Challenges and prospects of democratization in the Horn of Africa

The ASC library and Prof. Jan Abbink have together compiled this web dossier to coincide with the DRPN-ASC conference entitled "Challenges and Prospects of Democratization in a Zone of Conflict: Rethinking the Role of Non-state Actors and International Development Partners in the Horn of Africa" which was held in Leiden on Wednesday 14 December 2005.

This dossier begins with background information about the Horn of Africa Day and then provides a list of titles on democratization, donor policy and conflict management in the region. These titles, of books and articles published within the last ten years, are based mainly on the ASC library's collection. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides details about the title as well as abstracts of articles and edited works. The dossier concludes with a selection of web resources.

For further information, please email us at or phone +31 (0)71 527 3354.


book cover Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a politically unstable region that has experienced remarkable political experiments and notable donor-country attention, especially in the sphere of democratization, governance, economic reforms, and reforms of the legal system. The Horn – comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Sudan – has a wide diversity of peoples, climatic zones, economic infrastructures and political traditions. Variously shaped by colonial experiences and strong indigenous traditions of politics – e.g., imperial rule, sultanates, acephalous societies, local, clan-based chieftaincies – it has been volatile and conflict-prone, especially over the past century.

In 1991 radical regime changes occurred in Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea. Civil wars ended and transitional regimes were installed. In Djibouti and Somaliland elections were held. Sudan has been the least marked by processes of political liberalization since the early 1990s. This tide of change initially brought hope and renewed commitment from donor countries, NGOs and scholars that the Horn countries would be able to achieve, or at least choose, the path towards meaningful democratic reform, and in its wake, ‘good governance’, in the sense of accountable, transparent and participatory administration or public management. It was expected that, most importantly, the new governments would be able to address the legacy of conflict and restart development efforts in this region, which remains one of the most impoverished and underdeveloped, even in a comparative African perspective.
Numerous local NGOs have emerged and started operations, usually with donor assistance. International NGOs and organizations (like the World Bank, the IMF and the Africa Development Bank) have initiated major investments and programmes to enhance the processes of political and economic liberalization. European donor countries have offered help with the training of national police forces, the reform of judicial structures, voter education and practical support in the organization of elections. Programmes to improve the area’s human-rights record, the individual countries’ educational systems and the involvement and training of women have also been initiated.

Today, in late 2005, it may be time to take stock of the results of democratization processes and efforts to date, and of the institutional and financial support provided by the donor community. This is happening against the backdrop of growing public discontent and the recent flare-up of violent conflicts in the Horn. The Ethiopian–Eritrean war of 1998-2000 and the resulting border stalemate, the ongoing Darfur tragedy, the insecurities around the Sudanese peace agreement for the South, the tensions in Ethiopia and the continued chaos in Somalia have deeply affected processes of democratization across the region. In addition, the increased domestic suppression of civil society and democratic tendencies, notably in Eritrea since 2000 and in Ethiopia after the contested May 2005 elections, has contributed to bringing the democratization process to an apparent standstill.

Donor policies may have proven to be limited in their impact, and often also very misguided, betting on the wrong horses out of Realpolitik, opportunism and lack of in-depth analysis. It is relevant at this stage now to ask what has been achieved, and at what levels. Questions can be asked about democratization as a historical project and in how far it is shared in the developing countries, about its conditions and its relationship with economics and culture, about the links between democratization, stability and security, and about the role of globalizing factors from outside the region. In a more specific sense, the role and impact of international (not only Western) NGOs is an important subject for debate, as well as the relationship between democratic rights and gender, and the lack of attention to the relatively large but marginalized population of pastoralists in the Horn of Africa.

The literature on the above-mentioned subjects is voluminous, but often ignored or little used. It is hoped that professionals associated with the Horn in donor country policy, journalism, NGO activities and academic research will find interesting and helpful contributions here.

Horn of Africa in general

Women in African development: the challenges of globalization and liberalization in the 21st century / ed. by Sylvain H. Boko, Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, and Sitawa R. Kimuna. - Trenton, NJ. Africa World Press, 2005.

U.S. policy in postcolonial Africa : four case studies in conflict resolution / Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam. - New York [etc.] : Peter Lang, 2005.

African commitments to conflict prevention and peacemaking : a review of eight NEPAD countries / Kwesi Aning. - [S.l.] : African Human Security Initiative, 2004.

Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa / Alex De Waal. - London : Hurst, 2004.

The role of NGOs in fostering development and good governance at the local level in Africa with a focus on Kenya / Walter O. Oyugi .
In: Africa development : a quarterly journal of the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa : revue trimestrielle du Conseil pour le développement de la recherche économique et sociale en Afrique: (2004), vol. 29, no. 4, p. 19-55 : tab.

Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and linkages / D. Maxwell & B. Watkins.
In: Disasters: (2003), vol. 27, no. 1, p. 72-90.

Dealing with conflict in Africa : the United Nations and regional organizations / Jane Boulden . - New York, N.Y., [etc.] : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Armed conflict in Africa / Carolyn Wilson Pumphry & Rye Schwartz-Barcott . - Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2003.

A participatory approach for local peace initiatives : the Lodwar Border Harmonization Meeting / Emily Frank .
In: Africa today: (2002), vol. 49, no. 4, p. 69-87 : krt.

Making African NGOs more responsive to social needs / Kalada Godson MacFubara .
In: Journal of social development in Africa: (2002), vol. 17, no. 1, p. 39-58.

Human stability and conflict in the Horn of Africa : part two / Julia Maxted & Abebe Zegeye .
In: African security review: (2002), vol. 11, no. 1, p. 55-59.

Early warning and conflict management in the Horn of Africa / Cirû Mwaûra & Susanne Schmeidl . - Lawrenceville, NJ [etc.] : Red Sea Press, 2002.

Focus : on the European Union and peace-building efforts in the Horn of Africa. - Nairobi [etc.] : Africa Peace Forum [etc.]. /

De Hoorn van Afrika: op weg naar vrede? / J. Abbink .
In: Internationale spectator : tijdschrift voor internationale politiek: (2001), jrg. 55, nr. 4, p. 199-205.

book cover The Charitable impulseThe charitable impulse : NGOs & development in East & North-East Africa / Ondine Barrow & Michael Jennings . - Oxford : James Currey, 2001.

Ethnicity and recent democratic experiments in Africa / Cyril K. Daddieh & Jo Ellen Fair . - New Brunswick, NJ : African Studies Association, 2001. - (African issues ; vol. 29, no. 1/2 (2001))

Constitution-making and democratisation in Africa / Goran Hyden & Denis Venter . - Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2001. - (African century publications series ; no. 6)

Promoting good governance and wider civil society participation in Eastern and Southern Africa : report of regional conference / Rahel Mesfin & Taye Assefa . - Addis Ababa : OSSREA, 2001.

African democracies and African politics / M. A. M. Salih . - London [etc.] : Pluto Press, 2001. - (Human security in the global economy)

Power-sharing and conflict management in Africa: Nigeria, Sudan and Rwanda / R. T. Akinyele .
In: Africa development : a quarterly journal of the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa : revue trimestrielle du Conseil pour le développement de la recherche économique et sociale en Afrique: (2000), vol, 25, no. 3/4, p. 199-223.

When is a State a State? : exploring Puntland / Martin Doornbos .
In: Trajectoires de libération en Afrique contemporaine : hommage à Robert Buijtenhuijs: (cop. 2000), p. 125-139.

Regional initiatives for peace: lessons from IGAD and ECOWAS/Ecomog / Laurence Juma .
In: Africa quarterly : journal of the Indian Council for Africa: (2000), vol. 40, no. 3, p. 85-107.

Conflict resolution in Africa / M. I. Khalil .
In: Journal of African economies: (2000), vol. 9, no. 3, p. 295-322.

Networking with a view to promoting peace : conflict in the Horn of Africa : what can civil society do to bring about solidarity and cooperation in the region, Nairobi, 15-17 March 1999 Addis Ababa : Heinrich Böll Foundation, Regional Office Horn of Africa, 1999.

African democracy : in the era of globalisation / Jonathan Hyslop . - Johannesburg : Witwatersrand University Press, 1999.

State building and democratization in Africa : faith, hope, and realities / Kidane Mengisteab & Cyril Daddieh . - Westport, Conn. [etc.] : Praeger, 1999.

Africa's new leaders : democracy or state reconstruction / Marina Ottaway . - Washington, D.C. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999.

Resolution of intra-national conflicts in Africa : a comparative constitutional perspective
/ Muhammad Habib .
In: Annual conference . . . (1998), [vol.] 10, p. 372-388.

Towards the renaissance of constitutionalism in Africa / Babacar Kanté & Marlies E. Pietermaat-Kros . - Dakar : Gorée Institute, 1998.

Islam, democracy, and the State in North Africa / John P. Entelis . - Bloomington, Ind. [etc.] : Indiana University Press, 1997. - (Indiana series in Arab and Islamic studies)

Les chemins de la guerre et de la paix : fins de conflit en Afrique orientale et australe / Roland Marchal & Christine Messiant . - Paris : Karthala, 1997. - (Les Afriques)

Social devastation & mental health in northeast Africa : some reflections on an absent literature / Melissa Parker .
In: In search of cool ground : war, flight & homecoming in northeast Africa / ed. by Tim Allen. - London [etc.] : James Currey [etc.]: (1996), p. 262-273 : foto's, tab.

Frontline diplomacy : humanitarian aid and conflict in Africa / John Prendergast . - Boulder, Col. [etc.] : Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996.

Conflict resolution in Africa : insights from UN representatives and US government officials / Mary Spear & Jon Keller .
In: Africa today: (1996), vol. 43, no. 2, p. 121-138.

Democratic reform in Africa : the north-eastern region / Peter Woodward .
In: African development perspectives yearbook: (1996), vol. 5, p. 459-469.

Arms to fight, arms to protect : women speak out about conflict / Olivia Bennett, Jo Bexley & Kitty Warnock . - London : Panos, 1995.

Krieg und Frieden : ethnologische Perspektiven / Peter J. Bräunlein & Andrea Lauser . - Bremen : Kea-Edition, 1995. - (Kea, ISSN 0948-8367 ; 2. Sonderband)



Spécial Djibouti / Anne Guillaume-Gentil .
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2003), année 58, no. 3007, p. 1343-1376 : foto's, krt., tab.

Ourrou-Djibouti 1991-1994 : du maquis Afar à la paix des Braves / Mohamed Aden . - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2002.

L'oeil du cyclone: Djibouti, une cité-État entre guerre et paix / Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos .
In: Afrique contemporaine : documents d'Afrique noire et de Madagascar: (2001), no. 198, p. 57-68 : krt., tab.

Spécial Djibouti / Frédéric Lejeal & Bernard Stoven .
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2000), année 55, no. 2846, p. 914-947 : foto's, krt., tab.

A case study on demobilisation in Djibouti / Seifulazis Milas, Ali Elmi Ahmed & Gillian Anderson . - London [etc.] : Saferworld [etc.], 2000. - (Prevention of violent conflict and the coherence of EU policies towards the Horn of Africa)

Djibouti: between war and peace / Mohamed Kadamy .
In: Review of African political economy: (1996), vol. 23, no. 70, p. 511-521.

Dossier national : Djibouti / Abdallah Dini . - Louvain-la-Neuve : Centre international de formation et de recherche en population et développement [etc.], 1995. - (Notes et documents)


The challenges of a society in transition: legal development in Eritrea / Y. Gebremedhin. - Trenton, NJ ? Asmara : Africa World Press, 2005.

Building new states: lessons from Eritrea / G. Hansson.
In: From Conflict to Recovery in Africa / ed. by T. Addison. - New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. - p. 187 - 205.

Reconciling ownership of development and external assistance : aid and nationbuilding in Eritrea / Rachel Hayman . - Edinburgh : University of Edinburgh, Centre of African Studies, 2003. - (Occasional papers, ISSN 1363-0342 ; no. 95)

Eritrea: transition to dictatorship, 1991-2003 / Debessay Hedru .
In: Review of African political economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 435-444.

Old problems in new conflicts: some observations on Eritrea and its relations with Tigray, from liberation struggle to inter-State war / Richard Reid .
In: Africa : journal of the International African Institute: (2003), vol. 73, no. 3, p. 369-401 : krt.

Eritrea zwischen Krieg und Frieden : die Entwicklung seit der Unabhängigkeit / Nicole Hirt . - Hamburg : Institut für Afrika-Kunde, 2001. - (Hamburger Beiträge zur Afrika-kunde, ISSN 0440-1670 ; 62)

Imagined versus actual impacts of the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict / Berhane Mekonnen .
In: Horn of Africa : an independent international journal: (1999), vol. 17, no. 1/4, p. 72-87.

Ethiopia and Eritrea at war : saga of triumph and tragedy at the dawn of the millennium / Paulos Milkias .
In: Horn of Africa : an independent international journal: (1999), vol. 17, no. 1/4, p. 33-71.

Democracy and the role of Parliament under the Eritrean constitution / Bereket Habte Selassie.
In: North Carolina journal of international law and commercial regulation: (1999), vol. 24, no. 3, p. 227-261.

Strategies for change: women & politics in Eritrea & South Africa / Dan Connell.
In: Review of African political economy: (1998), vol. 25, no. 76, p. 189-206.

The Constitution of Eritrea [S.l. s.n.], 1997.

The Eritrean experiment: a cautious pragmatism? / Ruth Iyob .
In: The journal of modern African studies : a quarterly survey of politics, economics and related topics in contemporary Africa: (1997), vol. 35, no. 4, p. 647-673.

Liberalization and democratization in Ethiopia : domestic consequences of the conflict in Eritrea / Assefaw Bariagaber .
In: Eritrean studies review: (1996), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 69-89 : tab.

The Eritrean referendum : peasant voices / Kjeti Tronvoll.
In: Eritrean studies review: (1996), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 23-67.


Federalism: some trends of ethnic conflicts and their management in Ethiopia / K. Asnake.
In: The quest for peace in Africa / ed. by A.G. Nhema. - Utrecht, Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 2004.- p. 51-72.

Book cover Democratic assistance to post-conflict EthiopiaDemocratic assistance to post-conflict Ethiopia : impact and limitations / Rahmato Dessalegn & Ayenew Meheret . - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies, 2004. - (FSS monograph series ; 3)

Democracy assistance to post-conflict Ethiopia. Building local institutions? / D. Rahmato & M. Ayenew. - The Hague : Clingendael Institute, 2004. - (CRU Working Paper 27)
Full text:

The culture of power in contemporary Ethiopian political life / S. Vaughan & K. Tronvoll. - Stockholm : SIDA, 2004.

Voluntarism and civil society : Ethiopia in comparative perspective / Goran Hyden & Mahlet Hailemariam .
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2003), Jg. 38, H. 2, p. 215-234 : tab.

Paradoxes of power and culture in an old periphery: Surma, 1974-1998 / Jon Abbink .
In: Remapping Ethiopia: socialism and after / D. Donham [et al.]. - . Oxford: James Currey, 2002. - p. 155-172.

Local democracy and decentralization in Ethiopia / Theo van der Loop . - Addis Ababa : RLDS, 2002.

Perceptions and practices of monitoring and evaluation: international NGO experiences in Ethiopia / Esther Mebrahtu .
In: Development in practice : an Oxfam journal: (2002), vol. 12, no. 3/4, p. 501-517 : tab.

Ethiopia since the Derg : a decade of democratic pretension and performance / Siegfried Pausewang, Kjetil Tronvoll & Lovise Aalen . - London [etc.] : ZED Books, 2002.

Conflict resolution through cultural tolerance : an analysis of the 'Michu' institution in Metekkel Region, Ethiopia / Endalew Tsega . - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, 2002. - (Research report series, ISSN 1608-6287 ; no. 25)

Ethiopia : the challenge of democracy from below / Bahru Zewde & Siegfried Pausewang . - Uppsala [etc.] : Nordic Africa Institute [etc.], 2002.

Book cover Ethiopia, the challenges of democracy from below

NGO-government relations : conflict and co-operation in development management for rehabilitation of demobilised soldiers: the case of eastern Tigray, Ethiopia / Zenebe Nega Bashaw .
In: Africa development : a quarterly journal of the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa : revue trimestrielle du Conseil pour le développement de la recherche économique et sociale en Afrique: (2001), vol. 26, no. 1/2, p. 251-294.

The challenges of the civil service reform in Ethiopia : initial observations / Paulos Chanie .
In: Eastern Africa social science research review : a publication of the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa: (2001), vol. 17, no. 1, p. 79-102 : tab.

By the sweat of their brow? : 'street children', NGOs and children's rights in Addis Ababa / Olga Nieuwenhuys .
In: Africa : journal of the International African Institute: (2001), vol. 71, no. 4, p. 539-557.

Civil society, NGOs, and development in Ethiopia: a snapshot view / J. Clark. - Washington, DC : The World Bank, 2000.
Full text: 000094946_01011305322369/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf

An introductory inquiry into the salient features of traditional mechanisms of conflict resolution in the Gurage, Amhara, Oromo and Tigray societies / Degefu Koraro Giday . - Addis Ababa : Ethiopian International Institute for Peace and Development, 2000.

Authoritarian populism and democratisation in Ethiopia / Merera Gudina .
In: Africa in transformation : political and economic transformations and socio-economic development responses in Africa: (2000), p. 179-191.

The Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict: diasporic vs. hegemonic States in the Horn of Africa, 1991-2000 / Ruth Iyob .
In: The journal of modern African studies : a quarterly survey of politics, economics and related topics in contemporary Africa: (2000), vol. 38, no. 4, p. 659-682.

International non-governmental organisations in rural development in Ethiopia: rhetoric and practice / Tegegne Teka . - Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang, 2000.

War in the Horn : the conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia / Patrick Gilkes & Martin Plaut . - London : The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999. - (RIIA discussion papers, ISSN 0951-4171 ; 82)

Book cover The Ethiopian State at the crossroadsThe Ethiopian state at the crossroads : decolonization and democratization or disintegration? / Leenco Lata . - Lawrenceville, N.J. Red Sea Press, 1999.

Imagined versus actual impacts of the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict / Berhane Mekonnen .
In: Horn of Africa : an independent international journal: (1999), vol. 17, no. 1/4, p. 72-87.

Ethiopia and Eritrea at war : saga of triumph and tragedy at the dawn of the millennium / Paulos Milkias .
In: Horn of Africa : an independent international journal: (1999), vol. 17, no. 1/4, p. 33-71.

Politische Partizipation in einer blockierten Demokratie : das Beispiel Äthiopien / Antonie K. Nord . - Hamburg : Institut für Afrika-Kunde, 1999. - (Arbeiten aus dem Institut für Afrika-Kunde, ISSN 0945-3601 ; 102)

New configurations of Ethiopian ethnicity : the challenge of the South / Jon G. Abbink .
In: Northeast African studies : incorporating Ethiopianist notes: (1998), n.s., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 59-81.

Ethiopia / Jos van Beurden . - Oegstgeest : GOM, Gemeenschappelijk Overleg Medefinanciering, 1998. - (NGO country profile ; 1998)

Human rights and the structure of security forces in constitutional orders : the case of Ethiopia / James C. N. Paul .
In: The review: (1998), no. 60, p. 135-166.

Ethnicity and democracy : a viable alliance? / Eva Poluha .
In: Ethnicity and the State in Eastern Africa / ed. by M.A. Mohamed Salih and John Markakis. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet: (1998), p. 30-41.

Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia / Jon Abbink .
In: Journal of African law: (1997), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 159-174.

Éthiopie : le nouveau modèle, un réalisme ethnique? / Fabienne Cayla .
In: L'Afrique politique: (1997), p. 110-128 : krt.

Conceptualizing democracy: elections in the Ethiopian countryside / Eva Poluha .
In: Northeast African studies : incorporating Ethiopianist notes: (1997), n.s., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 39-70 : fig.

Die neue äthiopische Verfassung und der Schutz der Menschenrechte / Heinrich Scholler .
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (1997), Jg. 30, Quart. 2, p. 166-181 : tab.

Democratic political development in reference to Ethiopia / Tarekegn Adebo.
In: Northeast African studies : incorporating Ethiopianist notes: (1996), n.s., vol. 3, no. 2, p. 53-96.

Liberalization and democratization in Ethiopia : domestic consequences of the conflict in Eritrea / Assefaw Bariagaber.
In: Eritrean studies review: (1996), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 69-89 : tab.

The potential for donor mediation in NGO-state relations: an Ethiopian case study / W. Campell. - Brighton : Institute for Development Studies, 1996. - (Working Paper 33)

Les principes fondamentaux du régime politique éthiopien / P. F. Gonidec.
In: Afrique 2000 : revue trimestrielle: (1996), no. 25, p. 91-111.

Does European aid work? : an Ethiopian case study / Simon Maxwell . - Brighton : Institute of Development Studies, 1996. - (Working paper, ISSN 1353-6141 ; 46)

Freedom of association, ethnicity, and the transition to democracy / Daniel Haile .
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (1995), Jg. 28, Quart. 3, p. 328-338.

"Democracy" in Africa - interpretations of priorities / Eva Poluha .
In: The African anthropologist : journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association: (1995), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 17-44.

New trends in Ethiopian studies : Ethiopia 94 : papers of the 12th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Michigan State University, 5-10 September 1994
*Vol. II*Social sciences / Harold G. Marcus . - Lawrenceville, N.J. Red Sea Press, 1994.


Stateless justice in Somalia: formal and informal rule of law initiatives / A. Le Sage. - Geneva : Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005.

The heritage of war and state collapse in Somalia and Somaliland: local-level effects, external interventions and reconstruction / Ismail I. Ahmed & Reginald Herbold Green .
In: Third World Quarterly: (1999), vol. 20, no. 1, p. 113-127.
Full text:

Peace-maintenance in anarchical Somalia / J. Chopra .
In: Peace-Maintenance: the evolution of international political authority. - London: Routledge, p. 123-160.

The fallen State : dissonance, dictatorship, and death in Somalia / Alice Bettis Hashim . - Lanham [etc.] : University Press of America, 1997.

Somalie, le choc des cultures: quelques éléments de réflexion pour une démocratisation à venir / Mohamed Abdi Mohamed .
In: État, démocratie, sociétés et culture en Afrique : actes du colloque Les dimensions sociales et culturelles de la démocratie en Afrique : Dakar (Sénégal) du 4 au 6 octobre 1995 / sous la dir. de Ibrahima Mané ; préf. Pierre Weiss ; introd. Babacar Sine. - Dakar : Éditions Démocraties africaines: (1996), p. 159-176.

Clan conflicts and democratization in Somalia / Hussein M. Adam .
In: Ethnic conflict and democratization in Africa / ed. by Harvey Glickman. - Atlanta, Ga. : African Studies Association Press: (1995), p. 197-226.



No More Hills Ahead? The Sudan's Tortuous Ascent to Heights of Peace / Emeric Rogier. - The Hague : Clingendael Institute, Clingendael Security Paper, August 2005, 150 p.
Full Text:

Designing an Integrated Strategy for Peace, Security and Development in Post-Agreement Sudan / Emeric Rogier. - The Hague : Clingendael Institute, CRU Occasional Paper, April 2005, 102 p.
Full text:

Reformed rebels?: democratization, global norms, and the Sudan People's Liberation Army / Claire Metelits.
In: Africa today: (2004), vol. 51, no. 1, p. 65-82.

International humanitarian law and the ICRC in the Republic of the Sudan / Alison Wiebalck.
In: The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa: (2003), vol. 36, no. 2, p. 198-216.

When peace comes : civil society and development in Sudan / Yoanes Ajawin & Alex De Waal . - Lawrenceville, NJ [etc.] : Red Sea Press, 2002.

The grassroots peace making in South Sudan : a resort to an indigenous African justice system / Peper Adwok Nyaba.
In: East African journal of peace & human rights: (2002), vol. 8, no. 1, p. 97-110.

Peaceful change and the rise of Sudan's democracy movement / Dave Peterson.
In: African security review: (2002), vol. 11, no. 4, p. 59-69.

The impasse in the IGAD peace process for Sudan: the limits of regional peacemaking? / Abdelwahab El Affendi .
In: African affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society: (2001), vol. 100, no. 401, p. 581-599.

Reconciliation of Islamic law with constitutionalism : the protection of human rights in Sudan's new constitution / Ilias Bantekas & Hassan Abu-Sabeib .
In: African journal of international and comparative law: (2000), vol. 12, pt. 3, p. 531-553.

Battle for peace in Sudan : an analysis of the Abuja conferences, 1992-1993 / Steven Wöndu & Ann Mosely Lesch . - Lanham, Md. [etc.] : University Press of America, 2000. Book cover Battle for peace in Sudan

Sudan in crisis : the failure of democracy / G. Norman Anderson. - Gainesville, FL [etc.] : University Press of Florida, 1999.

Constitutional perspectives on Sudan (proceedings of the IDF seminar) / Michel Hoebink. - Durham : University of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1999. - (Durham Middle East paper ; no. 62)

Sudan: international responses to war in the Nuba Mountains / Mark Bradbury.
In: Review of African political economy: (1998), vol. 25, no. 77, p. 463-474.

"Defining the community" : the National Islamic Front, its opponents and the sharia issue / Rex Sean O'Fahey.
In: Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara : notes et documents : cahiers annuels pluridisciplinaires: (1997), no. 11, p. 55-65.


Selected web resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites

Africa South of the Sahara, Countries: Horn of Africa
Guide to Internet resources on the Horn of Africa, prepared by Karen Fung (Stanford University). Includes sections on individual countries: DjiboutiEritrea, EthiopiaSomalia/Somaliland, Sudan.

African Newspapers / Africa News (by country)
News section of Africa South of the Sahara, listing African newspapers by country, including Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia/Somaliland, and Sudan

All Africa.Com: Recent News Summaries on East Africa
News summaries in English based on reports from the Pan African News Agency (PANA), East African newspapers and news agencies, and other sources

Djibnet Nomad's Land
Bilingual (English, French) web directory for Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia, based in France. Sections: News and media; Art, society and culture; Business and economy; Governments, institutions and politics; Science and technology; Personal pages; Travel and tourism. Links to radio/tv stations and Internet forums.

Horn of Africa
Collection of links to web resources on the Horn of Africa, by Sourcewatch, a project of the Center for Media and Democracy, an independent, non-profit, non-partisan, public interest organization founded in 1993.

Northeast African Studies
Journal on the Horn of Africa, published by Michigan State University Press. (restricted access)