Food (in)security, famine and drought in Africa

book cover Food for the poorThe African Studies Centre’s library has compiled this web dossier to provide background information on the food (in)security situation in Africa. This coincides not only with the current food crisis in the Horn of Africa but also with the recent decision by the Dutch government to choose food security as one of the focal points of its development cooperation policy. The Netherlands will allocate EUR 4.6 billion to developing countries in 2011, with roughly half of this going to Africa.

This web dossier is based on the ASC library’s collection and contains the titles of books, articles, book chapters and DVDs on food shortages (famine, drought and malnutrition), food security and food aid, and also food supply and food policy. For each of these topics, there is a section on Africa in general and a section devoted to ‘country cases’, with more specific literature covering the countries selected by the Dutch government for development cooperation in the coming years, namely Benin, Burundi, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue.
This provides further bibliographic details, abstracts and links to full-text publications if available. The dossier starts with an introduction by Wijnand Klaver and concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites.

  1. Food (in)security in Africa: definition and scope
  2. Food crisis: Africa general
  3. Food crisis: Country cases
  4. Food security, food aid: Africa general
  5. Food security, food aid: Country cases
  6. Food policy, food supply: Africa general
  7. Food policy, food supply: Country cases
  8. Selected web resources

For further information, please email us at or phone us on +31 (0)71 5273354

Food (in)security in Africa: definition and scope

The current food crisis in the Horn of Africa has every appearance of being a ‘food availability decline’ (FAD) caused by prolonged drought within the context of climate change. The four pillars of food security are availability, access, utilization and stability. It is clear that the first pillar of food security (food availability) has collapsed in the Horn of Africa, with the result being Map Areas of food shortagesthat large groups of starving and severely undernourished people have started to move from their homes in search of food. The call to make emergency food aid available to them is justified on humanitarian grounds. However, even in such dire circumstances, it is common to find that a section of the population is insulated from the famine: those who have the purchasing power to buy their own food, even at highly inflated prices. Amartya Sen proposed looking at famine in a new light in the 1980s with his theory of the failure of exchange entitlements. Twenty-five years ago, the World Bank adopted access to food (the second pillar) as the central element of food security and access has remained at the core in later refinements of the definition.

‘Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.’ (2002, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001. Rome: FAO)

The third pillar related to human needs is food utilization. This is the appropriate use of food for human consumption based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation. A cross-cutting fourth element of food security is stability in time (throughout the seasons and the years). At the World Food Conference in 1974, the famous promise was made that ‘within a decade no man, woman or child in the world will go to bed hungry’. In recent years there has been a call to replace such promises with the assertion that the absence of hunger is a human right, and that states are the duty bearers and consumers hold the rights.

Is it mere semantics if we still hear the supply-side rhetoric of the 1970s in the question ‘How are we going to feed 9 billion people by the year 2050?’ When food is not available, there cannot be food security. However, to prevent people from starting to leave their homes in search of food in the case of famine or from becoming chronically hungry, malnourished and not able to live to their full potential due to poverty, they should have a sustainable livelihood with enough resources to feed themselves. Food security thus depends on food distribution. FAO estimates of the number of people who are hungry are calculated on the basis of national total food availability data, expressed per capita and ‘distributed’ statistically in relation to income. Worldwide, there were an estimated 850 million people who were hungry before the food and economic crisis of 2008-09, and over 900 million in 2010, of which 239 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Now that investment in agriculture is once more high on the international development agenda, it is timely to address the related links in the food chain as well, from preventing post-harvest losses to improving food consumption and nutrition. The challenge ahead is how we – as a global community – organize our agri-food and employment systems in such a way that everyone can feed themselves adequately. Testimony to the way people cope with economic hardship is the increasing phenomenon of urban agriculture, which is common in Africa. Access to natural resources (land, water), labour, production inputs (biodiversity) and capital remains the basis for food security.

What is specifically African about food insecurity? While the concept and scope are quite universal, each continent has its own reality. For instance, in certain countries in Latin America food security has taken on the meaning of food sovereignty. Africa too has its particular realities. These include, to name but a few:

• high population growth rates (a burden because the cake has to be divided among more people);
• a young population (which could potentially offer an economic dividend in the coming decades);
• a high percentage of food produced by women (many of whom are poor but very resourceful);
• a highly diverse ecology (which poses particular challenges in terms of an agricultural ‘revolution’);
• an increase in potential and current conflicts around competing claims (e.g. pastoralists versus farmers, food versus biofuel, water for food versus water for export flowers);
• microclimates and climate change (which will lead to certain areas becoming ‘bread baskets’ and negatively impact on others that will become virtually uninhabitable);
• evolving institutional and governance structures; and
• certain food habits (shaped by tradition but strongly influenced by cosmopolitan trends).

The comparison between ‘Africa’ and ‘Asia’ is also an important discussion among policy makers nowadays and a growing object of scholarly research.

Wijnand Klaver

Food crisis: Africa general

Dossier "Surveiller et nourrir : politique de la faim" / Pierre Janin (ed.)
In: Politique africaine: (2010), no. 119, p. 5-127.

Underweight or stunting as an indicator of the MDG on poverty and hunger/ Wijnand Klaver. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2010. - (ASC working paper ; 92)

International food security : insufficient efforts by host governments and donors threaten progress to halve hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by 2015 : report to Congressional requesters / United States Government Accountability Office. - Washington, D.C. United States Government Accountability Office, 2008

The MDG on poverty and hunger: how reliable are the hunger estimates?/ Wijnand Klaver & Maarten Nubé
In: Inside poverty and development in Africa : critical reflections on pro-poor policies / Marcel Rutten, André Leliveld, Dick Foeken.- Leiden [etc.] : Brill: (2008), p.273-302 : graf., tab.

The new famines : why famines persist in an era of globalization / Stephen Devereux (ed.). - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2007. - (Routledge studies in development economics, ISSN 1359-7884 ; [52])

Causing hunger : an overview of the food crisis in Africa / Oxfam International. - Oxford : Oxfam International, 2006. - (Oxfam Briefing Paper 91)

Globalisation and technology: problems and prospects for the agricultural sector in Africa / Osita Agbu
In: Africa Development: (2005), vol. 30, no. 4, p. 151-170 : tab.

Les famines en Afrique / Sylvie Brunel
In: Mondes et cultures: (2005), t. 65, vol. 1, p. 636-647

Négrologie : pourquoi l'Afrique meurt/ Stephen Smith. - [Paris] : Calmann-Lévy, 2003

The crisis of southern African countries / Sharad Sapra
In: Internationales Afrikaforum: (2003), Jg. 39, Quart. 1, S. 55-57.

Différences entre filles et garçons : une revue des indicateurs sanitaires en Afrique subsaharienne/ Michel Garenne. - Paris : Centre français sur la population et le développement (CEPED), 2002. - (Les dossiers du CEPED, ISSN 0993-6165 ; no. 70)

book cover Securite alimentaire en questionsNutrition in Africa in a global economy: perspectives, challenges and opportunities / Joyce Kinabo
In: African Study Monographs: (2001), vol. 22, no. 3, p. 103-122 : fig. , tab.

Estimation et maîtrise de la sous-alimentation/ Beat Schürch & Elisabeth Müller
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.127-138 : fig. 

Écologie de la malnutrition en Afrique subsaharienne/ Alain Froment
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.113-126 : graf., tab.

L'Afrique et la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification / Aenza Konate
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2000), vol. 12, pt. 4, p. 718-753.

Situation alimentaire et malnutrition en Afrique : l'apport de la fortification alimentaire/ Henri Dirren
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.237-246.


Food crisis: Country cases

Coping with drought for food security in Tigray, Ethiopia/ Araya Alemie Berhe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2011. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; 100)

Famine and foreigners: Ethiopia since Live Aid/ Peter Gill. - Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2010

L 'Initiative riz au Mali: une réponse politique à línsécurité alimentaire? / Alexis Roy
In: Politique africaine: (2010), no. 119, p. 87-105.

Exploring farmers' perceptions of drought in Tanzania and Ethiopia/ Monique F. W. Slegers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2008. - (Tropical resource management papers ; 93)

Food insecurity assessment in Kenya : 2005/06 Kenya integrated household budget survey / Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi. - Nairobi : Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2008book cover Food insecurity assessment Kenya

The politics of pastoralist's vulnerability : an intersectional perspective/ Melat Gezahegn Gebresenbet. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2008

Insuring against famine. - London : Journeyman Pictures, 2007. - 1 dvd-video (21 min.). : kleur, gel.

Climate variability and water resources degradation in Kenya : improving water resources development and management / Hezron Mogaka (ed.). - Washington, DC : The World Bank, 2006. - (World Bank working paper, ISSN 1726-5878 ; no. 69)

From long-term patterns of seasonal hunger to changing experiences of everyday poverty : northeastern Ghana, c. 1930-2000 / Jérôme Destombes
In: The Journal of African History: (2006), vol. 47, no. 2, p. 181-205 : graf. , krt. , tab.

Rwanda : emergency food security assessment, April 2006 / Agnès Dhur (ed.). - Rome : World Food Programme, 2006

"Things are hard for us, but we see a way out of them" : impact of climate variability on geographical and occupational mobility and the effect of mobility on social organisation in farming communities in north-eastern Ghana/ Francis Kwabena Obeng. - Amsterdam : AMIDSt/Amsterdam Institute for Metropolitan and International Development Studies, 2005

Beneath international famine relief in Ethiopia : the United States, Ethiopia, and the debate over relief aid, development assistance, and human rights / Edward Kissi
In: African Studies Review: (2005), vol. 48, no. 2, p. 111-132.

Coping with drought: options for soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya/ Elijah K. Biamah. - [Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre], 2005. - (Tropical resource management papers, ISSN 0926-9495 ; no. 58)

Migratory drift of Dogon farmers to southern Mali (Koutiala)/ Karin Nijenhuis
In: Sahelian pathways : climate and society in Central and South Mali / ed.: Mirjam de Bruijn ...[et al.].- Leiden : African Studies Centre: (2005), p.190-215 : tab.

"We're managing!" : climate change and livelihood vulnerability in Northwest Ghana/ Kees van der Geest. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2004. - (Research report / African Studies Centre ; 74/2004)

Les paysans du Wellega occidental et le problème de la sécurité alimentaire / Benjamin Stahl
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2004), vol. 20, p. [29]-46 : fig. , krt.

Leven in Afrika / Hans Fels, Gys Zevenbergen, & Hans Keller. - Hilversum : VPRO, 2004. - 1 dvd-video (50 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Tegenlicht)

Living with hunger / Sorious Samura. - [London] : Insight News Television Production, 2004. - 1 dvd-video (50 min.). : kleur, gel.

Management of droughts and famines in Ethiopia / Kassa Belay
In: Journal of Social Development in Africa: (2004), vol. 19, no. 1, p. 93-127 : tab.

Socio-economic determinants of wetland cultivation in Kemise, Illubabor Zone, southwestern Ethiopa / Solomon Mulugeta
In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: (2004), vol. 20, no. 1, p. 93-114 : krt. , tab.

Co-operation in risky environments: evidence from southern Ethiopia / Nancy MacCarthy, Abdul B. Kamara & Michael Kirk
In: Journal of African Economies: (2003), vol. 12, no. 2, p. 236-270 : graf. , tab.

Drought and the evolution of well-irrigated wadi agriculture : implications for sustainable food security systems in Northern Darfur, Sudan / Khalid A. E. Amin
In: African Studies Bulletin / Leeds University Centre for African Studies: (2003), no. 65, p. 49-62.

Drought planning and rainwater harvesting for arid-zone pastoralists: the Turkana and Maasai (Kenya) and the Negev Bedouin (Israel) / Hendrik J. Bruins & Mirjam A. F. Ros-Tonen (ed.). - Amsterdam : KIT Publishers, 2003. - (NIRP research for policy series, ISSN 1568-279X ; 17)

Food crisis in Ethiopia : drought or poor economic policies? / François Piguet
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 485-489.

"La sécheresse": the social and institutional construction of a development problem in the Malian (Soudanese) Sahel, 1900-82 / Kent Glenzer
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2002), vol. 36, no. 1, p. 1-34.

Agricultural policy, crop failure and the 'ruriganiza' famine (1989) in southern Rwanda: a prelude to genocide?/ Philip Verwimp. - Leuven : Katholieke Universiteit, Departement Economie, 2002. - (Discussion paper series ; DPS 02.07 Development economics)

An empirical analysis of food insecurity in Ethiopia: the case of North Wello / G. Ramakrishna & Assefa Demeke
In: Africa Development: (2002), vol. 27, no. 1/2, p. 127-143 : tab.

Modernisation and desertification in the Sahel region, based on the example of Central Kordofan in the Sudan / Maciej Zabek
In: Africana Bulletin: (2001), no. 49, p. 89-106 : fig.

The importance of pastoralists' indigenous coping strategies for planning drought management in the arid zone of Kenya / Gufu Oba
In: Nomadic Peoples: (2001), n. s. , vol. 5, issue 1, p. 89-119 : fig. , krt. , tab.

Devastating drought in Kenya : environmental impacts and responses / United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi;Government of Kenya. - Nairobi : United Nations Environment Programme [etc.], 2000

Moissons du désert : utilisation des ressources naturelles en période de famine au Sahara central/ Marceau Gast. - Paris : Ibis Press, 2000

The politics of famine in U.S. relations with Ethiopia, 1950-1970 / Edward Kissi
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2000), vol. 33, no. 1, p. 113-131.

Un autre regard sur le pays dogon au Mali .. / José Ainouz. - Paris : La médiathèque des trois mondes, 2000. - 1 dvd-video (199 min.). : kleur, gel.

Food security, food aid: Africa general

Biofuels, food security, and Africa / Thomas Molony & James Smith
In: African Affairs: (2010), vol. 109, no. 436, p. 489-498.

Logiques paysannes et espaces agraires en Afrique / Koffi Atta & Pierre Tanga Zoungrana (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Collection Maîtrise de l'espace et développement ; 5)

Emerging Africa : potential and challenges : Africa in the new millennium/ Reji D. Nair. - New Delhi : Concept Publishing Company, 2009

Food security in East Africa and the Indian Ocean / Vyacheslav Usov
In: Africa Review / African Studies Association of India: (2009), vol. 1, no. 2, p. 153-170.

A compilation of work done, 2005-2008 /West African Trade Union Working Group on Trade and Development / West African Trade Union Working Group on Trade and Development. - [Accra] : Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2008

Le choc alimentaire en Afrique / Philippe Hugon
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR. IMA International: (2008), no. 30 p. 125-143.

The rise of food prices and the challenge of development in Africa / Francis Nwonwu
In: Africa Insight: (2008/09), vol. 38, no. 4, p. 44-58 : graf. , tab. 

book cover Food and the poorFood and the poor : how can democratic local governments reduce food insecurity in Africa?/ Angelo Bonfiglioli / United Nations Capital Development Fund. - Geneva : United Nations Capital Development Fund, 2007

Food security and entrepreneurship/ Hans Eenhoorn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University, 2007

Linking migration, HIV/AIDS and urban food security in Southern and Eastern Africa/ Jonathan Crush, Miriam Grant & Bruce Frayne. - Cape Town [etc.] : Idasa Publishing [etc.], 2007. - (African migration and development series ; 3)

Commerce des produits agricoles et sécurité alimentaire durable en Afrique de l'Ouest centrale / Bernard Kouassi, Gnanderman Sirpe, & Aimé Gogue (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2006. - (Économie et développement)

Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa : new estimates from household expenditure surveys/ Lisa C. Smith, Harold Alderman & Dede Aduayom. - Washington, DC : International food policy research institute (IFPRI), 2006. - (Research report / International food policy research institute ; 146) 

Food security and agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa : building a case for more public support/ Weldeghaber Kidane, Materne Maetz & Philippe Dardel. - Rome : FAO, 2006. - (Policy assistance series, ISSN 1819-4591)

Missing the point : an analysis of food security interventions in the Great Lakes/ Simon Levine, Claire Chastre & Salomé Ntububa. - London : Overseas development institute (ODI). Humanitarian practice network (HPN), 2004. - (HPN network paper ; 47)

Systèmes d'information pour la sécurité alimentaire : l'expérience AEDES en Afrique/ Paul Marie Boulanger, Denis Michiels & Christophe De Jaeger. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2004

Food security in sub-Saharan Africa / Jenny Clover
In: Africanus: (2003), vol. 33, no. 1, p. 7-23.

Food security in sub-Saharan Africa / Stephen Devereux & Simon Maxwell (ed.). - London : ITDG Publishing, 2001

The food chain in sub-Saharan Africa : proceedings of the workshop held in Bamako, Mali, October 15-19, 1999 = La chaîne alimentaire en Afrique sub-saharienne : actes de l'atelier tenu à Bamako, Mali, 15-19 octobre 1999. - Geneva : Centre for Applied Studies in International Negotiations (CASIN), 2001

Assessing urban food security : adjusting the FEWS rural vulnerability assessment framework to urban environments. - [Washington, D.C. USAID], 2000

Les femmes d'abord!/ Christiane Berthiaume
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.233-236.

The new policy environment for food aid : the challenge of sub-Saharan Africa / Cheryl Christensen
In: Food Policy: (2000), vol. 25, no. 3, p. 255-268.

Whose hunger? : concepts of famine, practices of aid/ Jenny Edkins. - Minneapolis, MN [etc.] : University of Minnesota Press, 2000. - (Borderlines ; vol. 17)

Food security, food aid: Country cases

Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis : República de Moçambique / Vulnerability Assessment Group (GAV) ; National Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition (SETSAN). - Maputo : World Food Programme Mozambique, 2010

Du bon usage des systèmes d'alerte précoce en régime autoritaire : le cas de l'Éthiopie / François Enten
In: Politique africaine: (2010), no. 119, p. 43-62. 

Exploring the dynamic linkages : land tenure systems, agricultural investment and food security among smallholder farmers in Sululta, Oromia Regional State/ Megersa Birhanu & Hebo Mamo. - Saarbrücken : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2010

Food aid impact on poverty reduction : empirical evidence from rural households in Ethiopia/ Mulubrhan Amare Reda & Germán Calfat. - Antwerpen : Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB), 2010. - (Discussion paper ; 2010.05)

From food aid to food security: the case of the Safety Net policy in Ethiopia / Carly Bishop & Dorothea Hilhorst
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2010), vol. 48, no. 2, p. 181-202 : tab.

Recovering from conflict: an analysis of food production in Burundi/ Marijke F. C. D'Haese. - [s.l. : s.n.], 2010. - (African development review, ISSN 1017-6772 ; vol. 22, no. 1 (2010))

An evaluation of churches and church based organizations roles in enhancing food security in Turkana district/ Daniel Juma Amach. - Nairobi : Africa Nazarene University, 2009

Development communication in Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) : the case of Ganta Afeshum, Tigray/ Mengistu Gebremedhin. - Addis Ababa : Addis Ababa University, 2009  

Food security and coping mechanisms in marginal areas : the case of West Pokot, Kenya, 1920-1995/ Anne Kisaka Nangulu. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2009. - (African studies collection, ISSN 1876-018X ; 15)

book cover Food security and coping mechanisms in marginal areasFood security policy : insights from Mozambique / Alejandro Acosta (ed.). - Maputo : FAO - Netherlands Partnership Programme, 2009

République du Bénin : analyse globale de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition (AGVSAN) / Sabine Bongi (ed.). - Rome [etc.] : Programme alimentaire mondial des Nations Unies [etc.], 2009

République du Mali: étude de base de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition/ Cherif Ben Alwata & others. - Rome : World Food Programme, 2009

Uganda : comprehensive food security & vulnerability analysis (CFSVA)/ Philip McKinney. - Rome : World Food Programme, 2009

An analysis of the population-food crop nexus in Ghana / Samuel N. A. Codjoe
In: Journal of Social Development in Africa: (2007), vol. 22, no. 2, p. 157-182 : graf. , tab.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy / Getnet Alemu
2: Poverty, food production, and agricultural practices
/ Alemu Getnet & Yoseph Getachew (ed.) / Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA). - [Addis Ababa] : Ethiopian Economic Association, 2007

School farming and school feeding in Nakuru town, Kenya : practice and potential/ Dick Foeken, Samuel O. Owuor & Alice M. Mwangi. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2007. - (ASC working paper ; 76)

The role of local institutions and social capital in household food security: a case study at two rural communities in Oromiya Zone, Amhara Region / Degefa Tolossa
In: Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities: (2007), vol. 5, no. 1, p. 1-23 : fig. , foto's.

Toward improved marketing and trade policies to promote household food security in Central and Southern Mozambique: 2007 update/ David L. Tschirley & Danilo Carimo Abdula. - [Maputo] : 2007. - (Research Report No 62 E)

Science, technology and society : issues in the application of science and technology in developing countries/ Edward S. Ayensu. - Accra : Printing Division, CSIR-INSTI, 2006

The food security problem in Ethiopia : a supply side analysis / Tennassie Nichola
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2006), vol. 74, no. 2, p. 315-322 : graf. , tab.

African imperatives in the world trade order : case studies on Kenya / Francis M. Mwega & Hezron O. Nyangito (ed.) / African Economic Research Consortium. Collaborative Project. - [Nairobi] : African Economic Research Consortium Collaborative Project, 2005

Challenges to the progressive realization of the human right to food in Uganda / Ben K. Twinomugisha
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2005), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 241-264.

Policy analysis for sustainable land management and food security in Ethiopia : a bioeconomic model with market imperfections/ Stein Holden, Bekele Shiferaw & John Pender. - Washington, DC : International food policy research institute (IFPRI), 2005. - (Research report / International food policy research institute (IFPRI) ; 140)

Policy in practice: effects on food security of Safety Net and resettlement policy implementation in Sekota woreda, Amhara region of Ethiopia/ Carly Bishop. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2005

Some thoughts on prospects for achieving food security in Ethiopia: resource and policy aspects / Bekure Woldesemait
In: Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities: (2005), vol. 3, no. 1, p. 21-47 : krt. , tab.

Analyse de la sécurité alimentaire et de la vulnérabilité : Burundi / World Food Programme. - Rome : World Food Programme, 2004

Food security options in Mozambique: one country, two worlds? / Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa. - London : Overseas Development Institute, 2004. - (Country Food Security Options Paper No. 3)

Food security problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District / Margaret Nyanchoka Keraka
In: Discovery and Innovation: (2004), vol. 16, no. 3/4, p. 189-194.

Imported dependency : food aid to Ethiopia causes more problems than it solves / Tillmann Elliesen
In: Africa Insight: (2004), vol. 34, no. 1, p. 65-68 : foto.

Giving to the poor? Targeting of food aid in rural Ethiopia / T. S. Jayne
In: World Development: (2001), vol. 29, no. 5, p. 887-910 : graf. , tab.

Reconciling food-for-work project feasibility with food aid targeting in Tigray, Ethiopia / Berhanu Gebremedhin & Scott M. Swinton
In: Food Policy: (2001), vol. 26, no. 1, p. 85-95 : fig. , tab.

Targeting food aid to the rural food insecure : evidence and lessons from Ethiopia/ Yosef Gebrehiwot. - The Hague : Institute of Social Studies, 2001. - (Working paper series / Institute of Social Studies. General series, ISSN 0921-0210 ; no. 329)

The selfish altruist : relief work in famine and war/ Tony Vaux. - London [etc.] : Earthscan, 2001

Who gets the goods? : a general equilibrium perspective on food aid in Mozambique / Channing Arndt & Finn Tarp
In: Food Policy: (2001), vol. 26, no. 2, p. 107-119 : graf. , tab.

Targeting of food aid in rural Ethiopia : chronic need or inertia?/ T. S. Jayne & others. - East Lansing, Mich. Michigan State University, 2000. - (MSU international development paper, ISSN 0731-3438 ; no. 23)

Food policy, food supply: Africa general

Gouvernance et approvisionnement des villes / Laurent Parrot (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008. - (Agricultures et développement urbain en Afrique subsaharienne ;1. Éthique économique)

Biotechnology policy in Africa/ Norman Clark, John Mugabe, James Smith, Peter Bryant & others. - Nairobi : African Centre for Technology Studies, 2007

Fame nera : considerazioni intorno al cibo in Africa / Ettore Tibaldi
In: Terra d'Africa: (2006), no. 15, p. 95-114.

Improving health, nutrition, and population outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa : the role of the World Bank / World Bank. - Washington, DC : World Bank, 2005

Infrastructures de commerce et échanges des produits alimentaires : disponibilité, utilisation et coût en Afrique de l'Ouest centrale/ Bernard Kouassi, Gnanderman Sirpé & Aimé Gogué. - Paris : Karthala, 2005. - book cover Infrastructures de commerce et ??changes des produits alimentaires(Économie et développement)

Urbain-rural : l'hybridation en marche / Abdou Salam Fall & Cheikh Guèye (ed.). - Dakar : Enda, 2005. - (Etudes et recherches, ISSN 0850-8526 ; nos. 240-241-242-243)

Land tenure systems and their impacts on food security and sustainable development in Africa / United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. - Addis Ababa : Economic Commission for Africa, 2004

Food security: opportunities and responsibilities, or: the illusion of the exclusive actor : valedictory lecture/ Caspar Schweigman. - Groningen : Centre for Development Studies, University of Groningen, 2003. - (CDS research report, ISSN 1385-9218 ; no. 19)

Food trade and food policy in sub-Saharan Africa : old myths and new challenges / Christopher Stevens
In: Development Policy Review: (2003), vol. 21, no. 5/6, p. 669-681 : graf. , tab.

Food markets and food security in West Africa / Clemens Lutz (ed.). - Groningen : Centre for Development Studies, University of Groningen, 2002. - (CDS research report, ISSN 1385-9218 ; no. 15)

Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers / Christina H. Gladwin
In: Food Policy: (2001), vol. 26, no. 2, p. 177-207 : tab.

Agricultural technology, health and nutrition linkages: some recent evidence from sub-Saharan Africa / Tesfaye Teklu
In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: (2001), vol. 17, no. 1, p. 1-14 : fig. , tab.

Food and seed security in Africa: protecting farmers' rights / Heather Paull
In: The Australasian Review of African Studies: (2001), vol. 23, no. 1, p. 49-62.

L'Afrique face aux défis de la libéralisation du commerce/ Yves Hardy
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.17-27.

La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / Nicole Stäuble-Tercier & Beat Sottas (ed.). - Paris : Karthala, 2000. - (Économie et développement)

La valorisation des cultures vivrières: une voie pour le développement et l'autosuffisance alimentaire : l'exemple de la transformation artisanale du manioc amer/ Angelo Barampama
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.195-204.

Récolte céréalière en baisse au Sahel / Roger Pons, Sabrina Kassa & Katell Le Goulven
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2000), année 55, no. 2873, p. 2411-2413, 2414, 2415-2417, 2418 : tab.

Sécurité alimentaire et sécurité humaine : convergence et complémentarité des approches/ Jean Paul Minvielle
In: La sécurité alimentaire en questions : dilemmes, constats et controverses / sous la Nicole Stäuble-Tercier et Beat Sottas.- Paris : Karthala: (cop.2000), p.49-63.

Food supply situation and crop prospects in sub-Saharan Africa : special report. / prep. by FAO Global Information and Early Warning System. - 1987- ....  - Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations                                                                                                                             

Food policy, food supply: Country cases

Food matters: the place of development in building the postwar Ethiopian State, 1941-1974 / Getnet Bekele
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2009), vol. 42, no. 1, p. 29-54.                                                  

book cover Agricultures et d??veloppement urbain en Afrique subsaharienneAgricultures et développement urbain en Afrique subsaharienne / Laurent Parrot (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008

An evaluation of Uganda's plan for modernization of agriculture (PMA) using the right-to-adequate-food (RAF) and sustainable co-existence (SCE) approaches/ Remigius Munyonyo / Mugumya Levis (ed.). - Kampala : African Research and Documentation Centre, 2004. - (Monograph series, ISSN 1607-0011 ; no. 12)

In search of food : insecurity among Turkana nomadic pastoralists, Kenya/ Roselyne A. Omondi. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2004

Destitution in Wollo, Ethiopia/ Stephen Devereux, Kay Sharp & Amare Yared / University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies. - Brighton : Institute of Development Studies, 2003. - (IDS research reports, ISSN 0141-1314 ; 55)

Looking up to the victims : land scarcity and women's role in food provisioning in the Ghana-Togo border area / Ben K. Fred-Mensah
In: Research Review / Institute of African Studies: (2003), n. s. , vol. 19, no. 2, p. 35-48.

Obstacles to regional trade in the Horn of Africa : borders, markets, and production/ Laura Hammond. - [S.l. :] : USAID [etc.], 2003

The need for rural diversification : food-security policies and non-farm development in the Amhara region, Ethiopia/ Pernille Sørensen. - Copenhagen : Danish Institute for International Studies, 2003. - (DIIS/Gl. Kongevej working papers ; 03.11, DIIS working paper ; 03.18)

The relationship between socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers and household food security in eastern Uganda / J. Mugisha & S. Nagujja
In: Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: (2003), vol. 19, no. 1, p. 2-12 : krt. , tab.

"Food insecurity in a bread basket" : food security among households in the different agro-ecological zones in Arsi Negele Woreda, Ethiopia / Setegn Gebeyehu (ed.). - Wageningen : International Centre for development oriented Research in Agriculture (ICRA), 2002. - (Working document series / ICRA, International Centre for development oriented Research in Agriculture ; 100)

Adequacy of treatment of food security issues in the upper primary school curriculum : the case of the Amhara region/ Markos Tadesse Gizaw. - [Addis Ababa : s.n.], 2002

Food security strategy / The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. - Addis Ababa : The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2002

Household seasonal food insecurity in Oromiya zone, Ethiopia : causes/ Tolossa Degefa. - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia : Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, 2002. - (Research report series, ISSN 1608-6287 ; no. 26)                        

Nutritional, hygienic and socio-economic dimensions of street foods in urban areas : the case of Nairobi/ Alice Mboganie Mwangi. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2002

Nourrir les citadins : approvisionnement et distribution alimentaire de Bamako (Mali)/ Ali de Jong & Annelet Harts-Broekhuis. - Utrecht : Developing Areas Study Group, Royal Dutch Geographical Society (KNAG), 2001. - (Geographical studies of development and resource use, ISSN 1386-1891 ; 2 2001)

Food production and population growth in Kenya/ D. A. Obara
In: Issues in resource management and development in Kenya : essays in memory of prof.Simeon H.Ominde / R.A.Obudho and J.B.Ojwang.- Nairobi [etc.] : East African Educational Publishers [etc.]: (2000), p.203-213 : tab.

Food security and food productivity in Sudan, 1970-95 / Hatim A. Mahran
In: African Development Review: (2000), vol. 12, no. 2, p. 221-232 : tab.

Pastoralists and markets : livestock commercialization and food security in north-eastern Kenya/ Abdirizak Arale Nunow. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2000. - (Research reports / African Studies Centre ; 61/2000)

Systematic client consultation in development : the case of food policy research in Ghana, India, Kenya and Mali / Suresh Chandra Babu, Lynn R. Brown & Bonnie McClafferty
In: World Development: (2000), vol. 28, no. 1, p. 99-110 : fig.

The trade-off between economic efficiency and food self-sufficiency in using Sudan's irrigated land resources / Rashid M. Hassan, Hamid Faki & D. Byerlee
In: Food Policy: (2000), vol. 25, no. 1, p. 35-54 : graf. , tab.                                                                         

Selected Web Resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites.


book cover The New HarvestAfrican Agricultural Data Rescue Initiative (AADRI)
Launched by HarvestChoice to discover, retrieve, scan and make available online past agricultural census reports from across Sub-Saharan Africa. HarvestChoice, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and managed by IFPRI, aims to generate knowledge products to help guide strategic investments to improve the well-being of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through more productive and profitable farming.

Agricultural Innovation in Africa (AIA) Project
This project by the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, supports efforts that contribute to agricultural science and technology policy improvement through Africa’s Regional Economic Communities (RECs).                                  

FAO Nutrition Country Profiles
This site offers concise reviews describing the food and nutrition situation in individual countries, with background statistics on food-related factors such as agricultural production.
Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) information for each country

Food Security (dossier)
Internet resources and publications on food security from the collection of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala. Compiled by NAI library staff on the occasion of the World Food Security conference in Rome, 3-5 June 2008.

Food Security Group MSU
A team of researchers from Michigan State University focusing on issues of food security, food policy and general agricultural development, primarily in Africa. Has projects on Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, the Sahel and Zambia.                      

International Food Policy Institute (IFPRI)
Based in Washington, DC, IFPRI’s mission is to provide policy solutions that reduce poverty and end hunger and malnutrition. It has an Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO) in Addis Ababa and a West and Central Africa Regional Office in Dakar. Projects include country strategy support programmes in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda.
Conference ‘Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Enhancing Food Security in Africa’, 1-3 November 2011, in conjunction with the AU Commission and the UN Economic Commission for Africa.

World Bank Data Catalog
A listing of available World Bank datasets, including databases, pre-formatted tables and reports. It provides African Development Indicators: over 1,600 indicators covering 53 African countries and spanning the period from 1961 to 2010.

World Food Programme
WFP is part of the United Nations system and is funded by donations. It aims to reach more than 90 million people in 2011 and provide food assistance in more than 70 countries, many of which are in Africa.


Comité permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS)
In French. Oganisation intergouvernementale créée en 1973 qui regroupe neuf pays sahéliens: Burkina Faso, Cap-Vert, Gambie, Guinée-Bissau, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Sénégal, Tchad. Son mandat actuel est de "s'investir dans la recherche de la Sécurité Alimentaire et dans la lutte contre les effets de la sécheresse et de la désertification, pour un nouvel équilibre écologique du Sahel". Full text documents, statistics (production, imports, exports), the journal Flash CILSS. Based in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
food picture
ECA Food Security and Sustainable Development Division
Division of the UN Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa.

Food Security in Kenya (KFSM)
The Kenya Food Security Meeting (KFSM) is the main coordinating body that brings together food security actors in a forum where information is exchanged, options debated and decisions on activities formulated for referral to the Government of Kenya and donors. Food security updates, assessments, food security profiles.

News updates, media

Famine (Food Crisis in the Horn)
News updates from the Guardian.

Horn of Africa hunger crisis
Selection of news and analysis of the 2011 food crisis by Alertnet, a free humanitarian news service run by the Thomson Reuters Foundation.                                       

Insuring against famine – Ethiopia
The new head of the World Food Programme thinks that commercial practices like risk management can prevent famine and is turning to business to revolutionize aid. Documentary by Journeyman Pictures.

Tracking the Horn of Africa Food Security Crisis
The Food Security Portal, facilitated by IFPRI, provides one-stop access to the latest information from FEWS NET (Famine Early Warning System Network), FAO GIEWS, WFP, and IFPRI. New data, alerts and resources.