The ANC in exile

TitleThe ANC in exile
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1991
AuthorsS.D.K. Ellis
Secondary TitleAfrican affairs : the journal of the Royal African Society
Pagination439 - 447
Date Published1991///
Publication Languageeng
KeywordsAfrica, African National Congress, history, policy, political parties, South Africa

The African National Congress (ANC), founded in 1912 as the voice of black South Africans, was banned by law on 30 March 1960, nine days after the Sharpeville massacre and at a time of unprecedented international pressure directed at the racial policies of the government of South Africa. The ANC remained illegal until 2 February 1990, when President De Klerk unbanned it, together with other illegal organizations. The ANC's period in exile may therefore be defined as lasting from 1960 to 1990. For most of that period the ANC leadership was based abroad, as were many of its most active rank and file members. The author first sketches the history of the ANC before its banning and then goes on to describe the main developments which affected the organization during its period in exile

IR handle/ Full text URL
Citation Key1680