South African Elections 2014
The Library, Documentation and Information Department of the African Studies Centre has compiled this dossier to coincide with the general elections in South Africa on May 7, 2014. It contains a selection of titles on elections in South Africa from the library's online catalogue, including monographs, articles, and chapters from edited works, published since 1993. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides a more detailed description of all titles as well as abstracts of many articles and edited works. The dossier starts with an introduction to South African elections since the end of apartheid and concludes with a selection of links to relevant web sites.
- 2014 election manifestos
- 2009 elections
- 2004 elections
- 1999 elections
- 1994 elections
- Electoral system, electoral law
- Elections, politics and governance
- Selected web resources
The 2014 South African general election will be held on 7 May 2014, to elect a new National Assembly as well as new provincial legislatures in each province. It will be the fifth election held under conditions of universal adult suffrage since the end of the apartheid era in 1994. The National Assembly consists of 400 members, 200 of whom are elected from national party lists, the other 200 from provincial party lists in each of the nine provinces. The President of South Africa is chosen by the National Assembly after the elections.
After four years of protracted negotiations, the first democratic elections were held on April 26-29, 1994. The ANC won the election with 62.6% of the vote, securing 252 of the 400 seats in the National Assembly. It won seven out of the nine provincial elections but had to concede executive majorities to the National Party in the Western Cape and to the Inkatha Freedom Party in Kwazulu-Natal. Altogether, more than 19.5 million people voted through a liberal dispensation which accorded the ballot to all permanent residents and citizens. On May 9, 1994, the National Assembly unanimously elected Nelson Mandela President of South Africa.
In May 1996, the Constitutional Assembly – joint sittings of the National Assembly and the Senate – adopted a definitive constitution. Except for the replacement of the Senate with the National Council of Provinces, the 1996 Constitution retained the government institutions established by the 1993 interim constitution. The NP withdrew from the Government of National Unity in June 1996, an abdication prompted by NP leaders’ perception that they had failed to influence government policy.
The second general elections were held in June 1999. This time the franchise was confined to citizens and restricted to those in possession of current identity documents. As a consequence, participation was considerably lower than in 1994: nearly 16 million voters representing 68% of the voting age population. The ANC won a landslide victory of 66.3% of the vote. Nelson Mandela retired as President of South Africa and was succeeded by Thabo Mbeki.
President Mbeki led the ANC to a third landslide victory in the general elections of April 14, 2004, increasing its support to 69.6%. The Democratic Alliance, a merger of the Democratic Party and the New National Party, improved upon the results obtained by the DP in 1999 and consolidated its position as the official opposition to the ANC. At the provincial level the ANC for the first time governed in all nine provinces.
Given the political hegemony of the ANC, the political system in South Africa has evolved into a dominant party system. However, recently the context of party politics and electoral contestation ahead of the 2009 elections has changed. A sign of the change in the country’s political landscape is the emergence of the Congress of the People (COPE), which split from the ANC in the aftermath of the Jacob Zuma–Thabo Mbeki contest, internal party politics in the wake of the ANC annual conference in December 2008, and the ousting of Mbeki.
In the 2009 elections, 28 parties contested seats for the National Assembly. Eleven of them also contested for all nine Provincial Legislatures. Fourteen parties contested the elections for the National Assembly and one or more of the Provincial Legislatures, while three parties contested the elections for the National Assembly only.
For the election results 2009 see: http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/sou2009results1.htm
2014 National and Provincial Elections Results: http://www.elections.org.za/resultsnpe2014/default.aspx
DA manifesto election 2014 : together for change, together for jobs. - Cape Town : Theba Hosken House, 2014
EFF elections manifesto : now is the time for economic freedom. - [Johannesburg] : EFF, 2014
Fulfilling the promise of the liberation struggle : the 2014 manifesto. - [Johannesburg] : AZAPO, 2014
Talking to the polls : power, time and the politics of representation in two South African radio talk shows / Jendele Hungbo
In: African Studies: (2011), vol. 70, no. 3, p. 437-454.
A (qualified) reaffirmation of ANC hegemony : assessing South Africa's 2009 election / James Hamill
In: Politikon: (2010), vol. 37, no. 1, p. 3-23.
Party opposition perpetually on the verge of promise : South Africa's election 2009 / Susan Booysen
In: Journal of African Elections: (2010), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 80-109 : tab.
Stance and style: a corpus-driven perspective on television coverage of the 2009 South African general election / Hilton Hubbard
In: Language Matters: (2010), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 3-24.
Lessons from South Africa's third election / Mammo Muchie
In: African Renaissance: (2009), vol. 6, no. 2, p. 93-102.
The South African election of 2009 / Roger Southall & John Daniel
In: Africa Spectrum: (2009), vol. 44, no. 2, p. 111-124 : tab.
Voting behaviour in the 2009 South African election / Norbert Kersting
In: Africa Spectrum: (2009), vol. 44, no. 2, p. 125-133 : tab.
Zunami! : the South African elections of 2009 / Roger Southall & John Daniel. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2009
South Africa's third democratic election : opportunities and challenges / Khabele Matlosa & Sydney Letsholo
In: Outside the ballot box : preconditions for elections in Southern Africa 2004/5 / ed. by Jeanette Minnie. - Windhoek : Media Institute of Southern Africa: (2004), p. 119-137 : tab
Hegemonism, dominance or weak opposition? : the partisan situation on the eve of South Africa's second election campaign / Robert Mattes, Helen Taylor & Cherrel Africa
In: Transformation: (1999), no. 38, p. 1-19 : tab
Birth : the conspiracy to stop the '94 election / Peter Harris. - Cape Town : Umuzi, 2010
Race, ethnicity, and voting behaviour: lessons from South Africa / Robert M. Mattes & Amanda Gouws
In: Elections and conflict management in Africa / Timothy D. Sisk and Andrew Reynolds, ed. - Washington, DC : United States Institute of Peace Press: (1998), p. 119-142 : tab
Mandela's lost province : the African National Congress and the Western Cape electorate in the 1994 South African elections / Matt Eldridge & Jeremy Seekings
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (1996), vol. 22, no. 4, p. 517-540 : fig., graf., tab
South Africa : threats to a new democracy : continuing violence in KwaZulu-Natal / Human Rights Watch. - New York [etc.] : Human Rights Watch, 1995. - (Human Rights Watch, Africa, ISSN 1079-2325 ; vol. 7, no. 3)
United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA): Security Council resolutions 772 (1992)and 894 (1994) and the South African transition : preventive diplomacy and peace-keeping / Muna Ndulo
In: African Yearbook of International Law: (1995), vol. 3, p. 205-238
Founding democracy and the new South African voter / Lawrence Schlemmer & Ian Hirschfeld (ed.). - Pretoria : Human Sciences Research Council, 1994. - (Information update, ISSN 1017-7485 ; [vol. 3], [no. 2] special)
Observing South Africa's 1994 national and provincial elections : final report to the European Commission from the European Union Election Unit / European Union Election Unit. - Johannesburg : European Union Election Unit, 1994
South Africa's 1994 elections : the birth of democracy, its future prospects and Norwegian development aid / Elling N. Tjønneland (ed.). - Oslo [etc.] : Norwegian Institute of Human Rights [etc.], 1994. - (Human rights report, ISSN 0804-0672 ; no. 3)
Special issue: Women and local government elections / Amanda Gouws
In: Journal of African elections, ISSN 1609-4700 ; vol. 11, no. 2 (2012)
Voter registration in Africa : a comparative analysis / Astrid Evrensel. - Johannesburg, South Africa : EISA, 2010
Ethnic identity and institutional design : choosing an electoral system for divided societies / Yonatan Fessha
In: The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa: (2009), vol. 42, no. 3, p. 323-338.
Floor crossing and representative democracy: an assessment of a procedural democratic dilemma in South Africa's electoral past / Joleen Steyn-Kotze & Kishore Raga
In: Politeia: (2009), vol. 28, no. 3, p. 59-79 : fig. , graf. , tab.
Delimitation of local government ward boundaries in the Tshwane municipal area : the challenge of achieving fair political representation / C. J. Napier
In: Politeia: (2007), vol. 26, no. 2, p. 179-191
Floor crossing and nascent democracies : a neglected aspect of electoral systems? : the current South African debate in the light of the Indian experience / Clemens Spieß & Malte Pehl
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2004), Jg. 37, Quart. 2, p. 195-224 : tab
The pains of democratisation : the uneasy interface between elections and power-sharing arrangements in Africa / Khabele Matlosa & Victor Shale
In: Africa Review / African Studies Association of India: (2013), vol. 5, no. 1, p. 1-22 : tab.
Voting and violence in KwaZulu-Natal's no-go areas : coercive mobilisation and territorial control in post-conflict elections / Maria Schuld
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2013), vol. 13, no. 1, p. 101-123 : krt.
Party politics and economic reform in Africa's democracies / M. Anne Pitcher. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012. - (African studies series, ISSN 0065-406X ; )
Race and ethnicity: voters' party preference in South African elections / Carlson Anyangwe
In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies: (2012), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 38-58.
'Still on top, but ANC is left shaken' : reflections on the 2011 local government elections in South Africa / Philani Moyo
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2012), vol. 39, no. 132, p. 367-374.
Politics South Africa / Heather Deegan. - Harlow : Pearson Longman, 2011
Ten years of democratic local government elections in South Africa : is the tide turning? / R. D. Russon
In: Journal of African Elections: (2011), vol. 10, no. 1, p. 74-98 : graf. , tab.
Toward electoral security: experiences from KwaZulu-Natal / Kristine Höglund & Anna K. Jarstad
In: Africa Spectrum: (2011), vol. 46, no. 1, p. 33-59 : tab.
Elections in Africa / Shilaho Westen Kwatemba
In: Politeia, ISSN 0256-8845 ; (2010), vol. 29, no. 1
The role of civil society in elections : the KwaZulu-Natal Democracy and Elections Forum - reducing conflict dynamics and promoting peace / Shauna Mottiar
In: Journal of African Elections: (2010), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 110-127 : tab.
Voter registration in Africa : a comparative analysis / Astrid Evrensel. - Johannesburg, South Africa : EISA, 2010
'He had a mandate': the South African Constitutional Court and the African National Congress in a dominant party democracy / Sujit Choudhry. - [Pretoria : PULP, Pretoria University Law Press], 2009
Public participation and the lack of service delivery before and after the 2006 local government elections in Free State / Constanze Bauer
In: Politeia: (2009), vol. 28, no. 1, p. 28-45 : fig. , tab.
A silent revolution : South African voters, 1994-2006 / Collette Schulz-Herzenberg
In: South Africa 2007 / ed. by Sakhela Buhlungu . . . [et al. ]. - Cape Town : HSRC Press: (2007), p. 114-115 : graf., tab
Voting behaviour in the SA local government elections of 2006 with specific reference to the youth / Maxi Schoeman & Charles Puttergill
In: Journal of African Elections: (2007), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 152-173
Introduction: the contradictions and ironies of elections in Africa / Kwame A. Ninsin, Hala G. Thabet, Adigun Agbaje, Said Adejumobi, John Makumbe, Peter Wanyande, Adam Habib & Sanusha Naidu
In: Africa Development: (2006), vol. 31, no. 3, p. 1-10, 11-24, 25-44, 45-61, 62-80 : tab
Service delivery and voting behaviour : a comparative overview of the 2004 general election and 2006 municipal elections in South Africa / J. Steyn Kotze
In: Politeia: (2006), vol. 25, no. 3, p. 207-218
The integration of emotional and cognitive messages in election campaigns: a South African case study / Lynnette M. Fourie & Johannes D. Froneman
In: Critical Arts: (2005), vol. 19, no. 1/2, p. 112-126 : ill
Making sense of the 'Coloured' vote in post-apartheid South Africa : comparing the 1994 and 1999 provincial results in the Western Cape / Sean Jacobs
In: Journal of African Elections: (2001), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 23-35 : tab
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A model for election night forecasting applied to the 2004 South African elections / J. M Greben, C Elphinstone & J Holloway
In: Orion: Journal of the Operations Research Society of South Africa, vol. 22, no. 1 (2006)
A democratising South Africa?: an analysis of the 2004 national election / Leah Shianne Prudhomme
Masters Thesis, Rhodes University, 2005
Prediction of the 2004 national elections in South Africa / J.M.Greben (et al.)
In: South African Journal of Science, vol. 101, 4 March, 2005, p. 157-161
The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)
Not for profit organization established in 1996 and based in Johannesburg. Its programme areas include balloting & electoral services; conflict management, democracy & electoral education; governance and elections & political processes. Has a country profile South Africa with information on the 2009 elections, an election archive, and legal and general information.
Independent Electoral Commission (IEC)
The Electoral Commission of South Africa is a permanent body created by the Constitution to promote and safeguard democracy in South Africa. Its immediate task is the impartial management of free and fair elections at all levels of government. Site contains laws and regulations, registration and voting information, election results since 1994, political parties, IEC processes, and publications.
Election 2014 pages of the South African site News 24.
South African elections 2014 - ASC Liveblog on storify
South African political parties
History and policies of the parties represented in South Africa's parliament on SouthAfrica.info, the online gateway to South Africa, published for the International Marketing Council of South Africa (IMC) as part of its Brand South Africa campaign.
Parties participating in the 2014 election
List of all parties participating in the national and/or (some) provincial elections
Selection of parties participating in the NA elections and all or most provincial elections:
African National Congress (ANC)
Democratic Alliance (DA)
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)
United Democratic Movement (UDM)
United Christian Democratic Party (UCDP)
Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC)
African People’s Convention
Congress of the People (COPE)
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