Language, conciliation and conflict in Africa

Community meetingTo coincide with the 25th anniversary celebrations of the NVAS (Netherlands Association for African Studies) on 9 and 10 December, the ASCL Library compiled a web dossier on language, conciliation and conflict in Africa. This web dossier contains titles from the ASCL Library catalogue, extended with sources from the broader Leiden University Library collection. Titles link to the corresponding record, which provides abstracts and full text links, if available. The dossier concludes with a number of relevant web resources.

Introduction | General | Language and conciliation | Political rhetoric | Public discourse, conflict and protest | Persuasion with(out) words | Web resources


The NVAS dedicates its jubilee conference to Africa’s most widely acknowledged contribution to the heritage of mankind: spoken mediation. This is a multimodal phenomenon that encompasses spoken words, songs, bodily gestures and communicative silence. Each of these means of communication can serve to break up or cement social cohesion. As we know from premodern and modern history, often the fighting with words can be as harmful as fighting with swords. Polemics of religion, identity - such as ethnic affiliation and sexual orientation - or politics often precede or are contemporaneous with physical violence. Similarly, in reconciliation and cooperation, speech, in all its expressive forms, is an essential resource.

NVAS’s 25th anniversary will be celebrated on 9 and 10 December with a keynote lecture, panels, a (mini) book market and festive activities. The conference will bring together specialists from different fields of studies - linguistics, anthropology, communication studies, literature, rhetoric, history, politics, social media studies, economics - to discuss the dual functions of language in social relations.
Read the full programme (pdf)



Approaches to Language and Culture / Svenja Völkel and Nico Nassenstein (eds.)Cover Rhetoric and social relations
Berlin ; Boston : De Gruyter, Inc , 2022.

Les métamorphoses africaines et leurs langages : une analyse de discours politiques, médiatiques et littéraires contemporains / Flora Amabiamina and Ferdinand Njoh Kome (eds.)
Paris : L'Harmattan , 2021.

Rhetoric and social relations : dialectics of bonding and contestation / J. Abbink and Shauna LaTosky (eds.)
New York Oxford : Berghahn Books , 2021.

Oralité, traditions et modernité en Afrique au XXIe siècle / Maurice Amuri Mpala-Lutebele (ed.)
Paris : L'Harmattan ; [Lumbumbashi (RD Congo)] : Presses universitaires de Lubumbashi , 2019.

Decolonisation of materialities or materialisation of (re-)colonisation? : symbolisms, languages, ecocriticism and (non)representationalism in 21st century Africa / Artwell Kangira Nhemachena, Jairos and Nelson Mlambo (eds.)
Mankon, Bamenda, Cameroon : Langaa Research & Publishing CIG , 2018.

Researching Africa : explorations of everyday African encounters / Mirjam de Bruijn and Daniela Merolla (eds.)
Leiden : African Studies Centre , 2010.

Communication in an era of global conflicts : principles and strategies for 21st century Africa / Ritchard M'Bayo, et al. (eds.)
Lanham, MD [etc.] : University Press of America , 2009.

Culture & rhetoric / Ivo A. Strecker and Stephen A. Tyler
New York, NY [etc.] : Berghahn Books , 2009.

Language, literature, and social discourse in Africa : essays in honour of Emmanuel Nges Chia / Vincent A. Tanda, et al. (eds.)
Bamenda : Agwecams , 2009.

African communication systems : concepts, channels and messages / Abigail Odozi Ogwezzy
Bowie, Md : African Renaissance Books , 2008.

Language, power and society : orality and literacy in the Horn of Africa / Cedric Barnes (ed.)
Abingdon : Taylor & Francis , 2006.


Language and conciliation

An investigation into the role of traditional leaders in conflict resolution : the case of communities in the Mahikeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa / Lovelyne MbohCover Beyond history
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, volume 21 (2021), no. 2, p. 33-57 (2021)

National dialogue and social cohesion in Zambia / Kabale Ignatius Mukunto
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, volume 21 (2021), no. 2, p. 58-80

Beyond history : African agency in development, diplomacy and conflict resolution / David Mwambari, Elijah Nyaga Munyi, Aleksi Ylönen (eds.)
London, UK : Rowman & Littlefield International Ltd. , 2020.

Beyond mediation : exploring indigenous models, narratives, and contextualization / Daniel Njoroge Karanja
Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield, an imprint of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. , 2020.

Language of reconciliation: Airing grievances during the Hogbetsotso / Kofi Dorvlo
In: Essays on African languages an linguistics : in honour of Maarten Mous / Van der Wal, Jenneke; Smits, Heleen; Petrollino, Sara; Nyst, Victoria; Kossmann, Maarten G. (eds.), (2020)

From red earth : a Rwandan story of healing and forgiveness / Denise Uwimana
Walden, New York : Plough Publishing House , 2019.

Mediation and governance in fragile contexts : small steps to peace / Dekha Ibrahim Abdi
Boulder, Colorado : Kumarian Press , 2019.

The wheel of autonomy : rhetoric and ethnicity in the Omo Valley / Felix Girke
New York : Berghahn Books , 2018.

Literature, integration and harmony in northern Nigeria / Hamzat I. Abdulraheem, et al. (eds.)
Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria : Kwara State University Press , 2017.

The role of language in peacebuilding : the case of the 2008 Kenyan coalition government / Margaret Nasambu Barasa
In: African conflict & peacebuilding review , vol. 6, no. 2, p. 74-93 (2016)

Arabic and Islamic textual interpretations on religious tolerance / Badmas O. Yusuf, et al.
[Jos] : Nigeria Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS) , 2015.

Special issue: the participatory turn and self-expression / Mariekie Burger
Abingdon : Taylor & Francis , 2015.

Conditional tense : memory and vocabulary after the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission / Antjie Krog
London : Seagull Books , 2013.

Customary dispute resolution in Somalia / Mahdi Abdile
In: African conflict & peacebuilding review , vol. 2, no. 1, p. 87-110 (2012)

And still peace did not come : a memoir of reconciliation / Agnes Fallah Kamara-Umunna Cover And still peace did not come
New York : Hyperion , 2011.

Zangbeto : navigating between the spaces of oral art, communal security and conflict mediation in Badagry, Nigeria / Folashade Hunsu
Uppsala : Nordiska , 2011.

Reflections on orality and cultural expression: orality as a peace culture / Helen Oronga A. Mwanzi
In: Journal des africanistes , t. 80, fasc. 1/2, p. 63-74 (2010)

Metaphors of peace and violence in the folklore discourses of South-Western Ethiopia : a comparative study / Bayleyegn Tasew
[S.l. : s.n.] , 2009.

African approaches to building peace and social solidarity / Tim Murithi
In: African journal on conflict resolution , vol. 6, no. 2, p. 9-33 (2006)

Deciphering the language of mediatory intervention in South Africa / John Faris
In: The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa , vol. 39, no. 3, p. 427-449 (2006)

Rhetoric and anthropology / Philippe-Joseph Salazar
In: Anthropology Southern Africa , vol. 29, no. 3/4, p. 67-73 (2006)

War destroys, peace nurtures : Somali reconciliation and development / Richard Ford, et al.
Lawrenceville, NJ [etc.] : Red Sea Press , 2004.

Griots at war : conflict, conciliation, and caste in Mande / Barbara G. Hoffman
Bloomington [etc.] : Indiana University Press , 2000.

The griot's craft : an essay on oral tradition and diplomacy / Jan Jansen
Münster [etc.] : Lit , 2000.

The Mantis, the Eland and the Meerkats : conflict and mediation in a nineteenth-century San myth / J. D. Lewis-Williams
In: African studies : a quarterly journal devoted to the study of African administration, cultures and languages , spec. issue, vol. 56, no. 2, p. 195-216 : fig (1997)

Speaking for the chief : kyeame and the politics of Akan royal oratory / Kwesi Yankah
Bloomington, [Ind., etc.] : Indiana University Press , 1995.

Social and psychological aspects of greeting among the Ewes of West Africa / E. Y. Egblewogbe
In: Research review , n.s., vol. 6, no. 2, p. 8-18 : tab (1990)

The public meeting as a means of participation in political and social activities in Africa / Robert G. Armstrong
In: Socio-political aspects of the palaver in some African countries , p. 11-26 (1979)

Giriama reconciliation / Marquerite Johnston
In: African law studies , no. 16, p. 92-130 (1978)


Political rhetoric

L'art oratoire chez Paul Biya à l'ère du multipartisme au Cameroun : discours, mises en scène argumentatives et relation au pouvoir / Clébert Agenor Njimeni NjiotangCover L'art oratoire de Paul Biya
Paris : L'Harmattan , 2021.

Mots sur les maux du Congo : le discours sociopolitique de Laurent Cardinal Monsengwo Pasinya / Ignace Ndongala Maduku
Paris : L'Harmattan , 2021.

Zimbabwe's paradoxical 'new dispensation' : political harm, endemic impunity and unending silences, 2017-2020 / Terence Motida Mashingaidze
In: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Africanos, volume 6 (2021), no. 11, p. 151-165

Analysing the discourse on corruption in presidential speeches in Nigeria, 1957- 2015 : systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis frameworks / Hakeem Olafemi Ogunmuyiwa
Cape Town : University of Western Cape , 2019.

Exercice et médiation de la parole politique : entre non-dire et trop-dire : la présidentielle 2019 au Sénégal / Birahim Thioune
Dakar : Harmattan Sénégal , 2019.

Perspectives on political communication in Africa / Bruce Mutsvairo and Beschara Sharlene Karam (eds.)
Cham, Switzerland : Palgrave Macmillan , 2018.

From convenient hibernation to circumstantial desperation : hate speech, party political communication and the Nigeria’s 2015 general elections / Mike Omilusi
In: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Africanos, v. 2, n. 4, p. 160-183 (2017)

New media and democracy in Nigeria : an appraisal of the opportunities and threats in the terrain / Tordue Simone Targema
In: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Africanos, v. 2, n. 4, p. 198-209 (2017)

Patriotic history and anti-LGBT rhetoric in Zimbabwean politics / Jeremy R. Youde
In: Canadian journal of African studies , vol. 51, no. 1, p. 61-79 (2017)

Race, religion and resistance: revelations from the Juba archive / Christopher Tounsel
In: Journal of eastern African studies : journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa , vol. 11, no. 2, p. 249-265 (2017)

The lion and his pride : the politics of commemoration in Cameroon / Kathrin Tiewa
Köln : Rüdiger Köppe Verlag , 2016.

Culture, catastrophe, and rhetoric : the texture of political action / Robert Hariman and Ralph Cintron (eds.)
New York : Berghahn Books , 2015.

The state of the nation : "businification" of political rhetoric in post-Apartheid South Africa / Irina Turner
Berlin : Lit , 2015.

The persuasive nature of metaphors in Kenya’s political discourse / Leonard Muaka
In: Languages in Africa : multilingualism, language policy, and education / Zsiga, Elizabeth C.; Tlale Boyer, One; Kramer, Ruth; (eds.) (2014)

Rethinking political rhetoric and authority during Rwanda's First and Second Republics / Marie-EÌ€ve Desrosiers
In: Africa : journal of the International African Institute , vol. 84, no. 2, p. 199-225 (2014)

Remembering Nyerere : political rhetoric and dissent in contemporary Tanzania / Felicitas Becker
In: African affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society , vol. 112, no. 447, p. 238-261 : ill (2013)

State fragility in Africa: methods chasing problems or problems chasing methods in political discourse? / Mxolisi Notshulwana
In: International journal of African renaissance studies : multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity , vol. 6, no. 2, p. 81-99 (2011)

Democratic discourse? : realising alternatives in Zimbabwean political discourse / Alison Love
In: Zambezia : a journal of social studies in Southern and Central Africa , vol. 27, no. 1, p. 27-45 (2000)


Public discourse, conflict and protest

The politics of conflict in Northern Ethiopia, 2020-2021 : a study of war-making, media bias and policy struggle / J. AbbinkCover Biographies of radicalization
Leiden : African Studies Centre , 2021.

Algeria’s 2019 uprising and the significance of slogans : towards a discourse analysis / Meriem Serhani
In: Revue Akofena : revue scientifique des sciences du langage, lettres, langues et communication, no. 2, vol. 1, pages 53-76 (2020)

Biographies of radicalization : hidden messages of social change / Mirjam de Bruijn (ed.)
Berlin : De Gruyter Oldenbourg , 2019.

Creed & grievance : muslim-christian relations & conflict resolution in Northern Nigeria / Abdul Raufu Mustapha and David Ehrhardt (eds.)
Woodbridge : James Currey Publishers , 2018.

Défis des églises africaines dans l'espace public : prendre la parole ou éluder la parole? / Jimi P. Zacka
In: Éthique & société : revue de réflexion morale volume 14, numéros 1-2, pages 81-98 (2018)

Digital democracy, analogue politics : how the Internet era is transforming politics in Kenya / Nanjala Nyabola
London : Zed Books in association with International African Institute Royal African Society World Peace Foundation , 2018.

Gogo Breeze : Zambia's radio elder and the voices of free speech / Harri Englund
Chicago ; London : The University of Chicago Press , 2018.

La parole publique dans les médias au Sénégal : les discours médiés du politique et du religieux / Moustapha Thioune Diop
Dakar : L'Harmattan Sénégal , 2018.

Humor, silence, and civil society in Nigeria / Ebenezer Obadare
Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press , 2016.

Ethics in ethnic media : assessing the ethical and professional competence of vernacular radio stations when discussing sensitive issues in Kenya / Amos Kibet
Nairobi : Media Council of Kenya , 2015.

A multimodel approach to the study of discourse of protest : an example of the federal government of Nigeria and the Nigeria Labour Congress face off / Abdullahi Idiagbon
In: Zango: Zambian journal of contemporary issues, vol. 31 (2015), p. 81-98 (2015)

The political rhetoric in sermons and select social media in three Pentecostal Charismatic Evangelical churches leading up to the 2014 South African Election / Maria Frahm-Arp
In: Journal for the study of religion , vol. 28, no. 1, p. 115-141 (2015)

Sacralising cyberspace: online religious activism in Ethiopia /
In: Modern Africa : politics, history and society (2015), vol. 3, no. 2

Contextualising the hate speech debate : the United States and South Africa / Alexander Traum
In: The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa , vol. 47, no. 1, p. 64-88 (2014)

Special issue: Language politics in Africa / Theodorus Du Plessis
Oxford : Routledge , 2014.

Prepaid social media and mobile discourse in South Africa / Marion Walton
In: Journal of African media studies , vol. 5, no. 2, p. 149-167 : fig., tab (2013)

Negotiating social change : Ugandan discourses on Westernisation and neo-colonialism as forms of social critique / Julia Vorhölter
In: The journal of modern African studies : a quarterly survey of politics, economics and related topics in contemporary Africa , vol. 50, no. 2, p. 283-307 (2012)

Special issue: Language politics in Africa / Theodorus Du Plessis
Oxford : Routledge , 2012.

Violence, hate speech and inflammatory broadcasting in Kenya : the problems of definition and identification / Keith Somerville
In: Ecquid novi : Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir navorsing in die joernalistiek , vol. 32, no. 1, p. 82-101 (2011)

Ethnographic chiasmus : essays on culture, conflict and rhetoric / Ivo Strecker
Berlin [etc.] : Lit [etc.] , 2010.

Special issue on language, literature and power in the public sphere : selected papers from the 12th CODESRIA General Assembly, 2008 = Numéro spécial sur la langue, la littérature et le pouvoir dans l'espace public : avec des articles issus de la 12e assemblée générale du CODESRIA, 2008 / Théophile Ambadiang and Codesria General Assembly (eds.)
Dakar : CODESRIA , 2010.

Language and collective mobilization : the story of Zanzibar / Nadra O. Hashim
Lanham, MD [etc.] : Lexington Books , 2009.

Newspapers in Hargeysa: freedom of speech in post-conflict Somaliland / Markus V. HöhneCover Power in colonial Africa
In: Afrika spectrum , Jg. 43, H. 1, p. 91-113 (2008)

The social life of Sankambe and friends: notes on social discord in African oral literature / Jean-Marie Dederen
In: Nordic journal of African studies , vol. 17, no. 3, p. 211-227 (2008)

Crossing rural-urban spaces : the 'Takumbeng' and activism in Cameroon's democratic crusade / Charles C. Fonchingong
In: Cahiers d'études africaines , vol. 47, cah. 185, p. 117-143 (2007)

Power in colonial Africa : conflict and discourse in Lesotho, 1870-1960 / Elizabeth A. Eldredge
Madison, WI [etc.] : University of Wisconsin Press , 2007.

An overview of the forms of expressing social conflict in southern Africa with special reference to the Zulus / Noleen Turner
In: African journal on conflict resolution , vol. 5, no. 2, p. 119-152 (2005)

'Down with the devil, forward with Christ!' : a study of the interface between religious and political discourses in Zimbabwe / Ezra Chitando
In: African sociological review , vol. 6, no. 1, p. 1-16 (2002)

"Talking, singing and dancing democracy": an assessment of electoral participation in the May 2002 general elections in Sierra Leone / M. Juldeh Jalloh
In: L'Afrique politique , p. 255-267 : tab (2002)

Nana Ampadu and the sung tale as metaphor for protest discourse / Kwesi Yankah
In: Matatu (2000), vol. 21, no. 1, p. 135-153

Of hunters, goats and earth-shrines: settlement histories and the politics of oral tradition in northern Ghana / Carola Lentz
In: History in Africa : a journal of method , vol. 27, p. 193-214 (2000)

Media and conflict : promoting peace : a symposium with journalists from Eritrea and Ethiopia / Ephraim Isaac, et al.
Berlin : Heinrich Boell Foundation , 1999.

The subtle slant : a cross-linguistic discourse analysis model for evaluating interethnic conflict in the press / Richard G. McGarry
Boone, N.C. : Parkway Publishers , 1994.


Persuasion with(out) words

Educated girls, clothes and Christianity: subverting Mabel Shaw's sartorial agenda on the colonial Zambian Copperbelt, 1925-1964 / Walima T. Kalusa Cover Was it something I wore
In: Journal of southern African studies (2022), vol. 48, no. 1, p. 61-80

Kwame Nkrumah's Suits: Sartorial Politics in Ghana at Independence / Abena Dove Osseo-Asare
In: Fashion theory (2021), vol. 25, no. 5, p. 597-632

Identity building through mediation by African tailors / Sofia Vilarinho and Henri Christiaans
In: International journal of urban and regional research (2020), vol. 44, no. 5, p. 841-856

Maid to serve : "self-fashioning" and the domestic worker trope in contemporary South Africa / Alude Mahali
In: Journal of African media studies , vol. 8, no. 2, p. 127-143 : foto's (2016)

The silence of women : Bamana mud cloths / Sarah C. Brett-Smith
Milan : 5 Continents Editions , 2014.

Was it something I wore? : dress, identity, materiality / Relebohile Moletsane, et al.
Cape Town : HSRC Press , 2012.

Drum language
Les langages non écrits et non parlés de l'Afrique : le langage des tam-tams et des masques des Mosse au Burkina Faso / Titinga Frédéric Pacéré
In: Mondes et cultures : comptes rendus trimestriels des séances de l'Académie des Sciences d'Outre-Mer , t. 70, vol. 1, p. 222-243 : foto's (2010)

'Ayan Agalu' : art, media and social crusade in Nigeria / Abiodun Salawu
In: Pula : Botswana journal of African studies , vol. 22, no. 1, p. 89-101 (2008)

Talking drum as an instrument for music making and communication in West Africa : a case study of 'dundun' / Oluwafemi Faseun
In: Liberian studies journal , vol. 33, no. 2, p. 59-76 : ill., tab (2008)

Yabbing and wording : the artistry of Nigerian stand-up comedy / Izuu Nwankw E
Makhanda, South Africa : NISC (Pty) Ltd , 2021.

Exploring the African Philosophy of Humor through Igbo Proverbs on Laughter / Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi
In: The Southern journal of philosophy (2020)58, no. 4, p. 648-665

The Laughing Culture of the Peoples of Mali and Guinea (Senankuya) / Olga Zavyalova
In: Vostok (Moscow, Russia : 1991) (2020), no. 4, p. 150

Sànawuyaa et ráari : analyse comparative des relations à plaisanterie chez les Mandinka et les Joola de la Casamance / Elizaveta Volkova
[S.l.] : [S.n.], 2018.

Alliances à plaisanterie, proverbes et contes en Afrique de la tradition : pour une société d'entraide, de solidarité et de justice / Paul N'Da
Paris : L'Harmattan , 2017.

Contexte de pluralisme politique et défi de renforcement de la cohésion sociale au Burkina Faso : quel apport des relations à plaisanterie? / Moumouni Zoungrana
In: Éthiopiques : revue négro-africaine de littérature et de philosophie, no. 97, pages 261-277 (2016)

Relations à plaisanterie et développement endogène de l'Afrique / Kodjona Kadanga, et al.Cover Relations a plaisanterie
Lomé : Presses de l'IRES-RDEC , 2015.

Joking market women : critiquing and negotiating gender and social hierarchy in Kankossa, Mauritania / Katherine Ann Wiley
In: Africa : journal of the International African Institute , vol. 84, no. 1, p. 101-118 (2014)

La parenté à plaisanterie (le sanakouya) : un atout pour le dialogue et la cohésion sociale en Guinée / Alhassane Cherif
Paris : L'Harmattan , 2014.

Satire as a form of social control : its manifestations in Yorùbá ritual and festival songs / Arinpe Adejumo
In: Orita : Ibadan journal of religious studies , vol. 39, no. 1, p. 27-40 (2007)

Building Identity Discourses in Mali: Ethnicization and Instrumentalization of Senankuya / Cecile Canut
In: Cahiers d'études africaines (2006), no. 184

The Joking Cousin's Diplomatic and Demagogic Discourse in Mali / Denis Douyon
In: Cahiers d'études africaines (2006), no. 184

Le discours diplomatique et démagogique du cousin plaisant au Mali / Denis Douyon
In: Cahiers d'études africaines (2006), no. 184

Parentés, plaisanteries et politique / Cécile Canut
Paris : École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales , 2006.

Stratégie traditionnelle de prévention des conflits en Afrique : "les alliances à plaisanterie" / Robert Dussey
In: Mondes et cultures : comptes rendus trimestriels des séances de l'Académie des Sciences d'Outre-Mer , t. 64, vol. 1, p. 150-159 (2005)

Le cousinage à plaisanterie : notre héritage commun / Siriman Kouyaté
Conakry : Editions Ganndal , 2003.

Ethno-patronymic correspondences and jocular kinship : a large scale problem of integration / A. Raphaël Ndiaye
In: African environment : environmental studies and regional planning bulletin , vol. 8, no. 31/32, p. 93-124 : fig., tab (1993)

Singing the law: Okot p'Bitek's legal imagination and the poetics of traditional justice / Peter Leman
In: Research in African literatures : official journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the Modern Language Association , vol. 40, no. 3, p. 109-128 (2009)

Peasant poetics and State discourse in Ethiopia: Amharic oral poetry as a response to the 1996-97 land redistribution policy / Gelaye Getie
In: Northeast African studies : incorporating Ethiopianist notes , n.s., vol. 6, no. 1/2, p. 171-206 (2001)

Cattle, conflict and court cases : the praise poetry of Ila leadership / John Keith Rennie
In: Research in African literatures : official journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the Modern Language Association , vol. 15, no. 4, p. 530-567 (1984)

Kasena women's critique of gender roles and gender justice through proverbial jesting / Helen Yitah
In: Journal of African cultural studies , vol. 24, no. 1, p. 9-20 (2012)

"Fighting with proverbs": Kasena women's (re)definition of female personhood through proverbial jesting / Helen Yitah
In: Research in African literatures : official journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the Modern Language Association , vol. 40, no. 3, p. 74-95 (2009)

Proverbs: a strategy for resolving conflict in Yorùbၠsociety / James Bodé Agbájé
In: Journal of African cultural studies , vol. 15, no. 2, p. 237-243 (2002)

Songs from the edge of power: interpreting some political polemic of the Igede 'etuh' (proverbs) poet Ode Igbang / Ode S. Ogede
In: African affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society , vol. 93, no. 371, p. 219-231 (1994)

Non-verbal and paralinguistic political communication in sport : an analysis of images of Springbok rugby / Pieter Labuschagne
In: Communicatio : South African journal for communication theory and research , vol. 43, no. 1, p. 80-102 : foto's (2017)

Whispers and silences : explorations in African oral history / Sandra E. Greene
In: Africa today , vol. 50, no. 2, p. 41-53 (2003)

Communicating without words : the Igbo example / Bertram A. Okolo
In: Frankfurter afrikanistische Blätter , Nr. 6, p. 53-63 (1994)

Langage non-verbal : une autre dimension de la communication africaine / Mallafé Dramé
In: Les cahiers du CELHTO , no. 1, p. 79-96 (1985)

Les lois du silence : essai sur la fonction sociale du secret / Jean Jamin
Paris : F. Maspero , 1977.

Singing the Individual: Name Tunes in Oyda and Yopno / Azeb Amha, et al.Cover Music and messaging in the African political arena
In: Frontiers in psychology (2021)

Music and messaging in the African political arena / Uche Onyebadi
Hershey, PA : IGI Global, Information Science Reference , 2019.

Ring-tunes and caller-tunes : new media's sustenance of song performance tradition as women's strategy for domestic conflict management among the Baganda of Uganda / Sylvia A. Nannyonga-Tamusuza
In: African performance review : journal of the African Theatre Association , vol. 9, no. 2, p. 75-96 (2017)

‘Vote not Fight’ : examining music’s role in fostering non-violent elections in Nigeria / Joseph Olusegun Adebayo
In: African journal on conflict resolution, volume 17, number 1, pages 55-77 (2017)

Songs of a new era : popular music and political expression in the Ivorian crisis / Anne Schumann
In: African affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society , vol. 112, no. 448, p. 440-459 : tab (2013)

Artistic suggestions for peaceful transition in northern Uganda : what youth are saying / Lindsay M. McClain
In: African conflict & peacebuilding review , vol. 2, no. 1, p. 152-163 : ill., foto's (2012)

Youth lyrics, street language and the politics of age: contextualizing the youth question in the Third Chimurenga in Zimbabwe / Rekopantswe Mate
In: Journal of Southern African studies , vol. 38, no. 1, p. 107-127 : tab (2012)

Popular music and political change in Côte d'Ivoire: the divergent dynamics of 'zouglou' and reggae / Anne Schumann
In: Journal of African media studies , vol. 1, no. 1, p. 117-133 (2009)

Conflict resolution in Tsonga co-wifely jealousy song / Thomas F. Johnston
In: Africana Marburgensia , vol. 11, no. 2, p. 15-26 (1978)

The "I" stories : healing through the power of the pen : vol. 1, 2006 / Elizabeth Kalambo M'Ule, et al.
[Windhoek etc.] : Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare [etc.] , 2007.

Orality, mediation and subversion in Sol Plaatje's 'Mhudi' / Phaswane Mpe
In: African studies : a quarterly journal devoted to the study of African administration, cultures and languages , vol. 57, no. 1, p. 79-91 (1998)


Web resources

ACCORD is a civil society organisation working throughout Africa since 1992, to bring creative African solutions to the challenges posed by conflict on the continent. Its goal is to impact political developments by bringing conflict resolution, dialogue and development to the forefront as an alternative to protracted conflict.

African Peacebuilding Network
Launched in March 2012, the African Peacebuilding Network (APN) supports independent African research on conflict-affected countries and neighboring regions of the continent, as well as the integration of African knowledge into global policy communities. The APN promotes the visibility of African peacebuilding knowledge among global and regional centers of scholarly analysis and practical action and makes it accessible to key policymakers at the United Nations and other multilateral, regional, and national policymaking institutions.

The Centre for Mediation in Africa (CMA)
The Centre for Mediation in Africa (CMA) is a leading research centre that is radically rethinking mediation in Africa. It understands mediation to be much more than direct third-party intervention and to include processes that create the right environment for people to transform themselves, their own conflicts and relationships in ways that empower them to engage in future conflicts nonviolently and constructively.

Kujenga Amani
Kujenga Amani (Swahili for “building peace”) is the digital forum of the African Peacebuilding Network (APN) of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). It is a venue for connecting researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and organizations working on diverse aspects of peacebuilding, and a platform for launching new voices on the challenges confronting peacebuilding in conflict-affected regions of the continent, and the connections between African and global peace. (see topics under Essays)

NVAS (Netherlands Association for African Studies)
The Netherlands Association for African Studies (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afrikastudies) is a national network of Africa experts and students, in the Netherlands and beyond. The NVAS aims to facilitate and stimulate interdisciplinary contact between experts and to share research and knowledge about Africa in and outside of the Netherlands.

The ‘Peacebuilding Dialogues Production Guide’
The ‘Peacebuilding Dialogues Production Guide’ is a resource for organizations working with children and young people, as well as youth who are inspired to activate their own group discussions. The guide provides a background to ‘peace’ related language and practical information on how to host a community-led peacebuilding dialogue, either face-to-face or online. Steps towards a successful dialogue and tips for facilitating are included in the guide. The guide was produced with the direct involvement of children and young people following the July 2021 unrest in Kwa Zulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

Topic Peacekeeping and peacebuilding - Institute for Security Studies (ISS)
Contributions on peacekeeping and peacebuilding by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS)