Southern Sudan at a crossroads

Southern Sudan mapThe Library of the African Studies Centre has compiled this dossier to coincide with the referendum on 9 January 2011 in which Southern Sudanese throughout Sudan will vote on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede and become a separate country. The dossier contains a selection of titles on civil war in Southern Sudan, the peace process, and the events leading up to the referendum. All titles are available in the ASC Library. Titles link to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides further details and loan information. The dossier starts with an introduction and concludes with a selection of links to relevant web sites.

Background to civil war in Sudan
Second civil war in the south
The search for peace
Human impact of the war
Comprehensive Peace Agreement and peacebuilding
Selected web resources


The 9 January 2011 referendum in southern Sudan is the latest milestone in the history of Sudan’s troubled north-south relations. In the referendum, southern Sudanese throughout the country will vote on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede and become a separate country. The referendum marks the end of the six-year interim period under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, which was signed by the National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in Nairobi in January 2005 to end the decades-long second Sudanese civil war.

The second Sudanese civil war began in 1983 in southern Sudan and was largely a continuation of the first, which had ended in 1972 with the Addis Ababa Agreement. By the late 1980s the war had spread to the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile, and subsequently Darfur and the Eastern areas became embroiled as well. By the early twenty-first century nearly 2 million people had died from war-related famine, disease and casualties. The war resulted in millions of internally displaced persons and refugees, including the “lost boys” of Sudan. Child soldiers were recruited by all sides. Slave raids were common.

Sudanese politics during the length of the civil war was marked by changing coalitions in the central government and two coups d’état (1985, 1989), internal dissension among the rebels and opposition to John Garang’s leadership of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), and shifting alliances between northern and southern political parties and between the government and southern rebel factions.

The various peace initiatives which were launched had mixed results. That pursued by neighbouring countries under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a seven-country regional development organization in East Africa, eventually led to the CPA, which addresses a number of elements seen as essential for a future peace: the relationship between religion and the State, powersharing, wealth-sharing, and the right of self-determination for the south.

The right of self-determination is provided for through the referendum scheduled for 9 January 2011. All indications suggest that a free vote will result in a resounding decision in favour of independence. However, whatever the outcome, several contentious issues remain as yet unresolved, most notably the demarcation of the north-south boundary, the status of the border enclave of Abyei, the distribution of oil revenues and citizenship. 

Background to civil war in Sudan                                                                                

Sudan's uncivil war: the global-historical constitution of political violence / Alison J. Ayers
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 124, p. 153-171.

Southern Sudan : colonialism, resistance, and autonomy/ Lam Akol. - Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Red Sea Press, 2007

Civil wars and revolution in the Sudan : essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan and Darfur 1962-2004/ Robert O. Collins. - Hollywood, CA : Tsehai Publishers, 2005

book cover Civil wars & revolution in SudanConflict and politics of identity in Sudan / Amir H. Idris. - New York, NY [etc.] : Palgrave Macmillan, 2005

South Sudan right of self-determination and establishment of new sovereign state : a legal analysis/ Simon E. Kulusika. - Lusaka : University of Zambia Press, 2004

Sudan's civil war : slavery, race and formational identities/ Amir H. Idris. - Lewiston, NY. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press, 2001. - (African studies ; vol. 56)

War and slavery in Sudan/ Jok Madut Jok. - Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. - (The ethnography of political violence)

An annotated bibliography on the Southern Sudan, 1850-2000/ Terje Tvedt. - Bergen : Centre for Development Studies, 2000

The Netherlands and Sudan : Dutch policies and interventions with respect to the Sudanese civil war/ M. V. Baarsen. - The Hague : Clingendael, Conflict Research Unit, 2000

Civil war and failed peace efforts in Sudan/ Taisier M. Ali & Robert O. Matthews
In: Civil wars in Africa : roots and resolution / Taisier M.Ali and Robert O.Matthews.- Montreal [etc.] : McGill-Queen's University Press: (1999), p.193-220.

Nuba conversations / Arthur Howes. - San Francisco, CA : California Newsreel, 1999. - 1 dvd-video (55 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Library of African cinema)

La privatisation de la sécurité en Afrique subsaharienne: le phénomène milicien dans le sud du Soudan / Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
In: Politique africaine: (1998), no. 72, p. 203-211.

Southern Sudan, political and economic power dilemmas and options/ Simon E. Kulusika. - London : MINERVA Press, 1998

Self-determination : a solution to the Sudan problem / Sam L. Laki
In: Northeast African Studies: (1996), n. s. , vol. 3, no. 2, p. 7-20.

Le drame du Sud-Soudan : chronique d'une islamisation forcée/ Jacques Monnot. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 1994

Political elite-military symbiotic relationship in Sudanese politics, its impact on South-North conflict/ Elias Nyamlell Wakoson. - Toronto : [African Studies Association], 1994

The benefits of at least two Sudans/ B. Yongo-Bure. - Toronto : [African Studies Association], 1994

The history of the Southern Sudanese students' movement and the liberation of the Southern Sudan/ Damazo Dut Majak. - Toronto : [African Studies Association], 1994

The politics of two Sudans : the South and the North 1821-1969/ Deng D. A. Ruay. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1994

The Sudan National Democratic Alliance (NDA) : the quest for peace, unity and democracy / Salah Hassan
In: Issue: (1993), vol. 21, no. 1/2, p. 14-25.

A three-dimensional approach to the conflict in the Sudan/ F. M. Deng
In: Religion and national integration in Africa : Islam, Christianity, and politics in the Sudan and Nigeria / ed.with an John O.Hunwick.- Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press: (1992), p.39-61.

Der Konflikt im Südsudan : keine Hoffnung auf Frieden / Ulrich Delius
In: Wuqûf: (1992/93), Nr. 7/8, p. [189]-204.

Security problems : an African predicament/ F. M. Deng
In: African security issues; sovereignty, stability and solidarity / B.E.Arlinghaus: (1984), p.7-17. 

Second civil war in the south

John Garang de Mabior : Sudan's peacemaker/ Fred Odhiambo Ngoche. - Nairobi [etc.] : Longhorn Publishers, 2008. - (Lion books)

Not breaking the rules, not playing the game : international assistance to countries at war/ Zoë Marriage. - London : Hurst, 2006

Peace in the balance : the crisis in Sudan / Brian Raftopoulos & Karin Alexander (ed.). - Cape Town : Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, 2006

Guerrilla government : political changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s/ Øystein Rolandsen. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2005

Le Soudan entre pétrole et guerre civile/ Jennifer Héry. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2003. - (Inter-National. Série première synthèse)

War and peace in Sudan : a tale of two countries/ Mansour Khalid. - London [etc.] : Kegan Paul, 2003

book cover war and peace in SudanBeyond broadcasting : the role of community radio in conflict transformation and peacebuilding : cases from Sudan and Uganda / Nynke Douma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University, 2002

Sud-Soudan : la longue route vers la paix/ Mathew Haumann. - Paris : Karthala, 2002

La guerre au Soudan: une histoire sans fin / Robert O. Collins
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2001), no. 4, p. 143-154.

Soudan : coulisses d'une guerre oubliée ../ Zygmunt L. Ostrowski. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2001. - (Mémoires africaines, ISSN 0297-1763)

Sudan, civil war and terrorism, 1956-1999/ Edgar O'Ballance. - New York [etc.] : St. Martin's Press [etc.], 2000

Vrede langs het oorlogspad : ontmoetingen in Zuid-Sudan/ Tjeu Haumann. - Heeswijk : Dabar-Luyten, 1998

Governance and conflict in the Sudan, 1985-1995 : analysis, evaluation, and documentation/ Peter Nyot Kok. - Hamburg : Deutsches Orient-Institut, 1996. - (Mitteilungen des Deutschen Orient-Instituts, ISSN 0177-4158 ; 53)

Der Untergang der Nuba-Völker : Sudans muslimische Fundamentalisten begehen Völkermord / Jutta Schwengsbier
In: Internationales Afrikaforum: (1995), Jg. 31, Quart. 4, p. 355-364.

Requiem for the Sudan : war, drought, and disaster relief on the Nile/ J. Millard Burr & Robert O. Collins. - Boulder, CO [etc.] : Westview Press, 1995

Sudan : a cry for peace : report of a Pax Christi International mission/ Jan Gruiters & Efrem Tresoldi. - Brussels ; Utrecht : Pax Christi International, 1994

Civil war in the Sudan / M. W. Daly & Ahmad Alawad Sikainga (ed.). - London [etc.] : British Academic Press, 1993

Components of a lasting peace in Sudan: first thoughts / African Rights. - London : African Rights, 1993. - (Discussion paper ; no. 2)

Die "Jihâd"-Konzeption der sudanesischen Armee zur Lösung der Bürgerkrieges / Peter Nyot Kok
In: Wuqûf: (1992/93), Nr. 7/8, p. [167]-188 : krt.

The Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement (SPLM) and Liberation Army (SPLA) / Philippa Scott
In: Review of African Political Economy: (1985), no. 33, p. 69-82.

The search for peace

The role of regional organizations in conflict management : IGAD and the Sudanese civil war/ Francis K. Mulu. - [Nairobi : s.n.], 2008

Comprehensive peace? : an analysis of the evolving tension in eastern Sudan / Sara Pantuliano
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2006), vol. 33, no. 110, p. 709-720 : tab.

Eastern Sudan: caught in a web of external interests / John Young
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2006), vol. 33, no. 109, p. 594-601.

Lessons of Sudan peace accord / Suresh Kumar
In: Africa Quarterly: (2006), vol. 46, no. 4, p. 12-16 : foto's, krt.

Peace by piece : addressing Sudan's conflicts / Mark Simmons & Peter Dixon (ed.). - London : Conciliation Resources, 2006. - (Accord, ISSN 1365-0742 ; 18)

Sudan : the elusive quest for peace/ Ruth Iyob & Gilbert M. Khadiagala. - Boulder, CO [etc.] : Rienner, 2006. - (International Peace Academy occasional paper series)

The European Union in the IGAD-subregion : insights from Sudan & Somalia / Marie Gibert
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2006), vol. 33, no. 107, p. 142-150.

The mediator : Gen. Lazaro Sumbeiywo and the Southern Sudan Peace Process/ Waithaka Waihenya. - Nairobi [etc.] : Kenway Publications, 2006. - (Kenway biographies and autobiographies)                                                                                  

Towards peace in the Sudan : report on a round table discussion on the transition in the Sudan held in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, on 27-29 March 2006 / Timothy Othieno & Siphamandla Zondi (ed.). - Midrand : Institute book cover Towards peace in the Sudanfor Global Dialogue, 2006. - (IGD dialogue series ; 3)

Après la mort de John Garang, la paix soudanaise en question / Gérard Prunier
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2005), no. 19/20, p. [59]-64.

John Garang's legacy to the peace process, the SPLM/A & the South / John Young
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2005), vol. 32, no. 106, p. 535-548.

Just peace : Sudan stories on DVD / Andy Jones. - London : ScreenStation Productions, 2005. - 1 dvd-video (65 min.). : kleur, gel.

Le Soudan et la paix, une problématique difficile / Gérard Prunier
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2005), no. 18, p. [139]-154.

Sudan: a flawed peace process leading to a flawed peace / John Young
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2005), vol. 32, no. 103, p. 99-113.

The African Union and conflict resolution in Africa: reflections on the civil war in Sudan / C. Nna-Emeka Okereke
In: Nigerian Journal of International Affairs: (2005), vol. 31, no. 2, p. 105-128.

Addis Ababa Agreement : was it destined to fail and are there lessons for the current Sudan peace process? / David H. Shinn
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2004), vol. 20, p. [239]-259.

Sudan peace process : challenges and future prospects / Korwa G. Adar, John G. Nyuot, & Eddy Maloka (ed.). - Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2004. - (African century publications series ; no. 18)

Sudan's civil war : the peace process before and since Machakos/ Francis Deng & Mohamed I. Kahlil. - Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2004. - (Occasional papers ; no. 72. Peace and governance programme ; no. 8)

The Sudan-IGAD peace process : signposts for the way forward : African security analysis programme. - Pretoria : Institute for Security Studies (ISS), 2004. - (ISS paper / Institute for Security Studies ; 86)

Sudan: prospects for peace
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 489-497.

God, oil and country : changing the logic of war in Sudan / International Crisis Group. - Brussels : International Crisis Group Press, 2002. - (ICG Africa report ; 39)

Le SPLM/SPLA et le gouvernement du Sud-Soudan / John Young
In: Politique africaine: (2002), no. 88, p. 103-119.

The search for peace in the Sudan : a chronology of the Sudanese peace process 1989-2001 / David Hoile (ed.). - London : The European-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, 2002

Une perspective de paix pour le Soudan en 2002? / Alex de Waal
In: Politique africaine: (2002), no. 85, p. 93-107.

The impasse in the IGAD peace process for Sudan: the limits of regional peacemaking? / Abdelwahab El Affendi
In: African Affairs: (2001), vol. 100, no. 401, p. 581-599.

Battle for peace in Sudan : an analysis of the Abuja conferences, 1992-1993/ Steven Wöndu & Ann Lesch. - Lanham, MD [etc.] : University Press of America, 2000

Africans, Arabs, and Islamists : from the conference tables to the battlefields in the Sudan / Robert O. Collins
In: African Studies Review: (1999), vol. 42, no. 2, p. 105-123.

Africa's dilemmas in the Sudan / Francis M. Deng
In: The World Today: (1998), vol. 54, no. 3, p. 72-74 : foto, krt.

book cover We have to sit downWe have to sit down : women, war and peace in southern Sudan/ Mirjam Pol. - Utrecht : Pax Christi, 1998

Conflict in Sudan : the Peace Agreement of April 1997 / Heather Deegan
In: Africa Insight: (1997), vol. 27, no. 3, p. 164-165; 168-170 : krt. , tab.

The Addis Ababa Agreement: 1972-1983 : harbinger of the second civil war in the Sudan / Stephanie F. Beswick
In: Northeast African Studies: (1991), vol. 13, no. 2/3, p. 191-215.

Southern Sudan : too many agreements dishonoured/ Abel Alier. - Exeter : Ithaca, 1990. - (Sudan studies series ; no. 13)

Sudan's Addis Ababa Peace Treaty : why it failed / E. Nyamlell Wakoson
In: Northeast African Studies: (1990), vol. 12, no. 2/3, p. 19-53 : tab.

The Addis Ababa agreement : ten years after : an assessment/ Raphael Koba Badal. - [Khartoum : University of Khartoum], 1985

Human impact of the war

The lost boy/ Aher Arop Bol. - Cape Town : Kwela Books, 2009

War child : a child soldier's story/ Emmanuel Jal & Megan Lloyd Davies. - London : Abacus, 2009

Arming with opportunities : disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and a community-based approach/ Rens C. Willems. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2008

Comparative perspectives on the rehabilitation of ex-slaves and former child soldiers with special reference to Sudan/ Randall Fegley
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2008/09), vol.10, no.1, p.35-69.

God grew tired of us : a memoir/ John Bul Dau & Michael S. Sweeney. - Washington : National Geographic, 2007

Sudanese women refugees : transformations and future imaginings/ Jane Kani Edward. - Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2007

The long way home : contemplations of Southern Sudanese refugees in Uganda/ Christina Bützer. - Berlin : Lit Verlag, 2007. - (Spektrum, Berliner Reihe zu Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik in Entwicklungsländern, ISSN 0176-277X ; 98)

What is the what : the autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng : a novel/ Dave Eggers. - San Francisco : McSweeney's, 2006

book cover I will go the distanceI will go the distance : the story of a "lost" Sudanese boy of the sixties/ Jacob J. Akol. - Nairobi : Paulines Publications Africa, 2005

The lost boys of Sudan : an American story of the refugee experience/ Mark Bixler. - Athens, GA [etc.] : University of Georgia Press, 2005

Travelling with soldiers and bishops : stories of struggling people in Sudan/ Mathew Haumann. - Nairobi : Paulines Publications Africa, 2004

Escape from slavery : the true story of my ten years in captivity - and my journey to freedom in America/ Francis Bok & Edward Tivnan. - New York, NY : St. Martin's Press, 2003

Benjamin and his brother
Part 1
/ Arthur Howes. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2002. - 1 dvd-video (92 min.). : kleur, gel.

Children of the forgotten war : a comparison of two intervention programmes for the promotion of well-being of Sudanese refugee children/ Brechtje Pietersdochter Paardekooper. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2002

Internally displaced, refugees and returnees from and in the Sudan : a review/ Desirée Nilsson. - Copenhagen : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2000. - (Studies on emergencies and disaster relief, ISSN 1400-3120 ; no. 8)

War, politics, and religion : an exploration of the determinants of southern Sudanese migration to the United States and Canada / Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf
In: Northeast African Studies: (1998), n. s. , vol. 5, no. 1, p. 31-46.

No time for childhood : psychosocial interventions for children in war-town [i.e. war-torn] southern Sudan/ Kiki van Kessel. - Nijmegen : Department of Development Studies, Third World Centre, Catholic University of Nijmegen, 1996. - (Occasional paper / Third World Centre ; 53)

Sudan's invisible citizens : the policy of abuse against displaced people in the north / African Rights. - London : African Rights, 1995

The tears of orphans : no future without human rights / Amnesty International. - London : Amnesty International, 1995

War and drought in Sudan : essays on population displacement / Eltigani El Tahir Eltigani (ed.). - Gainesville, Fla. [etc.] : University Press of Florida, 1995

Sudan: the lost boys : child soldiers and unaccompanied boys in Southern Sudan / Lois Whitman & Michelle Baird (ed.). - New York : Human Rights Watch/Africa, 1994. - (Human Rights Watch, Africa, ISSN 1079-2325 ; vol. 6, no. 10)

Vertriebene im eigenen Land : "displaced persons" aus dem Südsudan im Grossraum Khartum / Marina Peter
In: Wuqûf: (1992/93), Nr. 7/8, p. [547]-562 : krt. , tab.

Comprehensive Peace Agreement and peacebuilding

Civic and voter education guidebook / National Election Commission. - [Khartoum] : National Election Commission, 2010

Decisions and deadlines : a critical year for Sudan/ Edward Thomas. - London : Chatham House, 2010. - (A Chatham House report)

book cover Democracy on holdDemocracy on hold : rights violations in the April 2010 Sudan elections/ Tiseke Kasambala. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2010

Handbook for polling staff: the Sudan General Elections - April, 2010 / National Election Commission. - [Khartoum] : National Election Commission, 2010

Justice in Sudan: will the award of the international Abyei Arbitration Tribunal be honoured? / Luka Biong Deng
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2010), vol. 4, no. 2, p. 298-313 : krt. , tab.

Le Sud-Soudan dans l'attente du référendum: un regard sur la formation de l'État par le bas / Anne Walraet
In: Politique africaine: (2010), no. 119, p. 189-205.

Polling & counting guide for election officials, the Sudan General Elections - April 2010 / National Election Commission. - [Khartoum] : National Election Commission, 2010

Southern Sudan referendum act 2009 / National Legislative Council. - [Khartoum] : National Legislative Council, 2010

Sudan's 2010 elections: victories, boycotts and the future of a peace deal / Edward Thomas
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 125, p. 373-379.

Sudanese perspectives on the 2011 referendum/ Richard Downie & Brian Kennedy. - Washington, DC : Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2010. - (A report of the CSIS Africa Program)

An elections reporting handbook / National Election Commission. - [Khartoum] : National Election Commission, 2009

People-to-people peacemaking and peacebuilding: a review of the work of the New Sudan Council of Churches / Titus Agwanda & Geoff Harris
In: African Security Review: (2009), vol. 18, no. 2, p. 42-52.

Scenarios for Sudan: avoiding political violence through 2011/ Alan Schwartz. - Washington, DC : United States Institute of Peace, 2009. - (Special Report 228)

Sudan 2012 : scenarios for the future/ Jaïr van der Lijn. - The Hague : Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, 2009

The rules for elections observation and code of conduct of observers 2009 / National Election Commission. - [Khartoum] : National Election Commission, 2009

Briefing: counting 'new Sudan' / Martina Santschi
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 429, p. 631-640.

Post-conflict peace-building and socio-economic integration issues in Southwest Kordofan/ Abdalbasit Saeed. - [Bergen] : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2008. - (Sudan report, ISSN 1890-7059 ; 2008.3)

Su-dan whose oil ? : Sudan's oil industry facts and analysis, April 2008 / IKV Pax Christi; European Coalition on Oil in Sudan (ECOS). - [S.l.] : IKV Pax Christi, 2008

The narrow prospects of the SPLA/M's transition into a political party in the short term / Jack V. Kalpakian
In: South African Journal of International Affairs: (2008), vol. 15, no. 2, p. 159-183.

Violence et géographie du pouvoir et de l'enrichissement dans la zone frontière de Chukudum (Sud Soudan) / Anne Walraet
In: Politique africaine: (2008), no. 111, p. 90-109 : krt.

Why Abyei matters : the breaking point of Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement? / Douglas H. Johnson
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 426, p. 1-19 : krt.

Building a new and prosperous society in Southern Sudan in the post conflict period/ John Yoh & others / Philip Ochieng (ed.). - Nairobi : African Research and Resource Forum (ARRF), 2007

Post CPA : restructuring and enhancing the Sudanese judiciary as a means of preserving peace / Noha Ibrahim
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2007), Jg. 40, Quart. 4, S. 471-494.

Sudan People's Liberation Army : disarmament in Jonglei and its implications/ John Young. - Tshwane (Pretoria) : Institute for Security Studies, 2007. - (ISS paper, ISSN 1026-0404 ; no. 137)

The South Sudan Defence Force: patriots, collaborators or spoilers / Matthew B. Arnold
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2007), vol. 45, no. 4, p. 489-516.

South Sudan within a new Sudan/ Tim Murithi & Francis Deng. - Cape Town : The Centre for Conflict Resolution, 2006. - (Seminar report ; 13)

Friedensprozess und Verfassungsentwicklung im Sudan / Hatem Elliesie
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2005), Jg. 38, Quart. 3, p. 276-307.

Grounding local peace organisations: a case study of southern Sudan / Dorothea Hilhorst & Mathijs van Leeuwen
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2005), vol. 43, no. 4, p. 537-563.

Quo vadis bil¯ad as-S¯udan? : the contemporary framework for a National Interim Constitution / Hatem Elliesie
In: Recht in Afrika: (2005), Jg. 8, H. 1, p. [63]-81.

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, Sudan People's Liberation Army / Itti.h¯ad al-Wa.tan¯i lil-Shab¯ab al-S¯ud¯an¯i. - [Khartoum?] : National Federation of Sudanese Youth, 2005

Winning the war, but losing the peace? : the dilemma of SPLM/A civil administration and the tasks ahead / Adam Branch & Zachariah Cherian Mampilly
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2005), vol. 43, no. 1, p. 1-20 : fig. , krt.

Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era: challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes'/ Jan Abbink. - Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.], 2004. - (ASC working paper ; 55)

Reformed rebels?: democratization, global norms, and the Sudan People's Liberation Army / Claire Metelits
In: Africa Today: (2004/05), vol. 51, no. 1, p. 65-82.

book cover Winning the peaceReport on winning the peace and starting reconstruction in Southern Sudan : an International Conference on Peace in the Sudan and its implications in the Greater Horn of Africa : September 20-October 3, 2004, Windsor Golf and Country Club Resort, Nairobi, Kenya/ Otuma Ongalo. - Nairobi : [African Research and Resource Forum], 2004. - (ARRF conference series ; 3)

When peace comes : civil society and development in Sudan / Yoanes Ajawin & Alex De Waal (ed.). - Lawrenceville, NJ [etc.] : Red Sea Press, 2002

Who is ruling in South Sudan? : the role of NGOs in rebuilding socio-political order/ Volker Riehl. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet [etc], 2001. - (Studies on emergencies and disaster relief, ISSN 1400-3120 ; no. 9)

Constitutional perspectives on Sudan (proceedings of the IDF seminar) / Michel Hoebink (ed.). - Durham : University of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1999. - (Durham Middle East paper, ISSN 1357-7522 ; no. 62)

Imposing empowerment? : aid and civil institutions in Southern Sudan / African Rights. - London : African Rights, 1995. - (Discussion paper ; no. 7)

Selected web resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites

Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)
Links to full text of the collection of settlements signed between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) in resolution of the country's civil conflict.

AEC Sudan
About the Assessment and Evaluation Commission which was established on October 30, 2005 in accordance with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to monitor and support the implementation of the CPA.

United Nations Mission in the Sudan, established by the Security Council on 24 March 2005 to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The UN magazine, In Sudan, has a special issue on the Referendum, November 2010 (20 p. )

Sudan 2010 elections
UNMIS coverage of the elections

Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC)
Information on the commission organizing Southern Sudan’s referendum on secession, provided by the Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa. The Commission was endorsed by the National Legislature in June 2010.

EU Election Observation Mission to Sudan 2011
Election Observation Mission established by the European Union following an invitation from the SSRC to observe the 2011 Southern Sudan Referendum

Sudan’s referendum
Decades of civil war have devastated Southern Sudan, where basic infrastructure is in ruins, inter-communal conflict widespread and food security a perennial problem. These issues are outlined in this IRIN film and explored in greater depth in extensive text coverage. IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks) is an editorially independent, non-profit project of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

Regions/Countries: Sudan
Sudan pages of the International Crisis Group. Contains amongst others the ICG Briefing, ‘Negotiating Sudan’s North-South Future’, Africa Briefing N°76, 23 November 2010

Sudan Open Archive
Designed and implemented by the Kenya and UK-based Rift Valley Institute, working with institutional partners in the north and south of Sudan, this site offers free digital access to knowledge about all regions of Sudan.

Government of South Sudan