Darfur: continuing conflict in Sudan

The library staff of the African Studies Centre Leiden has compiled this web dossier to coincide with a public meeting on ‘Darfur and the international community’ organized on 9 February 2007 by the ASC in cooperation with the Interfaculty Ethnological Student Debating Club WDO. Speakers: Jan Pronk, former Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in Sudan, and Alex de Waal, Programme Director of the Social Science Research Council in New York and Director of Justice Africa.

The dossier begins with an introduction by Prof. Jan Abbink, ASC researcher, outlining the broad contours of the ongoing conflict in Darfur. This is followed by a selection of titles dealing with Darfur and the wider conflict in Sudan published since 2003 which are available in the ASC library. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue, which provides further details and, in many cases, an abstract. The dossier concludes with a selection of web resources.

  1. Introduction
  2. Bibliography: Darfur-Sudan
  3. Selected web resources

Many more items are available online on web sites and in discussion forums. While largely concerned with current affairs, the number of publications in the public domain is quite substantial, reflecting the urgency of the Darfur problem. Further background information is also available in a previous ASC web dossier on Conflict in Sudan: the case of Darfur, compiled in September 2004.

For further information, please email us at asclibrary@ascleiden.nl or phone +31 (0)71 527 3354.


Darfur, a former independent state in western Sudan, has been the scene of acerbic warfare between the Sudanese central government and a number of insurgent movements since February 2003. These groups are demanding rights for the local peoples and more state investment in their marginalized region. At the start of the armed conflict, Darfur, which is the size of France, had a population of about 6 million (virtually all Muslims) but the number is significantly lower today due to mass killings, disease, famine and forced expulsions akin to ethnic cleansing caused by the ‘scorched earth’ military actions of the government troops and local militias. These militias, known as the ‘Janjawiid’, have been largely recruited from Arabized peoples from northern and eastern Darfur. They have also attracted criminals and adventurers from a wider area stretching from Chad to northern Cameroon and the Central African Republic. The war has generated insecurity and caused the wholesale destruction of livelihoods and socio-economic systems in the Darfur region.

According to some observers, the mass violence against the civilian population has led to the deaths of about 300,000 to 350,000 people and to untold cases of abuse, cruelty and oppression. Around 250,000 Darfurians are currently living in refugee camps in Chad, and another 1.8 million internally displaced people are in IDP camps in Sudan itself. International humanitarian relief agencies are having a hard time providing the displaced with food, medical care and other services. The camps are unsafe and are regularly besieged by the Janjawiid and other armed criminal groups, and the international NGO and UN staff are facing regular harassment. The under-funded and under-equipped African Union peacekeeping forces are a mere 7000 strong and, with a weak mandate, they can do very little to improve security and establish stability.

The Darfur problem is probably the worst crisis in Africa at the moment, with international organizations and western governments describing it as genocide. Darfur has demonstrated the international community’s inability to protect civilians from systematic abuse by their own national government and its failure to find a solution that will allow the victims the chance to rebuild their lives. Several rounds of negotiations have been held between the government of Sudan and the different insurgent movements, but as yet to no avail. A persistent pattern is the ill-will, if not bad faith, of the government, as is evident in the continuous breaching of agreements, successive ceasefires and preliminary peace deals – such as the April 2006 ‘Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) signed in Abuja, Nigeria, with one of the three main insurgent movements in Darfur by the Sudanese government and later also by the rebels. The news of another ceasefire deal in December 2006, brokered by US Senator Bill Richardson, was marked shortly afterwards by a bombing campaign on local villages by the Sudanese air force.

Even before the current conflict, Darfur was already the scene of violence when, under the government of the ‘democratically elected’ Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi, government-sponsored militia forces attacked the African (i.e. non-Arabic-speaking) populations in southwestern Darfur in 1986-89. In the ten years prior to 2003, other violent incidents were reported as well and before that there had been a traditional pattern of tensions between the more Arabized nomadic populations in Darfur and the region’s sedentary African peoples, such as the Fur, Daju, Tungur, Zaghawa, Berti and Masalit. These agriculturalists had seasonally determined conflicts with the pastoral nomads over the use of water resources, grazing land and agricultural fields, problems that were slowly aggravated over the past fifty year with the drying out of traditional pasture lands and increased population pressure on land. But in contrast to today’s fighting, local people then used established and accepted frameworks for dealing with conflicts and compensation for damage. The Sudanese government has seriously disturbed, if not destroyed, such traditional social mechanisms through its military intervention, its politicization of the ethnic conflict and its seditious and divisive power politics, giving the advantage to its armed allies among the pastoralist Arabized peoples, like the Rizeygat, Abbala, Ta’isha, Humr and others. It should be noted that these peoples are not united, or even equally involved in the violence, and indications are that many of them are now also suffering themselves as a result of the conflict.

The current phase of armed conflict in Darfur began in early 2003 shortly after the Sudanese government and the SPLA rebels in the south of Sudan reached a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) after decades of civil war. The Darfurians – Muslims like the north-central Sudanese – feared marginalization and exclusion from the division of national resources agreed upon in the CPA, and started a revolt by targeting military installations and air fields on 25 February 2003. The government then reacted disproportionately with massive force, aiming to crush potential insurgency in the Muslim western fringes of Sudan in order to prevent a repeat of the scenario in southern Sudan. Darfurians had also been the mainstay of the civil service and the army of Sudan, and were perceived by the Sudanese central elites to be a possible threat to the national integrity of the country. The subsequent four-year war has, however, shown that the ‘national integrity’ of Sudan is a fiction, and that the country is deeply divided and held together mainly by force. The oppressive violence of the Sudanese army and its allied Janjawiid militias has backfired, the war has intensified at tremendous human cost but rebel forces have held their ground and cannot easily be defeated. Some have also become embroiled in human rights abuse. The common people are experiencing unimaginable suffering and no negotiated settlement is in sight. EU and US efforts to intervene persistently meet a wall of refusal erected by the Sudanese government, which feels secure with its new allies (China and Russia, who do not raise the human rights agenda) and is enjoying its recently found oil wealth, which since 1999 has been providing huge financial leverage. The rebels do not seem to be inclined to negotiate or to lay down their arms due to the government record of broken promises, abuse and military force.

The Darfur war has now spread to the Central African Republic and to Chad, provoking an armed revolt by Sudan-backed rebels against the Chadian government. As a last resort, an internationally mediated agreement on Darfur will have to be reached though the UN and/or the AU, but before this happens the tragedy will continue to wreak further havoc on the people and their land.


Briefing Darfur: the international community's failure to protect / Nick Grono
In: African affairs: (2006), vol. 105, no. 421, p. 621-631

Civilian (in)security in the Darfur region of Sudan / Patrick Rankhumise. - Tshwane (Pretoria) : Institute for Security Studies (ISS), 2006. - (ISS paper, ISSN 1026-0404 ; no. 123)

Darfour: de l'"Amis" à l'"Unamis"? : ou la relève de l'UA par l'Onu / Delphine Lecoutre
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2006), no. 22, p. [37]-50

Darfur: peace, genocide & crimes against humanity in Sudan / Douglas H. Johnson
In: Violence, political culture & development in Africa: (2006), p. 92-104

De Afrikaanse Unie en de vredesoperatie in Darfur / Anne Tjepkema
In: Internationale spectator: (2006), jrg. 60, nr. 7/8, p. 380-384

Justice empowered or justice hampered: the International Criminal Court in Darfur / Cécile Aptel Williamson
In: African security review: (2006), vol. 15, no. 1, p. 20-31

Le "marché de la paix" du Darfour / Delphine Lecoutre
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2006), no. 21, p. [95]-104

Le Darfour, un conflit pour la terre? / Jérôme Tubiana
In: Politique africaine: (2006), no. 101, p. 111-131 : krt

The politics of death in Darfur / Gérard Prunier
In: Current History: (2006), vol. 105, no. 691, p. 195-202

Tchad/Darfour: vers un système de conflits / Roland Marchal
In: Politique africaine: (2006), no. 102, p. 135-154

The African mission in Sudan: Darfur dilemmas / Seth Appiah-Mensah
In: African security review: (2006), vol. 15, no. 1, p. 2-19

The UN Security Council and the enforcement of individual criminal responsibility : the Darfur case / Yusuf Aksar
In: African journal of international and comparative law: (2006), vol. 14, pt. 1, p. 104-119

Violence, political culture & development in Africa / Preben Kaarsholm (ed.). - Oxford : James Currey, 2006. - (Global and comparative studies series ; no. 6)

À la rencontre des mondes: l'épopée des réfugiés du Darfur / Fabienne Le Houérou
In: Maghreb Machrek: (2005), no. 185, p. [103]-126

Actualité africaine : dossier "Darfour" / Marc Fontrier
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2005), no. 214, p. 123-227 : krt., tab

All about Darfur [Beeld & Geluid] / Taghreed Elsanhouri. - San Francisco, CA : California Newsreel, 2005. - 1 dvd-video (121 min.). : kleur, gel.

AU's critical assignment in Darfur : challenges and constraints / Seth Appiah-Mensah
In: African security review: (2005), vol. 14, no. 2, p. 7-21

Briefing: Darfur, Sudan: prospects for peace / Alex de Waal
In: African affairs: (2005), vol. 104, no. 414, p. 127-135

Civil militia : Africa's intractable security menace? / David J. Francis (ed.). - Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate, 2005

Counter-insurgents or ethnic vanguards? : civil militia and State violence in Darfur region, western Sudan / Usman Tar
In: Civil militia : Africa's intractable security menace?: (cop. 2005), p. 131-160

Darfur : a short history of a long war / Julie Flint & Alex de Waal. - London [etc.] : Zed Books, 2005. - (African arguments)

Darfur : livelihoods under siege / Helen Young. - Medford, MA : Feinstein International Famine Center, 2005

Darfur : the ambiguous genocide / Gérard Prunier. - London : Hurst, 2005. - (Crises in world politics)

Darfur and Sudan's politics of deviance / Deon Geldenhuys
In: Africa insight: (2005), vol. 35, no. 3, p. 38-47

Darfur goes to the International Criminal Court (perhaps) / Max Du Plessis & Christopher Gevers
In: African security review: (2005), vol. 14, no. 2, p. 23-34

Darfur naar het Internationaal Strafhof : overwinning voor internationaal strafrecht? / Machteld Boot-Matthijsen
In: Internationale spectator: (2005), jrg. 59, nr. 7/8, p. 399-402

Démographie ethnique, modernisation et violence au Darfour / Éric Denis
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2005), vol. 21, p. [93]-137 : graf., tab

Der Beitrag des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofes zur Stärkung nationaler Institutionen : Überlegungen anhand der ersten Ermittlungen in Afrika / Romana Schweiger. - [Wien : ECCO], 2005

La tragédie du Darfour, l'ONU et le droit international / Charles Zorgbibe
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2005), no. 18, p. [155]-160

Sudan: a flawed peace process leading to a flawed peace / John Young
In: Review of African political economy: (2005), vol. 32, no. 103, p. 99-113

Understanding the conflict in Darfur / M. A. M. Salih. - Copenhagen : Centre of African Studies, 2005. - (Occasional paper, ISSN 0905-4642)

Who are the Darfurians? : Arab and African identities, violence and external engagement / Alex de Waal
In: African affairs: (2005), vol. 104, no. 415, p. 181-205 : fig., krt., tab

Briefing: Sudan: the new war in Darfur / Ulrich Mans
In: African affairs: (2004), vol. 103, no. 411, p. 291-294

Counter-insurgency on the cheap / Alex de Waal
In: Review of African political economy: (2004), vol. 31, no. 102, p. 716-725 : krt

Darfur crisis : a consequence of inaction / Nivedita Ray. - New Delhi : Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis, 2004

Darfur destroyed : ethnic cleansing by government and militia forces in Western Sudan / Julie Flint; Jemera Rone & Georgette Gagnon (ed.); Human Rights Watch. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2004. - (Human rights watch publications ; vol. 16 (2004) no. 6 (May). A: Sub-Saharan Africa)

Darfur in flames : afrocities in Western Sudan / Leslie Lefkow; Jemera Rone & Georgette Gagnon (ed.); Human Rights Watch. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2004. - (Human rights watch publications ; vol. 16 (2004) no. 5 (Apr.). A: Sub-Saharan Africa)

From instigating violence to building peace : the changing role of women in Darfur region of western Sudan / Adam Azzain Mohamed
In: African journal on conflict resolution: (2004), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 11-26

Le conflit au Darfour, point aveugle des négociations Nord-Sud au Soudan / Roland Marchal
In: Politique africaine: (2004), no. 95, p. 125-146

Le désastre du Darfour / Robert O. Collins
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2004), no. 15/16, p. [51]-73

Drought and the evolution of well-irrigated wadi agriculture : implications for sustainable food security systems in Northern Darfur, Sudan / Khalid A. E. Amin
In: African studies bulletin: (2003), no. 65, p. 49-[62]

Sudan: prospects for peace /
In: Review of African political economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 489-497


Return after flight : exploring the decision making process of Sudanese war-displaced people by employing an extended version of the theory of reasoned action / Jan Gerrit van Uffelen. - [S.l : s.n.], 2006

Sudan : the elusive quest for peace / Ruth Iyob & Gilbert M. Khadiagala. - Boulder, CO [etc.] : Rienner, 2006. - (International Peace Academy occasional paper series)

The European Union in the IGAD-subregion : insights from Sudan & Somalia / Marie Gibert
In: Review of African political economy: (2006), vol. 33, no. 107, p. 142-150

US foreign policy and the Horn of Africa / Peter Woodward. - Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate, 2006. - (US foreign policy and conflict in the Islamic world series)

Après la mort de John Garang, la paix soudanaise en question / Gérard Prunier
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2005), no. 19/20, p. [59]-64

Civil wars and revolution in the Sudan: essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan and Darfur 1962-2004 / Robert O. Collins. - Hollywood, CA : Tsehai Publishers, 2005

Conflict and politics in post-Cold War Africa / Cyril Obi (ed.). - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2005. - (African and Asian studies, ISSN 1569-2094 ; vol. 4, no. 1/2)

Friedensprozess und Verfassungsentwicklung im Sudan / Hatem Elliesie
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2005), Jg. 38, Quart. 3, p. 276-307

Grounding local peace organisations: a case study of southern Sudan / Dorothea Hilhorst & Mathijs van Leeuwen
In: The journal of modern African studies: (2005), vol. 43, no. 4, p. 537-563

Guerrilla government : political changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s / Øystein Rolandsen. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2005

I will go the distance : the story of a "lost" Sudanese boy of the sixties / Jacob J. Akol. - Nairobi : Paulines Publications Africa, 2005

John Garang's legacy to the peace process, the SPLM/A & the South / John Young
In: Review of African political economy: (2005), vol. 32, no. 106, p. 535-548

Le Soudan à l'aube de la paix ... : combat de John Garang / Zygmunt L. Ostrowski. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2005. - (Points de vue concrets)

Le Soudan et la paix, une problématique difficile / Gérard Prunier
In: Géopolitique africaine: (2005), no. 18, p. [139]-154

Lessons learned from conflict management work in the Karimojong Cluster / Richard Grahn. - London : International Institute for Environment and Development, 2005. - (Issues paper, ISSN 1357-9312 ; no. 137)

Quo vadis bil¯ad as-S¯udan? : the contemporary framework for a National Interim Constitution / Hatem Elliesie
In: Recht in Afrika: (2005), Jg. 8, H. 1, p. [63]-81

Religion and African civil wars / Niels Kastfelt (ed.). - London : Hurst, 2005

Sudan's civil war: why has it prevailed for so long? / Ali Abdel Gadir Ali, Ibrahim A. Elbadawi & Atta El Batahani
In: Understanding civil war : evidence and analysis: (cop. 2005), p. 193-219 : graf., tab

The lost boys of Sudan : an American story of the refugee experience / Mark Bixler. - Athens, GA [etc.] : University of Georgia Press, 2005

Violence and belonging : the quest for identity in post-colonial Africa / Vigdis Broch-Due (ed.). - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2005

War and faith in Sudan / Gabriel Meyer. - Grand Rapids, MI [etc.] : Eerdmans, 2005

Winning the war, but losing the peace? : the dilemma of SPLM/A civil administration and the tasks ahead / Adam Branch & Zachariah Cherian Mampilly
In: The journal of modern African studies: (2005), vol. 43, no. 1, p. 1-20 : fig., krt

Addis Ababa Agreement : was it destined to fail and are there lessons for the current Sudan peace process? / David H. Shinn
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2004), vol. 20, p. [239]-259

African regional security in the age of globalisation / Makumi Mwagiru (ed.). - Nairobi : Heinrich Böll Foundation, Regional Office, East and Horn of Africa, 2004

Closed district [Beeld & Geluid] / Pierre Yves Vandeweerd. - Bruxelles : DISC/GSARA, 2004. - 1 dvd-video (55 min.). : zw/w, gel.

Eastern Sudan indigenous conflict prevention, management and resolution mechanisms : effectiveness, continuity and change / Khalid Ali El Amin
In: African security review: (2004), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 7-22

Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa / Alex De Waal (ed.). - London : Hurst, 2004

On the periphery of Kerma : the Handessi horizon in Wadi Hariq, northwestern Sudan / Friederike Jesse
In: Journal of African archaeology: (2004), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 123-164 : ill., fig., foto's, krt., tab

Rebel movements and proxy warfare : Uganda, Sudan and the Congo (1986-99) / Gérard Prunier
In: African affairs: (2004), vol. 103, no. 412, p. 359-383 : krt

Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era: challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes' / Jan Abbink. - Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.], 2004. - (ASC working paper ; 55)

South Sudan right of self-determination and establishment of new sovereign state : a legal analysis / Simon E. Kulusika. - Lusaka : University of Zambia Press, 2004

Special issue: peacekeeping in Africa. - Umhlanga : Accord, 2004. - (Conflict trends, ISSN 1561-9818 ; 2/2004)

Sudan peace process : challenges and future prospects / Korwa G. Adar, John G. Nyuot, & Eddy Maloka (ed.). - Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2004. - (African century publications series ; no. 18)


Sudan's blood memory : the legacy of war, ethnicity, and slavery in early South Sudan / Stephanie Beswick. - Rochester, NY [etc.] : University of Rochester Press, 2004. - (Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora, ISSN 1092-5228)

Sudan's civil war : the peace process before and since Machakos / Francis Deng & Mohamed I. Kahlil. - Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2004. - (Occasional papers ; no. 72
Peace and governance programme ; no. 8)

The Horn of Africa as common homeland : the State and self-determination in the era of heightened globalization / Leenco Lata. - Waterloo, ONT : Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2004

The Sudan-IGAD peace process : signposts for the way forward : African security analysis programme. - Pretoria : Institute for Security Studies (ISS), 2004. - (ISS paper, ISSN 1026-0404 ; 86)

Travelling with soldiers and bishops : stories of struggling people in Sudan / Mathew Haumann. - Nairobi : Paulines Publications Africa, 2004

Armed conflict in Africa / Carolyn Wilson Pumphry & Rye Schwartz-Barcott (ed.). - Lanham, MD [etc.] : Scarecrow Press, 2003

Dealing with conflict in Africa : the United Nations and regional organizations / Jane Boulden (ed.). - New York, N.Y., [etc.] : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003

Emma's war : love, betrayal and death in the Sudan / Deborah Scroggins. - London : HarperCollins, 2003

Images of Sudan : case studies in propaganda and misrepresentation / David Hoile. - London : The European-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, 2003

Inside Sudan : political Islam, conflict, and catastrophe / Donald Petterson. - Boulder, CO : Westview Press, 2003

International humanitarian law and the ICRC in the Republic of the Sudan / Alison Wiebalck
In: The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa: (2003), vol. 36, no. 2, p. 198-216

Islam, sectarianism and politics in Sudan since the Mahdiyya / Gabriel R. Warburg. - Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin Press, 2003

Kadogo : enfants des guerres d'Afrique Centrale : Soudan, Ouganda, Rwanda, R-D Congo / Hervé Cheuzeville. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2003

Le Soudan entre pétrole et guerre civile / Jennifer Héry. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2003. - (Inter-National ; Série première synthèse)

Soudan et Somalie: de la fabrication ethnique par la guerre / Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
In: Autrepart: (2003), no. 26, p. 53-72 : fig., krt

Sudan: liberation movements, regional armies, ethnic militias & peace / John Young
In: Review of African political economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 423-434

Sudan: oil & war / Jemera Rone
In: Review of African political economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 504-510

Terrorism and guerrilla warfare theory and practice: al-Qaeda and Sudan's SPLA / Jack Kalpakian
In: Th
e South African journal of international affairs: (2003), vol. 10, no. 2, p. 41-61

The root causes of Sudan's civil wars / Douglas H. Johnson. - Oxford : James Currey, 2003. - (African issues)

War and peace in Sudan : a tale of two countries / Mansour Khalid. - London [etc.] : Kegan Paul, 2003


Selected web resources

Online articles

‘I will not sign’: Alex de Waal writes about the Darfur peace negotiations
In: London Review of Books, 30 November 2006

Darfur peace agreement: so near, so far, by Alex de Waal
In: Open Democracy, 29 September 2006

The book was closed too soon on peace in Darfur, by Alex de Waal
In: The Guardian, 29 September 2006

Understanding genocide in Darfur: the view from Khartoum, by Eric Reeves
26 January 2007

Old conflict, new complex emergency: an analysis of Darfur crisis, western Sudan, by Usman A. Tar
In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, 2006

Darfur in war: the politicization of ethnic identities? by Karin Willemse

Web links

Darfur Information Center
Comprehensive source which aims to serve as a gateway for the plethora of news on Darfur; maintained by Ali B. Ali-Dinar (African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania). Links to documents on Darfur history, geography and development; UN reports; indigenous reports; audio-visual reports; Sudanese newspapers; and the main news sites.

Crisis in Sudan
Sudan pages of the International Crisis Group (Crisis Group), an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization working through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy to prevent and resolve deadly conflict. News, documents, images, information on the humanitarian situation.

Crisis in Darfur
Human Rights Watch pages on Darfur. HRW is working to document and end human rights abuses in Darfur. Background on the Darfur crisis, recent reports, photo essays, multimedia.

The Darfur Consortium (later called Sudan Consortium)
Coalition of more than thirty Africa-based and Africa-focused NGOs dedicated to the working together to promote a just, peaceful and sustainable end to the ongoing humanitarian and human rights crisis in Darfur. The Consortium came together in September 2004 as concerned NGOs gathered on the fringes of the third extraordinary session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Pretoria, South Africa. Information on international involvement in Darfur, statements & reports, members publications.

Darfur Peace Agreement
Text of the May 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement, via United Nations Mission in Sudan, UNMIS, New York and Khartoum.

Sudan: a nation divided
BBC News pages on Darfur.

Sudan Research, Analysis, and Advocacy
This site links to electronically published analytic briefs and advocacy writings on Sudan by Eric Reeves, professor of English Language and Literature at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. He has spent the past seven years working full-time as a Sudan researcher and analyst. The writings have been organized chronologically, and include all electronic publications since the signing of the historic Machakos Protocol (July 2002).