water Initiative
The Global Water Initiative is a coalition of seven international organizations with a plan to change the landscape of water, sanitation and hygiene services in 13 countries in Central America, West Africa and East Africa. Funded by the Howard Buffett Foundation.

Global Water Partnership
Founded in 1996 by the World Bank, the UNDP, and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) to foster integrated water resource management. Has regional web sites for Central, Eastern, Southern and West Africa.

International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC)
Based in the Netherlands with regional programmes in East, West and southern Africa. The programme is pursued by advocating for, and facilitating the development of improved decentralised local water governance processes in selected countries for sustained pro-poor, demand-responsive Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) service delivery and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)  - Africa
Africa pages of the WSP, an international  partnership created in 1978 and administered by the World Bank to to help the poor gain sustained access to improved water supply and sanitation services.

World Water Day
International World Water Day is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources.

World Water Forum logoWorld Water Forum
The World Water Forum, organized every three years by the World Water Council in close collaboration with the authorities of the hosting country, is the largest international event in the field of water. In preparation of the 6th World Water Forum (Marseille, 12-17 March 2012), the Africa regional process mobilized key regional stakeholders in Cape Town, South Africa (21 March 2011) to select the main water related issues in the region, and to identify existing or innovative solutions.


AllAfrica com: Water and sanitation
AllAfrica aggregates and indexes content from over 130 African news organizations, plus more than 200 other sources. Top headlines on water; Infocus water & sanitation.

WASH news Africa
This blog contains news on water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in Africa, collected by Cor Dietvorst,  editor of Source Weekly published by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, a   knowledge-focused NGO based in The Netherlands.