The Arab Spring in Africa: ten years after

Starting in Tunisia in December 2010, in the first months of 2011 a wave of protest spread across the Arab world. On the 10th anniversary of the “Arab Spring”, the ASCL Library has compiled a web dossier on its history and impact on the African continent.

The dossier consists of titles from the ASCL Library Catalogue, complemented by sources available through the broader Leiden University Library collection. Titles link to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, providing  abstracts and full text links, where available. The dossier is introduced by Dr Abeer Abazeed, and concludes with a selection of links to relevant websites.

Introduction | General | Tunisia | Egypt | Libya | Sudan | Web resources | Timeline


It is more than ten years since the North African revolutions succeeded in ousting the heads of states who had seized power for more than two decades. The catalyst was the toppling of the Tunisian dictator Ben Ali (who had been in power since 1987) in January 2011, but the revolutionary spirit soon transferred to Egypt (ruled by Mubarak since 1981) and Libya, where Gaddafi had reigned ruthlessly since 1969. Such revolutions have continued, with mass protests by the Sudanese people in December 2018 (who toppled the al-Bashir regime that had ruled since 1989) and in Algeria, where the population forced Bouteflika (in power since 1999) to resign in 2019. The popular revolutionary slogan ‘Ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām’ – ‘the people want to bring down the regime’ – rings out in defiance against long-term authoritarian regimes.

The triggers of revolution varied from country to country; the root causes, however, were comparable: in Tunisia, in an act of desperation, the street vendor Bouazizi set fire to himself due to economic hardship and corrupt local authorities. In Egypt, Khaled Saeed was detained and tortured to death, an incident that mobilized young people to protest against police brutality. People in Sudan demonstrated against al-Bashir’s autocracy, while in Algeria, mass protests erupted against a fifth term of Bouteflika in power. Moreover, these revolutions demonstrate intersectional dynamics: the absence of a single leading force, resulting in the mobilization of diverse groups, including young people, women, workers, and professionals, all of whom have played key roles in the protests. Additionally, the uprisings have taken place in rural, urban, and tribal areas and have utilized a range of actions from sit-ins, marches, and civil disobedience, to blogs, graffiti, and social media campaigns. These root causes and vibrant dynamics have been addressed in a wide corpus of literature, as shown in this web dossier. 

While the revolutions succeeded in toppling regime heads, the results took different trajectories. The external military forces of NATO intervened in Libya, while the Muslim Brotherhood seized power in Egypt and was subsequently overthrown by the military, supported by a mass uprising. The post-revolution dynamic in Tunisia gained international recognition. The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet (the leading civil force) was awarded the Nobel Prize of Peace in 2015 for its political role in settling the post-revolution arrangement. The web dossier includes studies that analyse the aftermaths of revolutions across the North African countries.  

The spillover of uprisings and mass protests in North Africa was facilitated by a common language and culture; hence the framing of these revolutions, including the mass protests in Syria, Lebanon, Yemen, and Iraq, as the ‘Arab spring’. However, the North African revolutions are also connected to uprisings elsewhere on the African continent. Hence, a number of resources in this web dossier discuss the North African revolutions in relation to African Union politics, or in comparison to other protests that took place in Gabon, Cameroon, and Uganda after 2011, in addition to the lessons learned by other African political regimes. 

Accordingly, this web dossier contributes to documenting the African uprisings without creating a divide between the North and sub-Saharan Africa. To facilitate access, the web dossier categorizes the resources by country: Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Sudan in addition to a general category featuring different resources about Algeria, Morocco, and wider connections with the whole continent. Moreover, it includes links to think tanks and archival websites that document and analyse the revolutions and their aftermaths. The resources are in English, French, and Arabic.

By Abeer R.Y. Abazeed



Women rising : in and beyond the Arab Spring / Rita Stephan and M. Charrad (editors). Cover women rising
New York : New York University Press, 2021.

Algeria's 2019 uprising and the significance of slogans : towards a discourse analysis / Meriem Serhani & Nassima Kerras.
In: Revue Akofena : revue scientifique des sciences du langage, lettres, langues et communication, no. 2, vol. 1 (2020), pages 53-76

The Arab uprisings of 2011 in historical perspective / John Chalcraft.
Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2020.

Creative radicalism in the Middle East : culture and the Arab left after the uprisings / Caroline R. Rooney.
London : I.B. Taurus; Bloomsbury, 2020.

Fear and learning in the Arab uprisings / Michele Dunne.
In: Journal of democracy vol. 31, no. 1 (2020), p. 182-192

Never out of now : preference falsification, social capital and the Arab Spring / Ammar Shamaileh.
In: International interactions vol. 45, no. 6 (2019), p. 949-975

Eruptions of popular anger : the economics of the Arab Spring and its aftermath / Elena Ianchovichina.
Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018.

The impact of social and digital media on traditional agenda setting theory in relation to the Arab Spring revolutions / Arianna Khan.
Miami : Florida International University, 2018. (Free access)

Microfoundations of the Arab uprisings : mapping interactions between regimes and protesters / Frederic Volpi; James M. Jasper.
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018.

L'islam politique à l'ère du post-Printemps arabe : sommes-nous entrés dans l'ère du nécro-islamisme? / Wael Saleh et Patrice Brodeur.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2017.

Le monde arabe en morceaux : des printemps arabes à Daech / Charles Thépaut [préf. de Hubert Védrine]
Malakoff : Armand Colin, 2017.

Les revendications amazighes dans la tourmente des "printemps arabes" : trajectoires historiques et évolutions récentes des mouvements identitaires en Afrique du Nord / Mohand Tilmatine et Thierry Desrues (dir.)
Rabat : Centre Jacques-Berque, 2017.

Révolutions et transitions politiques dans le monde arabe / sous la dir. de Zaïneb Ben Lagha ... [et al.]
Paris : Karthala, 2017.

Understanding the different outcomes of the Arab uprisings : a comparison of Egypt and Tunisia / Mona Machrouh.
Bergen : The University of Bergen, 2017.

Who put the 'post' in the post-Arab spring? : towards a fresh narrative for North Africa / Mikael Eriksson.
Uppsala : The Nordic Africa Institute, 2017.

Analysis of the Arab Spring / Iffat Idris.
[Place of publication not identified] GSDRC, 2016. (Free access)

The Arab Spring five years later volume one : toward greater inclusiveness / Hafez Ghanem.
Brookings Institution Press 2016.

Crises et recompositions post-révolutionnaires dans le monde arabo-musulman / Jean-Marie Miossec.
In: Territoires d'Afrique, no. 8 (2016), p. 123-143 : ill., krt

Democratisation in the Maghreb / J.N.C. Hill.
Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

Itinéraires arabes en révolution (2011-2014) / Pierre Vermeren, Nadine Picaudou-Catusse (dir.)
Toulouse : Presses universitaires du Midi, 2016.

La littérature à l'heure du printemps arabe / Rasheed El-Eneany, Sobhi Boustani, Walid Hamarneh (éd.); préf. de Sobhi Boustani. Cover le monde Arabe en morceaux
Paris : Karthala, 2016.

New linguistic practices of the February 20 Movement in Morocco : toward a new model of language policy / Adil Moustaoui Srhir.
In: Nordic journal of African studies, vol. 25, no. 1 (2016), p. 72-91

The political economy of regime survival : Algeria in the context of the African and Arab uprisings / Hamza Hamouchene and Brahim Rouabah.
In: Review of African political economy, vol. 43, no. 150 (2016), p. 668-680 (Restricted access)

Women's movements in post-Arab Spring North Africa / edited by Fatima Sadiqi.
Rabat : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. (Free access)

Angolan civil society activism since the 1990s : reformists, confrontationists and young revolutionaries of the 'Arab spring generation' / Nuno Vidal.
In: Review of African political economy, vol. 42, no. 143 (2015), p. 77-91 (Restricted access)

Dossier : stato e società in Egitto e Tunisia: involuzioni ed evoluzioni / a cura di Ruth Hanau Santini.
In: Afriche e Orienti : rivista di studi ai confini tra Africa mediterraneo e Medio Oriente, a. XVII, n. 1-2 (2015), p. 5-120 : tab

Drôle de printemps suivi de Miniatures / Youssouf Amine Elalamy.
Casablanca, Maroc : La Croisée des Chemins, 2015.

Écrire l'inattendu : les Printemps arabes entre fictions et histoire / Elena Chiti, Touriya Fili-Tullon et Blandine Valfort (dir.)
Louvain-la-Neuve : Academia-L'Harmattan, 2015.

... et se voile le printemps : poème / Mohamed Loakira and peintures de Bouchta El Hayani.
Tanger : Virgule Éditions, 2015.

Insurgency / by Ade Abolurin.
Ejioku : Golden-Gems Unique Multiventures, 2015.

Printemps ou hiver arabe? (2011-2014) / Jawad Kerdoudi.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

Quelle gouvernance et quelles institutions au Maghreb face aux enjeux géostratégiques? / Camille Sari.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

Révolution tunisienne : compromis historique et citoyenneté politique : actes du colloque international organisé par le laboratoire Diraset et l'ATASC, 2-3-4 mai 2013 / sous la direction de Abdelhamid Hénia, Abdelkader Zghal, Fatma Ben Slimane.
Tunis : Laboratoire de recherche Diraset [ etc.], 2015.

The Arab Spring and contemporary challenges in Nigeria Alaba Ogunsanwo.
In: Contemporary challenges in Nigeria, Africa and the world / ed. by Chibuzo N. Nwoke & Ogaba Oche. Lagos : The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2014.

The Arab Spring : a parsimonious explanation of recent contentious politics / Daan Blitz.
Nijmegen : Radboud University Nijmegen, 2014. (Free access)

The Arab Spring : theoretical perspectives on the regimes of North Africa and the Middle East / Wynand Greffrath and André Duvenhage.
In: The South African journal of international affairs, vol. 21, no. 1 (2014), p. 27-44 : tab (Restricted access)

Food security and social conflict / Johan Helland.
Bergen : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2014. (Free access)

Migration, human rights and the politics of identity in a globalized world / [editors] Said Graiouid & Taieb Belghazi.
Rabat : Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Université Mohammed V, 2014.

Né(e) un 20 février 2011 : témoignages des 20 févrieristes / Dounia Benqassem.
Casablanca : Editions AfricArts, 2014.

The political economy of the Arab uprisings / S. Roy-Mukherjee.
London [etc.]: Routledge, 2014.

Popular uprisings that never came : Algeria and Morocco in the light of Arab revolts / Mikael Eriksson.Cover Popular uprisings that never came
Stockholm : FOI, 2014.

Le Printemps arabe, quels effets sur les relations intermaghrébines? : actes du colloque international organisé à la Faculté des Sciences juridiques, économiques et sociales de Salé en partenariat avec la REMALD et avec le concours de la Fondation Hanns-Seidel, les 28 et 29 mars 2013 / sous la dir. de Hamid El Amouri.
Rabat : REMALD, 2014.

Pro-democratic intervention in Africa and the Arab Spring / Hannah Woolaver.
In: African journal of international and comparative law, vol. 22, pt. 2 (2014), p. 161-183

Retour sur les Printemps arabes / Jean François Bayart.
In: Politique africaine, vol. 133, no. 1 (2014), p. 153-175

Trajectories and outcomes of the 'Arab Spring' : comparing Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Syria / Housam Darwisheh.
Chiba: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE-JETRO), 2014.

The Arab Spring and its surprises / Asef Bayat.
In: Development and Change vo. 44, no. 3 (2013), p. 587-601

Arbitration in the aftermath of the Arab Spring : from uprisings to awards / Josh Vaughan.
In: Ohio State journal on dispute resolution vol. 28, no. 2 (2013), p. 491

Comparative analysis of Arab Spring determinants : security implications for Nigeria / Ogujiuba, Kanayo; Ogbonnaya, Ufiem Maurice; Abraham, Terfa Williams.
In: African security review, vol. 22, no. 4 (2013), p. 264-276 : fig., tab

Cyberactivism in the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions : potentials, limitations, overlaps and divergences / Sahar Khamis and Katherine Vaughn.
In: Journal of African media studies, vol. 5, no. 1 (2013), p. 69-86

Democracy's fourth wave? : digital media and the Arab Spring / Philip N. Howard.
New York : Oxford University Press 2013. - Digital media and the Arab Spring

The Economics of Political Transitions: Implications for the Arab Spring / Padamja Khandelwal, Roitman, Agustin

North Africa's Arab Spring / edited by George Joffé.
London [etc.] : Routledge, 2013.

Les printemps arabes croqués par le dessinateur de presse Godfrey Mwampembwa (dit Gado) : s'ils peuvent le faire, pourquoi pas nous?' / Alexander A. Panov [trad. de l'anglais par Catherine Nallet-Lugaz]
In: Afrique contemporaine : documents d'Afrique noire et de Madagascar, no. 245 (2013), p. 37-51 : ill

The security implications of the Arab Spring / Eberhard Kienle.
Geneva : Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP), 2013. (Free access)

Social media and the Arab Spring : politics comes first / Wolfsfeld, Gadi; Segev, Elad; Sheafer, Tamir
In: The international journal of press/politics vol. 18, no. 2 (2013), p. 115-137

A tourist in the Arab Spring / by Tom Chesshyre.
Guilford, Connecticut : Globe Pequot Press, 2013.

Will Sub-Saharan Africa follow North Africa? : backgrounds and preconditions of popular revolt in the light of the 'Arab spring' / Sofiane Bouhdiba.
Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2013.

Arabités numériques : le printemps du Web arabe / Yves Gonzalez-Quijano.Cover Arabites numeriques
Arles : Actes sud, 2012.

The Arab Spring : causes, consequences, and implications / El Hassane, Aissa.
Carlisle: U.S. Army War College, 2012.

Dossier de recherche : Printemps arabe : une "révolution" pour les sciences sociales? / Vincent Geisser.
Paris : CNRS, 2012.

Dossier : Un printemps arabe ? / Jesús Jurado Anaya; Antil, Alain; Baamara, Layla; Baylocq, Cédric; Bendourou, Omar; Bras, Jean-Philippe; Camau, Michel; d'Arcier-Flores, Hortense Faivre; Desrues, Thierry; Dot-Pouillard, Nicolas; Dris, Cherif; Dris Aït Hamadouche, Louisa; Geisser, Vincent; Ginouvès, Véronique; Gobe, Éric; Gómez Martín, Carmen; Granci, Jacopo; Haddad, Saïd; Laarcher, Smaïn; Lachenal, Perrine; Lesourd, Céline; Peyssard, Jean-Christophe; Pouessel, Stéphanie; Salamon, Anaïs; Seniguer, Haoues; Steuer, Clément; Terzi, Cédric; Touati, Zeineb; Vairel, Frédéric; Zoubir, Yahia.
In: L'année du Maghreb (2012)

Egypt without Mubarak, Tunisia after Bin Ali: theory, history and the 'Arab Spring' / Eberhard Kienle.
In: Economy and society vol. 41, no. 4 (2012), p. 532-557

Eén jaar Arabische Lente / Jan Abbink and Peter Kerkhof.
Amsterdam : Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit, 2012.

Égypte, Tunisie : de la rue aux urnes / dossier dir. par Sarah Ben Néfissa.
Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2012.

La face cachée des révolutions arabes / Centre français de recherche sur le renseignement, sous la dir. d'Eric Denécé.
Paris : Ellipses, 2012.

Gendering the Arab Spring / Nadje Al-Ali.
In: MJCC vol. 5, no. 1 (2012), p. 26-31

Have the Arab uprisings helped or harmed women’s rights? : women and the Arab revolutions: from equality in protest to backlash in the transition from old regimes to new governments / Maria Frederika Malmström.
Lund: Lund University Publications, 2012.

Jobs, justice and the Arab Spring : inclusive growth in North Africa / John Page.
Tunis : African Development Bank Group, 2012. (Free access)

The new Arab revolutions that shook the world / Farhad Khosrokhavar.
Boulder, CO [etc.] : Paradigm Publishers, 2012.

Revisiting transitions in the Arab world, spring or fall? / David S. Sorenson.
In: Air and Space Power Journal, Africa and Francophonie, vol. 3, no. 1 pages 5-34, (Spring 2012).

Seasons of change : lessons from the Arab Spring / Jason Noble.
Fort Leavenworth : School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), 2012.

Social media and political change : the case of the 2011 revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt / Regina Salanova.
Institut Català Internacional per la Pau, 2012.

Tout va bian / Slim and préface de Ghania Mouffok.
[Raleigh, N.C.?] : Slim, 2012.

Tunisia and Egypt : unrest and revolution / Justin C. de Leon and Charlotte R. Jones. (editors)
Hauppauge, NY : Nova Science, 2012.

Africa and the Arab Spring : a new era of democratic expectations / National Defense Univ Fort Mcnair Dc, Africa Center For Strategic Studies.
Washington, D.C. :Africa Center for Strategic Studies, 2011.

African awakening : the emerging revolutions / Firoze Manji; Sokari Ekine.
Oxford : Pambazuka Press, 2011.

The Arab Spring : Africa's coming winter of discontent: some initial reflections / guest ed.: Gerrie Swart.
London : Adonis & Abbey Publishers, 2011.

The new Arab revolt / Council on Foreign Relations.
New York : Council on Foreign Relations, 2011.

Onder mijn zolen! : verhalen van de Arabische opstand / Marijn Kruk & Stefan de Vries, met bijdragen van Eduard Padberg e.a..
Utrecht : Bluebeard Publications, 2011.

Perils accompanying the moment of promise : security challenges in North Africa following the Arab Spring / Mikael Eriksson.
Stockholm : Division of Defence Analysis, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 2011.

Special issue : North Africa's Arab Spring / eds.: John P. Entelis and George Joffé.
Abingdon : Taylor & Francis, 2011.

Spécial printemps arabe / par Arnaud de Raulin ... [et al.]
Paris : Éditions juris Africa, 2011.

Arab Spring : transformation of political paradigm in context of international relations / Leonid Fituni.
In: African studies in Russia : yearbook (2010), p. 108-125 : fig., tab

Has the Arab Spring really happended? : (another look at the events in Arab countries) / Naillia Fakhrutdinova.
In: African studies in Russia : yearbook (2010), p. 126-138



L'exception tunisienne : variations sur un mythe / Michel Camau.Cover Democratie annee zero
Tunis / Paris : IRMC / Karthala, 2018.

La promesse du printemps : Tunisie, 2011-2017 / de Aziz Krichen.
Paris : Editions de la Sorbonne, 2018.

Tunisie : une révolution en pays d'islam / Yadh Ben Achour.
Genève : Labor et fides, 2018.

Beyond the Arab Spring : will economic and security challenges further test Tunisia’s democracy? / Rorisang Lelalake.
[Place of production not identified] : Afrobarometer, 2017. (Free access)

Actions of the Tunisian army in Gafsa in 2008 and during the uprising of 2011 / Rémy Smida, Landry Signé.
In: ASPJ : Africa and Francophonie, vol. 7, no. 2 (2016), p. 38-56 : ill

Le chercheur, le diplomate et la révolution tunisienne : mémoires d'un directeur d'Institut français en Tunisie (2008-2013) / Pierre-Noël Denieuil.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2016.

Démocratie année zéro / réalisé par Christophe Cotteret.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2016.

Élections et territoires en Tunisie : enseignement des scrutins post-révolution (2011-2014) / sous la dir. de Alia Gana et Gilles Van Hamme.
Paris : Karthala, 2016.

Ennahdha : une histoire tunisienne / réal. Christophe Cotteret, et al.
[Paris] : [l'Harmattan vidéo [éd., distrib.], 2016.

Un ambassadeur dans la révolution tunisienne / Pierre Ménat.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015.

L'UGTT, une passion tunisienne : enquête sur les syndicalistes en révolution, 2011-2014 / Hèla Yousfi.
Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.], 2015.

Tunisie, la révolution inachevée : entretiens avec Gilles Vanderpooten / Youssef Seddik.
Sfax : Med Ali Editions, 2015.

Les fruits de la Hogra / Hassna Aalouach-Belkanichi, préf. de Salem Bouazizi.
Paris : Orizons, 2014.

The Arab Spring in Tunisia and its aftermath / Izaak Bruce.
Washington, D.C. : American University, 2013. (Free access)

De quoi demain sera-t-il fait? : le monde arabo-musulman fait sa révolution / Latifa Lakhdhar.
Tunis : Éditions Nirvana, 2013.

Je prendrai les armes s'il le faut : Tunisie, mon combat pour la liberté / Dalila Ben Mbarek Msaddek avec Valérie Urman.
Paris : Presses de la Renaissance, 2013.

Paroles de Tunisiennes : le mur de la peur est tombé! / Marie-Pascale Vincent.
Paris : Harmattan, 2013.

La révolution tunisienne : la part du droit / Jamil Sayah.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013.

Tunisie, du triomphe au naufrage : entretiens avec le président Moncef Marzouki / Pierre Piccinin da Prata.Cover Tunisie du triomphe au naufrage
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013.

Tunisie : pour un modèle économique postrévolutionnaire / Moncef Guen.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013.

Tunisie : la révolution et ses passés / Nicolas Dot-Pouillard.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013.

Ma vérité / Leila Ben Ali.
Paris : Éditions du Moment, 2012.

Tunisie : un an après la révolution / Latifa Moussa.
In: Géopolitique africaine, no. 42 (2012), p. 73-82

Vers une Tunisie libre? : chroniques du Sèmaphore, T. 2 Hiver 2011-2012 / préf. par Youssef Seddik and François-G. Bussac.
Tunis : Éditions Arabesques, 2012.

Willis from Tunis : chroniques de la révolution / Nadia Khiari, préf. de Siné.
Paris : La Découverte, 2012.

Les avocats, l'Ancien Régime et la révolution : profession et engagement public dans la Tunisie des années 2000 / Éric Gobe.
In: Politique africaine, no. 122 (2011), p. 179-197

Chronique d'une transition / Kmar Bendana.
Tunis : Script, 2011.

Dégage : la révolution tunisienne, 17 décembre 2010-14 janvier 2011 / [direction éditoriale Viviane Bettaïeb]
Paris; Tunis : Layeur; Patrimoine, 2011.

Dossier La Tunisie en révolution? / [dossier] coordonné par Béatrice Hibou.
In: Politique africaine, no. 121 (2011), p. 5-67

E la nave va, et vogue la navire, vers une Tunisie libre? : chroniques / François-G. Bussac.
Tunis : Arabesques, 2011.

La face cachée de la révolution tunisienne : islamisme et occident, une alliance à haut risque / Merzi Haddad [préf. de Samir Amin]
[S.l.] : Editions Apopsix, 2011.

Growing jasmines : what should the EU do in Tunisia now? / Ulla Holm [et al.]
Copenhagen: DIIS, 2011.

Printemps de Tunis : la métamorphose de l'histoire / Abdelwahab Meddeb.
Paris : Albin Michel, 2011.



Dégage ! : 2011, place Tahrir / Mohamed Abdel Azim.Cover Making revolution in Egypt
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2021.

The Egyptian revolution of January 25, 2011 as an anti-systemic movement / Amany Abdellatif Osman.
In: Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences (2021)

Peasants, dispossession and resistance in Egypt : an analysis of protest movements and organisations before and after the 2011 uprising / Francesco de Lellis.
In: Review of African political economy vol. 46, no. 162 (2019), p. 582-598

An analysis of the social factors that resulted in the 2011 social unrest in Egypt, integrated with a personality profiler of its revolutionary leadership / John Karkazis, et al.
In: Mediterranean journal of social sciences vol. 9, no. 2 (2018), p. 215-225

Cigarette number seven : a novel / by Donia Kamal, translated by Nariman Youssef
Cairo, New York : Hoopoe, 2018.

Contesting the repressive state : why ordinary Egyptians protested during the Arab Spring / Kira D. Jumet.
New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2018.

L'Égypte de Moubarak à Sissi : luttes de pouvoir et recompositions politiques / Baudouin Long.
Paris : Karthala, 2018.

Making revolution in Egypt : the April 6 youth movement in a global context / Ali Sonay.
London : I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2018.

Egypt in a time of revolution : contentious politics and the Arab Spring Neil Ketchley.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Women and the Egyptian revolution : engagement and activism during the 2011 Arab uprisings / Nermin Allam.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Une autre nuit sur terre = Another night on earth = Laylat ukhrá ʻalá al-arḍ = Otra noche en la tierra / un film de David Muñoz.
[Paris] : Editions l'Harmattan, 2016.

Chronicles of the Egyptian revolution and its aftermath : 2011–2016 / M. Cherif Bassiouni.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press 2016.

Egypt and the transformations of the Pan-African movement : the challenge of adaptation / Rawia Tawfik.
In: African studies : a quarterly journal devoted to the study of African administration, cultures and languages (2016), vol. 75, no. 3, p. 297-315 (Restricted access)

Engaged ephemeral art : street art and the Egyptian Spring / Saphinaz Amal Naguib.
Heidelberg : Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, 2016. - Transcultural studies, (Free access//Free access)

Génération Tahrir / Ammar Abo Bakr, Pauline Beugnies, Ahmed Nagy.
[S.l.] : Le Bec en l'air, 2016.

Gramsci on Tahrir : revolution and counter-revolution in Egypt / De Smet, Brecht.
London: Pluto Press, 2016.

Grey-scales : negotiating the civil state in post-revolutionary Egypt / by Sarah Wessel.
Bonn : Center for Applied Research in Partnership with the Orient (CARPO), 2016.

The naked blogger of Cairo : creative insurgency in the Arab world / Marwan M. Kraidy.
Cambridge, MA [etc.] : Harvard University Press, 2016.

Otared / Mohammed Rabie, transl. by Robin Moger.
Cairo : American University in Cairo Press, 2016.

Bread, freedom, social justice : the origins of regime fragility in Egypt and Syria and the Arab Spring's implications for the future operating environment / George Greanias.
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas : School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2015.

Egypt in the future tense : hope, frustration, and ambivalence before and after 2011 / Schielke Samuli.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press 2015.

Media, revolution and politics in Egypt : the story of an uprising / Abdalla F. Hassan.Cover Media, revolution and politics in Egypt
London: I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2015.

من الإنترنت إلى الشارع: دور وسائل الإعلام الاجتماعية في ثورة 25 يناير 2011 في مصر = The role of social networks in Egypt's January 2011 revolution / محمد نصر ، حسني
In: Journal of Arts and Social Sciences vol. 2, no. 8 (2015), p. 34-47

Arab Spring to the Egyptian winter? / by Ray Bush.
In: African studies bulletin, no. 76, p. 45-57 (2014/15)

Bread, freedom, social justice: workers and the Egyptian revolution / Anne Alexander and Mostafa Bassiouny.
London: NBN International, 2014.

The intellectual and the people in Egyptian literature and culture : Amāra and the 2011 revolution / Ayman A. El-Desouky.
Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Power of the street : evidence from Egypt's Arab Spring / Daron Acemoglu.
Cambridge, Mass., United States : National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014. - Power of the Street

Cairo rewind : the first two years of Egypt's revolution 2011-2013 / Azza Radwan Sedky.
Victoria, BC : FriesenPress, 2013.

Street art and the Egyptian revolution / Lina Khatib.
Barcelona : Instituto Europeo del Mediterraneo (IEMed), 2013. - IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook 2013, (Free access)

Whatever happened to the Egyptian revolution? / Galal A. Amin.
Cairo : The American University in Cairo Press, 2013.

Beyond secular and religious : an intellectual genealogy of Tahrir Square / Hirschkind, Charles.
In: American ethnologist vol. 39, no. 1 (2012), p. 49-53

Égypte : une révolution permanente? / Annie Laurent.
In: Géopolitique africaine, no. 42 (2012), p. 83-93

Les fleurs islamistes du printemps arabe / Ahmed Youssef.
In: Géopolitique africaine, no. 42 (2012), p. 117-122

Framing the Egyptian uprising in Arabic language newspapers and social media / Naila Hamdy and Ehab H. Gomaa.
In: Journal of communication vol. 62, no. 2 (2012), p. 195-211

A hierarchy of struggles? : the 'economic' and the 'political' in Egypt's revolution / M. Abdelrahman.
In: Review of African political economy, vol. 39, no. 134 (2012), p. 614-628

No longer a bargain : women, masculinity, and the Egyptian uprising / Hafez, Sherine.
In: American ethnologist, vol. 39, no. 1 (2012), p. 37-42

Noise of Cairo Heiko Lange
Alexandria, VA : Filmakers Library, 2012.

Strength and vulnerability after Egypt's Arab Spring uprisings / Hamdy, Sherine F.
In: American ethnologist vol. 39, no. 1 (2012), p. 43-48

Ḥattā maṭlaʿ al-faǧr : 2010-2011 / Bilāl Faḍl
al-Dawḥa : Bloomzbury Qatar Foundation (Muʾassasat Qaṭar li-al-Našr), 2011.

Messages from Tahrir : signs from Egypt's revolution / Karīma Ḵalīl.
Cairo [etc.] : The American University in Cairo, Press 2011.

The road to Tahrir : front line images by six young Egyptian photographers / Omar Attia.
Cairo [etc.] : The American University in Cairo Press, 2011.

Tahrir Square : the heart of the Egyptian revolution / Mia Gröndahl.
Cairo [etc.] : American University in Cairo Press, 2011.

Tweets from Tahrir : Egypt's revolution as it unfolded, in the words of the people who made it / Nadia Idle and Alex Nunns.
Doha : Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation (Muʾassasat Qaṭar li-al-Našr), 2011.



From the February 17 Revolution to Benghazi : rewriting history for political gain / Ronald Bruce St John.Cover NATOs failure in Libya
In: The journal of North African studies (2016), vol. 21, no. 3, p. 357-378 (Restricted access)

Novelising the Arab revolutions : The Knights of Assassinated Dreams / Brahim El Guabli.
In: The journal of North African studies (2015), vol. 20, no. 2, p. 143-158 (Restricted access)

Responsibility to protect in application : a comparative analysis of Libya and Syria during the Arab spring / Hilde Line Solberg-Henriet.
Bergen : The University of Bergen 2015.

Révolte et reconstruction en Libye : le roi et le rebelle / Moncef Ouannes.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014.

Sandstorm : Libya in the time of revolution / Lindsey Hilsum.
New York : Penguin Books, 2013.

Libya : liberation and post-Qadhafi transition / ed. by Brenton L. Kerr and Meredith I. Cantu.
Hauppauge, NY : Nova Science, 2012.

NATO's failure in Libya : lessons for Africa / Horace Campbell.
Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, 2012.

On unconstitutional changes of government : the case of the National Transitional Council of Libya / Mehari Taddele Maru.
In: African security review (2012), vol. 21, no. 1, p. 67-73

Tribes in Libya : from social organization to political power / Haalo Hweio.
In: African conflict & peacebuilding review (2012), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 111-121

Libye : permis de tuer / David Gakunzi.
Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011.

Des révolutions arabes à l'intervention en Libye : réflexions critiques / Charles Zorgbibe.
In: Géopolitique africaine (2011), no. 40, p. 61-75



Networked movements and the circle of trust: civil society groups as agents of change in Sudan / Maha Bashri.Cover_Sudans_popuplar_uprising_and_the_demise_of_Islamism
In: Information, communication & society (2021), vol. 24, no. 3, p. 470-489

The post-Bashir era in Sudan: tragedy or remedy? / Noah Bassil and Jingwei Zhang.
In: Australian journal of international affairs (2021), pages 1-8

آخر أيام البشير: الثورة.. المرحلة الانتقالية \ .أحمد ، محمد عبد الكريم ; شعبان ، عصام
Cairo - Egypt: Al- Arabi for Publishing & Distributing, 2020.

Beyond the sit-in : public space production and appropriation in Sudan’s December Revolution, 2018 / Ibrahim Z. Bahreldin.
In: Sustainability (Basel, Switzerland) (2020), vol. 12, no. 12, p. 5194

Rethinking contemporary public space : the sit-in space invention and appropriation in Sudan’s December revolution 2018 / Ibrahim Z. Bahreldin.
Public Space, Public Sphere, and Publicness in the Middle East: Proceedings of the International Seminar held at Cairo, Egypt on March 8 & 9, 2020.

Dismantling the Sudanese dictatorship : how urbanization in Khartoum paved the way for democratic reform / Loloa Ibrahim.
Cambridge, Mass, United States : Harvard University, 2019.

The fall of al-Bashir : mapping contestation forces in Sudan / Magdi El-Gizouli.
Paris : Arab Reform Initiative, 2019. (Free access)

Safeguarding Sudan’s revolution / International Crisis Group.
Brussels : International Crisis Group (ICG), 2019. (Free access)

Sudan’s popular uprising and the demise of Islamism / Munzoul A. M. Assal.
Bergen : Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2019.

Surviving success : nonviolent rebellion in Sudan / Benjamin R. Naimark-Rowse.
In: Journal of peacebuilding & development (2017), vol. 12, no. 3, p. 117-123

An 'Arab Spring' scenario in the Republic of Sudan : still realistic or yet unrealistic? / Sergey Seregichev.
In: Africa's growing role in world politics / ed. by Tatiana Deych ... [et al.]. Lac-Beauport : Meabooks, 2016, pages 45-49


Web resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites


Al-Jazeera: Arab Spring 10 years on
Thematic page including many links to videos, podcasts, photographic essays, articles, timelines, and other sources on the Arab Spring, including an interactive account on the unfolding of the Arab Spring, compiled from Al-Jazeera’s Twitter feed.

The Arab Forum for Alternatives
The Arab Forum for Alternatives is an Arab research organization established in Egypt in 2008 to consolidate the values of scientific thinking in the Arab region and to tackle political, social, and economic issues through objective and independent methodologies. The forum also offers social and political alternatives not only for decision-makers, but for all players in the public sphere, including different political factions and civil society organizations.

The Arab Reform Initiative
The Arab Reform Initiative is an independent Arab think tank working with expert partners in the Middle East and North Africa and beyond to articulate a home-grown agenda for democratic change. It conducts research and policy analysis and provides a platform for inspirational voices based on the principles of diversity, impartiality, gender equality and social justice.

Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt
Website on international debt, containing articles on the complex background to popular uprisings. (articles on Africa) (article on the Arab spring)

Cornell University Library LibGuide: Arab Spring: A Research & Study Guide * الربيع العرب
This guide lists online and print sources for the "Arab Spring," in the Middle East and North Africa.

The failed struggle for democracy in the Arab world, and what's next
Tedx Talk by Amr Hamzawy.

How the Arab spring engulfed the Middle East – and changed the world
An interactive visualization of how the Arab Spring unfolded, by Michael Safi, Antonio Voce, Frank Hulley-Jones, and Lydia McMullan.

Rowaq Arabi
An electronic journal issued by the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (CIHRS), Rowaq Arabi is a platform for researchers and rights advocates that offers in-depth discussions and analyses of human rights policies and developments in the Middle East and North Africa, utilizing approaches drawn from the social sciences, humanities, and law.

TheNewArab: A Decade After the Arab Spring: Special Coverage
Portal on the Arab Spring with articles, podcasts, and infographics, including a 2010-2020 timeline. (Portal) (Timeline)

University of Illinois Library LibGuide: Arab Spring
This guide directs scholars to relevant sources on the Arab Spring within the University of Illinois and in Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, and Sudan.


Le Diplomate Tunisien - Printemps Arabe
Website set up by an association of Tunisian former diplomats, aimed at functioning as a think tank for foreign policy. The site holds many articles tagged Printemps Arabe (Arab Spring)

L’Observatoire Tunisien de la Transition Démocratique, Tunisia (OTTD)
OTTD is a scientific research institution uniting researchers dedicated to the democratic transition in Tunisia.

Tunisie Numerique - Printemps Arabe
Tunisian news site with many articles tagged Printemps Arabe (Arab Spring)


858 An archive of resistance
In the first days of the uprising in Egypt, a Media Tent was established in Tahrir Square. Hundreds of videos were collected from dozens of people, men and women, young and old, who had filmed key events on their cameras and cell phones and wanted to contribute to the digital memory of the moment, in particular to document police abuses and killing of protesters. 858 is an initiative to make public all the footage shot and collected since 2011. On launch, the archive had 858 hours of indexed, time-stamped video material along with thousands more photographs and documents.

American University in Cairo: Egypt Politics and Revolution
“The January 25th Revolution website’s collection provides access to blogs, Twitter feeds, local and regional media coverage, and other sites related to the January 25th Revolution. It is maintained by the American University in Cairo Rare Books and Special Collections Library and features websites suggested by AUC students, faculty, and staff as well as other contributors to the University on the Square: Documenting Egypt’s 21st Century Revolution project.”

Politics, Popular Culture, and the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
"Politics, Popular Culture and the 2011 Egyptian Revolution" is a digital archive documenting the 25 January 2011 uprising and its aftermath through the prism of popular culture. It has been designed for both researchers and students interested in the 2011 Egyptian revolution, as well as contemporary Egypt and the relationship between politics and popular culture more broadly.

Tahrir Documents
“Tahrir Documents is an ongoing effort to archive and translate activist papers from the 2011 Egyptian uprising and its aftermath. Materials are collected from demonstrations in Cairo’s Tahrir Square and published in complete English translation alongside scans of the original documents. The project is not affiliated with any political organization, Egyptian or otherwise.”

VOX POPULI: Archiving a Revolution in the Digital Age
“Vox Populi is an ongoing project by Lara Baladi, which includes a series of media initiatives, artworks, publications, an open-source timeline, and a portal into web-based archives of the 2011 Egyptian revolution and other global social movements.”


Libya Uprising Archive
Archive of the Libyan Revolution, created by volunteers.


Ayin Network – Media for a new Sudan
With Sudan at an unsettling crossroads, Ayin’s mission is to increase the participation of the Sudanese public in the future of the country through access to reliable, high quality news and information in the form of films, in-depth journalism, and social media content.

The Centre for Economic, Legal and Social Studies (CEDEJ Khartoum)
The Centre for Economic, Legal and Social Studies (CEDEJ Khartoum) carries out collaborative, multidisciplinary research programmes in contemporary Sudan. Their site holds many publications on the Sudanese revolution.

Sudanese Archive
Sudanese Archive preserves, analyses, and memorialises documentation of human rights violations, conflict, and acts of resistance in Sudan, by archiving and curating visual documentation in a database and on their website.


Moroccan citizen media portal on Twitter.


To view this timeline, Internet Explorer 11 users, please switch to a different browser