Productive employment in Africa

Decent work posterThe Netherlands Minister for European Affairs and International Cooperation launched five Knowledge Platforms to support Dutch development cooperation in June 2012. There is one for each of the four focal points of Dutch development cooperation − water; food security; security and the rule of law; and sexual and reproductive health and rights − and a general Knowledge Platform on development policies that will consider ways in which economic growth in Africa can be made more inclusive and sustainable. It will focus particularly on youth employment, inclusive growth and social protection.

Governments, business, NGOs and academia will work together in the Knowledge Platforms to develop an agenda for knowledge and research on development cooperation issues. Since the spring of 2014, the African Studies Centre has been hosting the Secretariat for the Knowledge Platform on Development Policies with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS/EUR) and the globalization think-tank The Broker.

As follow-up to its web dossier on social protection (December 2013), the Library, Documentation and Information Department at the African Studies Centre in Leiden has compiled a web dossier on productive employment in Africa, which is one of the other core themes of the Knowledge Platform. It provides the titles on the subject that are available in the ASC Library and have been published in the past five years. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue, which provides further bibliographic details and abstracts, loan information and links to the full text (if available). Links to a number of relevant websites are also included. One of the ASC’s partners, The Broker, has also published a dossier on employment.

Policy issues
Employment for all
Working conditions
Private & informal sector
Case studies
Selected web resources


Productive employment and macro-economic growth, which are increasingly being seen as key factors in reducing poverty, are attracting renewed attention from both academics and policy-makers. However the link between them is not straightforward. Despite rapid growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past fifteen years, large groups of people still remain excluded from progress because economic growth has not created sufficient numbers of productive jobs.

Registered levels of unemployment are not, however, especially high as many people are working in the agricultural or informal services sector where working conditions are generally poor and incomes insufficient to lift people out of poverty. In addition, many workers are ‘underemployed’ and may have part-time jobs that barely yield enough income to make a decent living. This group of the so-called ‘working poor’ mainly consists of women and youth.

Employment challenges are mainly due to the structure of African economies. Most countries have experienced a process of de-industrialization and remain largely dependent on the agricultural sector and the exploitation of natural resources, both of which provide limited and vulnerable employment. In contrast, the African experience with manufacturing, where productivity is higher and jobs generally yield higher incomes, has so far been disappointing. The contribution of manufacturing to productive employment creation is therefore limited.

A key challenge for many African countries is to make economic development more inclusive through a process of structural transformation, in which priority is given to those economic sectors that drive productive employment. This requires a diversification of the production and export structures as well as an enabling policy environment that is favourable to entrepreneurship and innovation.

Policy issues

Travail décent : magazine d'information sur le travail décent en Afrique de l'Ouest. - Dakar 

African economic outlook 2013 : structural transformation and natural resources / African Development Bank;Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Development Centre;United Nations Development Programme;United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. - [Paris] : African Development Bank [etc.], 2013African Economic Outlook cover

Institutions and job growth in African manufacturing : does employment protection regulation matter? / Louise Fox & Ana Maria Oviedo
In: Journal of African Economies: (2013), vol. 22, no. 4, p. 616-650 : graf. , tab.

Promoting productive employment in Sub-Saharan Africa : a review of the literature/ Adam Szirmai. - Maastricht : United Nations University, Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT), 2013. - (UNU-MERIT working paper series, ISSN 1871-9872 ; 2013-062)

Structural transformation in Africa : static gains, dynamic losses/ Gaaitzen de Vries, Marcel Timmer & Klaas de Vries. - Groningen : University of Groningen, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, 2013. - (Groningen Growth and Development Centre ; 136)

Translating growth into poverty reduction : beyond the numbers / Flora Lucas Kessy & others (ed.). - Dar es Salaam : Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers, 2013

Unearthing productive employment : a diagnostic tool for sub-Saharan Africa/ Pedro Martins. - Londen : Overseas Development Institute, 2013. - (Development progress working paper ; 1)

Africa at work : job creation and inclusive growth/ David Fine & others. - Washington, DC : McKinsey Global Institute, 2012

Africa's pulse/ Shanta Devarajan & others. - Washington [etc.] : World Bank/International Bank for Reconstruction [etc.], 2012

Jobs, upliftment, investment capital & the environment (JUICE) : a comprehensive approach to sustainable, inclusive and people-centred development / Movement for Democratic Change, Harare. - Harare : Movement for Democratic Change, 2012

Light manufacturing in Africa : targeted policies to enhance private investment and create jobs / Hinh T. Dinh & others (ed.). - Washington, D.C : World Bank, 2012. - (Africa development forum) Light manufacturing in Africa cover

Participatory development in South Africa : a development management perspective/ Ismail Davids. - Pretoria : Van Schaik, 2012

Public works and social protection in sub-Saharan Africa : do public works work for the poor?/ Anna McCord. - Tokyo [etc.] : United Nations University Press, 2012

Rural microfinance : a strategy for reducing aid dependence for poverty alleviation in rural sub-Saharan Africa / Stephen Mago & Costa Hofisi
In: Africanus: (2012), vol. 42, no. 1, p. 85-97 : fig.

Social protection challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: 'rethinking regimes and commitments' / Horman Chitonge
In: African Studies: (2012), vol. 71, no. 3, p. 323-345 : tab.

The global economic crisis and the developing world : implications and prospects for recovery and growth/ Ashwini Deshpande & Keith Nurse. - London : Routledge, 2012. - (Routledge studies in development economics, ISSN 1359-7884 ; no. 95)

Creating Jobs in a Global Economy 2011 - 2030 : the Hays/Oxford Global Economics report april 2011 / Oxford Economics, Firm;Hays. - Oxford : Oxford Economics, 2011

Development drivers in Africa : role of innovation/ Kobena Tsetse Hanson & Frannie A. Léautier. - Harare : African Capacity Building Foundation, 2011. - (ACBF occasional paper ; no. 14, 2011)

Macroeconomic policy for "full and productive employment and decent work for all" : Uganda country study/ Elisa Van Waeyenberge & Hannah Bargawi. - Geneva : International Labour Office, Employment Sector, Employment Policy Department, 2011. - (Employment working paper ; 91)

Foreign direct investment and labour productivity in South Africa : a research paper/ Anagaw Derseh Mebratie. - Rotterdam : Erasmus University, 2010

Putting Nigeria to work : a strategy for employment and growth / Volker Treichel (ed.). - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2010. - (Directions in development, Countries and regions)

Sustainable development & Africa/ Harry G. Broadman & others. - [Cape Town] : Shikana Media, 2010. - (African analyst quarterly, ISSN 1993-8950 ; vol. 5, no. 1)

Growth and employment strategy paper : reference framework for governement action over the period 2010-2020 / Republic of Cameroon;Republique du Cameroun. - [S.l.] : Republic of Cameroon, 2009

Poverty and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa : an overview of key issues/ Geoff Handley & others. - London : Overseas Development Institute (ODI), 2009. - (ODI working paper, ISSN 1759-2917 ; 299)

Poverty in Africa : analytical and policy perspectives/ Augustin Kwasi Fosu, Germano M. Mwabu & Erik Thorbecke. - Nairobi : University of Nairobi Press, 2009

Report of the vision 2020 Stakeholder Development Committee for Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity / Stakeholder Development Committee (SDC). - [S.l. : Stakeholder Development Committee], 2009

The informal economy in Africa: promoting transition to formality : challenges and strategies / International Labour Office. Employment Sector, Geneva;International Labour Office. Social Protection Sector, Geneva. - Geneva : International Labour Organization, 2009

Employment for all

Does intra-African trade reduce youth unemployment in Africa? / John C. Anyanwu
In: African Development Review: (2014), vol. 26, no. 2, p. 286-309 : graf. , tab. 

Youth and employment in Sub-Saharan Africa : working but poor/ Hiroyuki Hino & Gustav Ranis. - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2014. - (Routledge studies in development economics, ISSN 1359-7884 ; 107)

Youth employment in Sub-Saharan Africa/ Deon Filmer & Louise Fox. - Washington : World Bank Publications, 2014. - (Africa Development Forum) Youth employment in SSA cover

African youth in agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Foday Bojang & Ada Ndeso-Atanga (ed.). - Accra : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013. - (Nature et faune, ISSN 2026-5611 ; vol. 28, no. 1)

Characteristics and macroeconomics determinants of youth employment in Africa / John C. Anyanwu
In: African Development Review: (2013), vol. 25, no. 2, p. 107-129 : graf. , tab.

Determinants of black women's labour force participation in post-apartheid South Africa / Miracle Ntuli & Martin Wittenberg
In: Journal of African Economies: (2013), vol. 22, no. 3, p. 347-374 : tab.

Gender equality in employment in Africa: empirical analysis and policy implications / John C. Anyanwu & Darline Augustine
In: African Development Review: (2013), vol. 25, no. 4, p. 400-420 : fig. , tab.

Recruitment and female labour in Tanzanian hospitality companies: an exploration / Gundula Fischer
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2013), vol. 31, no. 1, p. 62-76 : tab.

Youth employment in Kenya : analysis of labour market and policy interventions/ Jacob Omolo. - Nairobi : 2012. - (FES Kenya occasional paper ; 1)

A glimpse of urban youth unemployment in Ethiopia / Shumete Gizaw
In: Ethiopian Journal of Development Research: (2011), vol. 33, no. 2, p. 1-41 : fig. , graf. , krt. , tab.

Analytical report on the 2011 urban employment unemployment survey / Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Central Statistical Agency. - Addis Ababa : Central Statistical Agency, 2011

Étude d'impact des programmes TPC & JFA du Fonds National de Promotion de la Jeunesse (FNPJ) : rapport final / Fonds National de Promotion de la Jeunesse (FNPJ), Senegal. - Dakar : FNPJ, 2011

Youth unemployment, firm size and reservation wages in South Africa / Neil A. Rankin & Gareth Roberts
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2011), vol. 79, no. 2, p. 128-145 : fig. , graf. , tab.

Urban youth labour supply and employment policy in Côte dIvoire/ Clement Kouadio Kouakou. - Nairobi : African Economic Research Consortium, 2011. - (AERC research paper ; 240)

Access to paid work and women's empowerment in Rwanda / Jeannette Bayisenge
In: Rwanda Journal. Series B, Social Sciences: (2010), vol. 19, p. 84-106 : tab.

Défis d'accès au marché du travail : quelles alternatives pour les jeunes burundais? / Centre d'Alerte et de Prévention des Conflits (CENAP), Burundi;Interpeace, Geneve. - Bujumbura : CENAP, 2010

Economic crisis and women's employment in urban Kenya = De economische crisis and werkgelegenheid voor vrouwen in stedelijke gebieden in Kenia/ Wambui Rose Wamuthenya. - Maastricht : Shaker Publishing, 2010

Factors associated with employment status among graduates in South Africa / O. Akinyemi
In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: (2010), vol. 26, no. 2, p. 77-91 : graf. , tab.

Female participation in the labour market of Botswana : results from the 2005/06 labour force survey data / Happy Siphambe & Masedi Motswapong
In: The Botswana Journal of Economics: (2010), vol. 7, no. 11, p. 65-78 : fig. , tab.

Gender disparities in Africa's labor market/ Jorge Saba Arbache, Alexandre Kolev & Ewa Filipiak. - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2010. - (Africa development forum)

Genre et changement social en Afrique / Marguerite Rollinde (ed.). - Paris : Archives contemporaines, 2010. - (Manuels)

Kenya's vision 2030 : an audit from an income and gender inequalities perspective / Society for International Development. Regional Office for Eastern Africa. - Nairobi : Society for International Development, Regional Office for Eastern Africa, 2010

Stratégie de survie et culture de jeunes dans les marchés urbains de Dakar : cas des adolescentes travailleuses (Sénégal) / Rosalie A. Diop
In: African Sociological Review: (2010), vol. 14, no. 1, p. 67-83.

Survivre à la pauvreté et à l'exclusion : le travail des adolescentes dans les marchés de Dakar/ Rosalie Aduayi Diop. - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2010. - (Hommes et sociétés, ISSN 0290-6600)

The impact of the investment climate on employment growth : does Sub-Saharan Africa mirror other low-income regions?/ Reyes Aterido & Mary Hallward-Driemeier. - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2010. - (Policy research working paper ; 5218)

Why poor people stay poor : a cross-cultural study in developing countries/ Siddhartha Sarkar. - Saarbrücken : Lap Lambert, 2010

A gender-based investigation into the determinants of labour market outcomes : evidence from Uganda / Sarah Bridges & David Lawson
In: Journal of African Economies: (2009), vol. 18, no. 3, p. 461-495 : tab.

Pauvreté, chômage et émigration des jeunes Africains : quelles alternatives?/ Essè Amouzou. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2009. - (Études africaines)

Statistical report on the urban employment [and] unemployment survey. - Addis Ababa

Working conditions

The gender wage gap in post-apartheid South Africa: a re-examination / Haroon Bhorat & Sumayya Goga
In: Journal of African Economies: (2013), vol. 22, no. 5, p. 827-848 : tab.

Développement social des entreprises camerounaises/ Joseph Epee Ekwalla. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (Problématiques africaines)

Wilting in bloom : the irony of women labour rights in the cut-flower sector in Kenya / Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. - Nairobi : Kenya Human Rights Commission, 2012 Wilting in bloom cover

Wages and working conditions of private security workers in Ghana / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Ghana Office;Ghana Trades Union Congress;Labour Research & Policy Institute. - [S.l.] : Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Ghana, 2011

Blumengrüße aus Kenia - zu welchem Preis? : das kenianische Arbeitsrecht und seine Umsetzung auf den Blumenplantagen / Katrin Merhof
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2010), Jg. 43, Quart. 4, S. 464-481.

From formal- to informal-sector employment : examining the Chinese presence in Zambia / Aleksandra W. Gadzala
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 123, p. 41-59.

La précarité du travail au Sénégal : l'expérience des employés de la Sococim et des ICS/ Séga Guèye. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (Études africaines)

Spinning and weaving discontent : labour relations and the production of meaning at Zambia-China Mulungushi Textiles / Andrew Brooks
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2010), vol. 36, no. 1, p. 113-132.

Do exporting firms pay higher wages? : evidence from Kenya's manufacturing sector / Maureen Were & Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa
In: African Development Review: (2009), vol. 21, no. 3, p. 435-453 : tab.

Great expectations : working conditions in South Africa since the end of apartheid / Nicolas Pons-Vignon & Ward Anseeuw
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2009), vol. 35, no. 4, p. 883-899.

Industrial relations : the theory, the practice in Ghana/ Ben Jones Agbai. - [Ghana] : Sylvapress Ventures, 2009

Rise of the temporary employment industry in Namibia: a regulatory 'fix' / Gilton Klerck
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2009), vol. 27, no. 1, p. 85-103 : fig.

Wage and employment effects of trade and other macroeconomic policy reforms : evidence from Nigeria's manufacturing sector/ Adeolu O. Adewuyi / Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research. - Ibadan : Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), 2009. - (NISER monograph series ; no. 2, 2009)

Wage gaps and job sorting in African manufacturing / Marcel Fafchamps, Måns Söderbom & Najy Benhassine
In: Journal of African Economies: (2009), vol. 18, no. 5, p. 824-868 : graf. , tab.

Private & informal sector

Challenges of e-society for informal sector women entrepreneurs of Hlabisa local municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa / Veli Jiyane
In: Innovation: (2014), no. 48, p. 87-112 : tab. 

Économie informelle et violation des droits humains syndicaux des travailleurs au Mali/ Moulaye Hassane Tall. - Bamako : Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2014

Entrepreneurs by the grace of God : life and work of seamstresses in Bolgatanga, Ghana/ Merel van 't Wout. - [S.l. s.n.], 2014

Africa's informal workers cover

Femmes d'affaires de Mauritanie/ Céline Lesourd. - Paris : Karthala, 2014. - (Hommes et sociétés) 

Informal economic activity in Kenya: benefits and drawbacks / Sr Hope
In: African Geographical Review: (2014), vol. 33, no. 1, p. 67-80 : graf.

Women and the informal economy in urban Africa : from the margins to the centre/ Mary Njeri Kinyanjui. - London : Zed Books, in association with Nordic Africa Institute, 2014. - (Africa now)

Corporate responsibility and development in post-apartheid South Africa / Joanna Bishop & Tony Binns
In: The Australasian Review of African Studies: (2013), vol. 34, no. 2, p. 9-34 : krt. , tab.

How large is the private sector in Africa? : evidence from national accounts and labour markets / Marco Stampini & others
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2013), vol. 81, no. 1, p. 140-165 : graf. , tab.

Innovation in high-technology SMMEs : the case of the new media sector in Cape Town / Irma Booyens, Neo Molotja & Madalitso Z. Phiri
In: Urban Forum: (2013), vol. 24, no. 2, p. 289-306 : ill. , tab.

Building a partnership between the public & pivate sectors for improved service delivery and sustainable development in Nigeria: a myth or a reality? / Chuks P. Maduabum
In: Cahiers africains d'administration publique: (2012), no. 78, p. 9-27 : tab.

Educating women entrepreneurs in Kigali, Rwanda : expanding capabilities for enhancing entrepreneurship in a socially just context?/ Carolien Vis. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2012

Everything is connected: an interpretive study of local economic development in South Africa/ Hazel Mutsa Kwaramba. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2012

Gender alternatives for Africa's development : method and evidence / Manthiba M. Phalane & Antonia T. Okoosi-Simbine (ed.). - Dakar : CODESRIA, 2012. - (CODESRIA gender series ; 9)

Gender, social capital and entrepreneurship in Cameroon/ Vukenkeng Andrew Wujung
In: Gender relations in Cameroon: multidisciplinary perspectives / Emmanuel Yenshu Vubo.- Mankon : Langaa Research & Publishing CIG: (2012), p.123-150 : graf., tab.

Les partenariats public-privé : un moteur pour le développement / Olivier Stintzy
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2012), no. 45, p. 207-214.

Market-based and rights-based approaches to the informal economy : a comparative analysis of the policy implications/ Antti Vainio. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2012. - (Policy dialogue, ISSN 1654-6709 ; 7)

The informal sector as a catalyst for employment generation in Lagos State, Nigeria / Akeem Ayofe Akinwale
In: African and Asian Studies: (2012), vol. 11, no. 3, p. 315-344 : tab.

Toward addressing skills development and employment crisis in Uganda : the role of public private partnerships / Augustus Nuwagaba
In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: (2012), vol. 28, no. 1, p. 91-116 : fig. , graf. , tab.

Factors affecting loan repayment performance of women in Ethiopia : analysis of the case of Harar Microfinance Institution/ Samiya Abdullahi. - Saarbrücken : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011

Is microcredit a viable strategy for empowering women? : a review of selected NGO programmes in Africa / Seidu Al-hassan
In: Ghana Journal of Development Studies: (2011), vol. 8, no. 1, p. 72-89 : graf. , tab.

L'économie informelle en Afrique subsaharienne/ Komi Djadé. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011. - (Études africaines)

Negotiating the global and the local : evaluating development through public-private partnerships in Durban, South Africa / Jennifer Houghton
In: Urban Forum: (2011), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 75-93 : krt.

Private sector development as poverty and strategic discourse: PSD in the political economy of EU-Africa trade relations / Mark Langan
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2011), vol. 49, no. 1, p. 83-113 : tab.

Taxi sister / Theresa Traore Dahlberg. - [S.l.] : Reaktor, 2011. - 1 dvd-video (28 min.). : kleur, gel.

Africa's informal workers : collective agency, alliances and transnational organizing in urban Africa / Ilda Lindell (ed.). - London [etc.] : Zed Books [etc.], 2010. - (Africa now)

In search of public sector-private sector partnerships for local economic development in South Africa / Christian M. Rogerson
In: Urban Forum: (2010), vol. 21, no. 4, p. 441-456 : tab.

Micro and small enterprises as vehicles for poverty reduction, employment creation, and business development : the Ethiopian experience/ Gebre Tegegne & Ayenew Meheret. - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies (FSS), 2010. - (FSS research report ; no. 6)

Between exit and voice: informality and the spaces of popular agency / Ilda Lindell
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2009/10), vol. 11, no. 2/3, p. 1-11.

De la finance formelle et informelle à la microfinance/ Bouakary Sidiki Diakite. - Paris : [Menaibuc [etc.], 2009. - (Collection microfinance et développement)

Dow-Jane and Dow-Jones : negotiating an integration of the informal and formal economies in Africa / Roseline M. Achieng
In: African Sociological Review: (2009), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 29-45.

Enterprising women in urban Zimbabwe : gender, microbusiness, and globalization/ Mary Johnson Osirim. - Washington, DC [etc] : Woodrow Wilson Center Press [etc.], 2009

Microfinance et financement du développement/ Bouakary Sidiki Diakite. - Paris : [Edilac [etc.], 2009. - (Collection microfinance et développement)

Survival of the fittest? : Kenya's 'jua kali' and Chinese businesses / Aleksandra Gadzala
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2009), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 202-220.

Case studies

Does human capital protect workers against exogenous shocks? : evidence from panel data on South Africa during the 2008-2009 crisis / Ronald Leung, Marco Stampini & Desire Vencatachellum
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2014), vol. 82, no. 1, p. 99-116 : graf. , tab. Putting Nigeria to work cover

Job creation and destruction in South Africa / Andrew Kerr, Martin Wittenberg & Jairo Arrow
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2014), vol. 82, no. 1, p. 1-18 : graf. , tab.

Decent work country programme for Zimbabwe 2012-2015 / International Labour Organization, Geneva. - Geneva : International Labour Organization, 2013

FDI, employment and economic growth in Nigeria / John Nkwoma Inekwe
In: African Development Review: (2013), vol. 25, no. 4, p. 421-433 : graf. , tab.

The dynamics of job creation and job destruction in an African economy : evidence from Ethiopia / Admasu Shiferaw & Arjun S. Bedi
In: Journal of African Economies: (2013), vol. 22, no. 5, p. 651-692 : graf. , tab.

Trade-induced unemployment : the case of post-apartheid South Africa / Koen Smet
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2013), vol. 81, no. 2, p. 240-259 : fig. , tab.

Zambia decent work country programme 2013-2016 / Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Lusaka;International Labour Organisation. Country Office. Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, Lusaka. - Lusaka : Ministry of Labour and Social Security [etc.], 2013

Analyse géographique du parcours sciences et techniques: cas de l'Université de N'gaoundere / Mediebou Chindji & Michel Tchotsoua
In: Journal of Higher Education in Africa: (2012)

Giving up job search during a recession : the impact of the global financial crisis on the South African labour market / Sher Verick
In: Journal of African Economies: (2012), vol. 21, no. 3, p. 373-408 : graf. , tab.

Le régime de la zone franche industrielle au Cameroun (ZFIC) : résultats mitigés d'une stratégie d'industrialisation / Aurore Sara Ngo Balepa
In: Les cahiers d'outre-mer: (2012), vol. 65, no. 259, p. 339-369 : fig. , graf. , krt. , tab.

Making communities work? : casual labour practices and local civil society dynamics in Delft, Cape Town / Marianne Millstein & David Jordhus-Lier
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2012), vol. 38, no. 1, p. 183-201 : krt.

Private returns on education in Ghana: estimating the effects of education on employability in Ghana / Prince Asafu-Adjaye
In: African Sociological Review: (2012), vol. 16, no. 1, p. 120-138 : tab.

Baseline on employment generating policies in Zambia/ Grayson Koyi & Naz Lutato / Jesuit Centre for Theological Reflection. - Lusaka : Jesuit Centre for Theological Reflection, 2011

Employment in Sierra Leone : what happened to post-conflict job creation? / P. Christine Cubitt
In: African Security Review: (2011), vol. 20, no. 1, p. 2-14 : graf.

Entrepreneuriat et innovation au Congo-Brazzaville/ Jean Christophe Boungou Bazika. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011. - (Études africaines)

From inequality to inclusive growth : South Africa's pursuit of shared prosperity in extraordinary times / J. H Hofmeyr (ed.). - Cape Town : Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, 2011

Changing youth dynamics in Lusaka's informal economy in the context of economic liberalization / Karen Tranberg Hansen
In: African Studies Quarterly: (2009/10), vol. 11, no. 2/3, p. 13-27.

Growth, employment and unemployment in South Africa / Duncan Hodge
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2009), vol. 77, no. 4, p. 488-504 : graf. , tab.

Sectors & skills : the need for policy alignment/ Andre Kraak. - Cape Town : Human Sciences Research Council, 2009

The effects of the global economic and financial crisis on the Ghanaian economy and labour market/ Kwabena Nyarko Otoo & Prince Asafu-Adjaye. - Accra : Labour Research and Policy Institute of Ghana Trades Union Congress, 2009. - (Working paper Labour Research and Policy Institute)

The labour market in Ghana : a descriptive analysis of the labour market component of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (V)/ Kwabena Nyarko Otoo, Clara Osei-Boateng & Prince Asafu-Adjaye. - Accra : Labour Research and Policy Institute of Ghana Trades Union Congress, 2009. - (Working paper Labour Research and Policy Institute ; 1/2009)

Selected Web Resources

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Africa at Work: Job Creation and Inclusive Growth
The McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) presents a comprehensive exploration of Africa’s employment landscape in this August 2012 report.

The Broker: Employment Dossier
To coincide with the release of this web dossier, the think-tank The Broker (one of the ASC’s partners) has compiled a dossier on employment, including a list of information resources on the subject.

Development Progress: Employment
Development Progress, a four-year research project that is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and is based at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in the UK, measures progress across eight dimensions of well-being, including employment. Case studies and associated materials focus on countries that have generated productive employment opportunities for their citizens over the last two decades. The site has blogs on, among other things, the World Bank’s 2013 World Development Report on Jobs and a working paper entitled ‘Unearthing Productive Employment: A Diagnostic Tool for Sub-Saharan Africa’.

Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM)
The ILO’s multi-functional research tool consists of country-level data on 18 key indicators of the labour market from 1980 to the most recently available year. KILM provides employment by sector (although not broken down by employment status) for various African countries: Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda.

The Post-2015 Development Agenda
This ILO page on the new Decent Work for All development goal contains background resources such as its Concept Note #1 Development Happens Through Jobs and its Concept Note #2 Jobs and Livelihoods: Meaningful Ways to Set Targets and Monitor Progress

Promoting Youth Employment in Africa
The African Economic Outlook on Youth Employment (2012). The AEO is a collaborative product complied by three international partners: the African Development Bank, the OECD Development Centre and the United Nations Development Programme.

Selected ILO Resources
Other interesting ILO information can be found on their pages on Africa. Their global research pages offer reports on global employment trends, global wages and global trends in quality job creation. Their global pages offer information on many topics related to productive employment.

Skills for Youth
The Skills for Youth Employment and Rural Development Programme is a five-year partnership between the ILO and the Danish Africa Commission that is supporting social partners in Zimbabwe (Benin and Burkina Faso) to address the challenges of youth employment and rural development.

World Bank: Portal on Jobs and Development
The World Bank maintains an up-to-date portal on jobs and development.

World Development Report 2013 on Jobs
The World Bank’s World Development Report 2013 focuses on jobs. It stresses the role of strong private-sector-led growth in creating jobs and outlines how jobs that do the most for development can spur a virtuous cycle. The website also offers links to background literature.

Want to keep up-to-date on labour issues in Africa? Subscribe to the ASC Library’s alert on labour in Africa.
Or join one of our other country- or subject-specific alerts.

Also have a look at the ASC’s thematic map Africa’s Economic Growth from a Labour Perspective: Selected Decent Work Indicators.