The Rwandan Genocide: Twenty Years On

Flame of remembranceIn 1994, Rwanda experienced the worst genocide in Africa in modern times. The UN General Assembly has designated 7 April, the day the genocide officially started, as International Day of Reflection on the Genocide in Rwanda to commemorate the terrible events that took place twenty years ago this year. In February 2014, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon launched ’Kwibuka 20’, a series of events to mark the tragedy, and a Kwibuka 20 Conference will be held in the Netherlands on 4 April at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University. The conference is being organized in collaboration with the Embassy of Rwanda and the African Studies Centre (ASC) in Leiden. Another memorial event is being organized at Humanity House in The Hague on 2 April and there is a travelling exhibition ‘Rwanda 20 Years’, organized by Creative Court .

To coincide with these events, the ASC’s Library has compiled this web dossier that contains the recently published titles on the Rwandan genocide that are available in the ASC Library. Each title links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue, which provides abstracts, loan information and links to the full text (if available).

The web dossier begins with an introduction to the genocide by ASC researcher Margot Leegwater and a selection of ten important titles on the genocide. This is followed by a list of recent titles on the 1994 genocide, the gacaca courts and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. The dossier concludes with links to a number of relevant websites.

Introduction

Map Rwanda2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide when more than 800,000 people, mostly Tutsi but also moderate Hutu, were killed and almost two million people fled the country. The violence was mainly carried out by ordinary citizens who were involved in the killing of their neighbours. They were incited to do so and assisted by militia groups formed by several political parties, the Presidential Guard and local self-defence groups. People were not only killed on the streets and in their own homes but also in schools, hospitals and even in churches where they were seeking refuge. About 75% of all Tutsi were massacred.

The genocide started on the night of 6 April 1994 when a plane carrying Rwandan President Habyarimana and his Burundian counterpart Ntaryamira was shot down near the airport in Kigali. The presidents had just concluded peace negotiations with the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) in Tanzania where they talked about Rwanda’s political transition to democracy. The crash was the signal for the genocide to start and, within a few hours, Kigali was full of roadblocks and the first killings took place. The ‘Hutu Power’, a group of political extremists, had taken control of the government and aimed to eliminate all Tutsi, who made up about 14% of the population, and moderate Hutu, among them prominent politicians, who they regarded as enemies of the Hutu-led Habyarimana regime. In the first few days, the killings were limited to Kigali, where the death toll rose quickly to 40,000-50,000. The killing then spread to the rest of the country.

The genocide took place in the context of the civil war that had broken out in October 1990 between the Hutu-led government and the RPF. The RPF was a rebel army that primarily consisted of descendants of Rwandan Tutsi refugees who had fled Rwanda thirty years before when the Hutu majority took over power from the Belgians. In 1993, the RPF and President Habyarimana signed a peace treaty that resulted in a ceasefire and a roadmap for the implementation of the Arusha Accords that would create a power-sharing government. However, the RPF resumed the war when the peace accord was broken. Coming from southern Uganda, it captured more and more of the country and eventually took power in July 1994 and the genocide ended.

After its military victory and having taken office on 19 July 1994, the RPF inherited a devastated country. About one million people (almost 13% of the population) had been killed, two million had fled abroad and more than one million others were internally displaced. The genocide had also led to damage to the infrastructure, banks and businesses were plundered, the civil service and healthcare and educational institutions had been ruined and crops and livestock were lost.

In The Order of Genocide, Scott Straus (2006: 224-227) concludes that three factors explain why individuals switched from seeing people of the other ethnic group as their neighbours to viewing them as enemies who should be killed. The first was the civil war, which had legitimized violence. Straus argues that the genocide would not have happened if there had not been an ongoing civil war. The second factor concerns state power and the role of the Hutu hardliners who controlled the state. They were able to mobilize part of the population because ‘[t]he state in Rwanda is a powerful tool for executing decisions and mobilizing citizens’. The third factor was the collective ethnic categorization that was in place due to the pre-existing categories and ethnically based political ideologies. Poverty as a possible cause for the violence was only the motivation for a small portion of the perpetrators, according to Straus.

Ten important works on the genocide

Rwanda, un génocide populaire/ Jean Paul Kimonyo. - Paris : Karthala, 2008. - (Hommes et sociétés)

The order of genocide : race, power, and war in Rwanda/ Scott Straus. - Ithaca, N.Y., [etc.] : Cornell University Press, 2006 Book cover The order of genocide

Accounting for horror : post-genocide debates in Rwanda/ Nigel Eltringham. - London [etc.] : Pluto, 2004

Brickyards to graveyards : from production to genocide in Rwanda/ Villia Jefremovas. - Albany, NY : State University of New York Press, 2002. - (SUNY series in the anthropology of work)

Re-imagining Rwanda : conflict, survival and disinformation in the late twentieth century/ Johan Pottier. - Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 2002. - (African studies series, ISSN 0065-406X ; 102)

When victims become killers : colonialism, nativism, and the genocide in Rwanda/ Mahmood Mamdani. - Oxford : Currey, 2002

A people betrayed : the role of the West in Rwanda's genocide/ Linda Melvern. - London [etc.] : Zed Books, 2000

"Leave none to tell the story" : genocide in Rwanda/ Alison Des Forges. - New York, NY [etc.] : Human Rights Watch, 1999

Aiding violence : the development enterprise in Rwanda/ Peter Uvin. - West Hartford, CT : Kumarian Press, 1998

The Rwanda crisis : history of a genocide/ Gérard Prunier. - London : Hurst, 1997

The 1994 Rwandan genocide

Complexities and dangers of remembering and forgetting in Rwanda/ Olivi Nyiubugara . - Leiden : Sidestone Press, 2013. - (Memory Traps ; Vol. 1)

Peasants in power : the political economy of development and genocide in Rwanda/ Philip Verwimp. - Dordrecht [etc.] : Springer, 2013

Rwanda 1994, Noirs et Blancs menteurs/ Philippe Brewaeys. - Bruxelles : Racine, 2013. - (Société) Book cover Rwanda Inc.

Benjamin Sehene vs Father Wenceslas Munyeshyaka : the fictional trial of a genocide priest / Nicki Hitchcott
In: Journal of African Cultural Studies: (2012), vol. 24, no. 1, p. 21-34.

Le défi de l'ethnisme : Rwanda et Burundi/ Jean Pierre Chrétien. - Paris : Karthala, 2012. - (Les Afriques)

Picking up the pieces : the church and conflict resolution in South Africa and Rwanda/ Samuel Cyuma. - Oxford : Regnum Books International, 2012. - (Regnum studies in mission)

Rwanda, 1990-2011 une bibliographie/ François Lagarde. - Austin : University of Texas, 2012

Rwanda, Inc : how a devastated nation became an economic model for the developing world/ Patricia Crisafulli & Andrea Redmond. - Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012

Structural violence and the struggle for state power in Rwanda : what Arusha got wrong / Andy Storey
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2012), vol. 12, no. 3, p. 7-32 : krt.

Destin de femmes/ Liliane Bahufite Umuhizi. - Nice : Bénévent, 2011

Droit international humanitaire dans les conflits armés : le cas rwandais/ Sacké Kouyaté Kaba Diakité. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011

Espaces de la mémoire du génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda : mémoriaux et lieux de mémoire / Hélène Dumas & Rémi Korman
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2011), no. 238, p. 13-27.

L'église chrétienne au Rwanda pré et post-génocide/ Gerard van 't Spijker. - Paris : Harmattan, 2011. - (Collection Mémoires lieux de savoir. Archive congolaise)

Les représentations littéraires et cinématographiques du génocide rwandais / Germain Arsène Kadi
In: Langues et littératures: (2011), no. 15, p. 151-174.

Remaking Rwanda : State building and human rights after mass violence / Scott Straus & Lars Waldorf (ed.). - Madison, WI [etc.] : University of Wisconsin Press, 2011. - (Critical human rights) Book cover Remaking Rwanda

Rwanda 2004 : vestiges of a genocide/ Pieter Hugo & Linda Melvern. - London : Oodee, 2011

Rwanda : crise identitaire et violence collective/ Déogratias Sebunuma. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011

Tu leur diras que tu est Hutue : à 13 ans, une Tutsie au coeur du génocide rwandais/ Pauline Kayitare & Patrick May. - Paris : André Versaille, 2011

Alison Des Forges and Rwanda: from engaged scholarship to informed activism / David Newbury & Filip Reyntjens
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2010), vol. 44, no. 1, p. 35-74.

Alison Des Forges: parcours de chercheurs au Rwanda / Claudine Vidal
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2010), vol. 50, cah. 197, p. 309-317.

Au nom du père, de tous, du ciel / Marie Violaine Brincard. - Lussas [etc.] : Doc Net [etc.], 2010. - 1 dvd-video (52 min.). : kleur, gel. ; .. cm - (La collection cinéma du réel 2010)

Christianity and genocide in Rwanda/ Timothy Paul Longman. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010. - (African studies series, ISSN 0065-406X ; 112)

Do we understand life after genocide? : center and periphery in the construction of knowledge in postgenocide Rwanda / Bert Ingelaere
In: African Studies Review: (2010), vol. 53, no. 1, p. 41-59 : tab.

Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda: case studies of the towns of Butare and Cyangugu / Vadi Moodley, Alphonse Gahima & Suveshnee Munien
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2010), vol. 10, no. 2, p. 103-119.

Ethik und Ästhetik in der Literatur: zum Genozid in Rwanda / Martina Kopf
In: Stichproben: (2010), Jg. 10, Nr. 18, S. 91-113.

L'agenda du génocide : le témoignage de Richard Mugenzi, ex-espion rwandais/ Jean François Dupaquier. - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Hommes et sociétés)

L'invention de l'Afrique des Grands Lacs : une histoire du XXe siècle/ Jean Pierre Chrétien. - Paris : Karthala, 2010. - (Hommes et sociétés)

Les mots pour le dire et les enjeux derrière / Évariste Ntakirutimana
In: Rwanda Journal. Series A, Arts and Humanities: (2010), vol. 18, p. 41-51 : fig. , tab. Film poster Shooting dogs

Opération Turquoise : Rwanda, 1994/ Jean Claude Lafourcade / Guillaume Riffaud (ed.). - Paris : Perrin, 2010

Post-apartheid South Africa and post-genocide Rwanda : comparing the socio-political lives of two traumatic memories / Yves Alexandre Chouala
In: Africa Insight: (2010/11), vol. 40, no. 3, p. 116-129.

Rwanda, de la guerre au génocide : les politiques criminelles au Rwanda, 1990-1994/ André Guichaoua. - Paris : La Découverte, 2010. - (Cahiers libres)

The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda / D. De Walque & P. Verwimp
In: Journal of African Economies: (2010), vol. 19, no. 2, p. 141-162 : graf. , tab.

The Rwandan genocide and the bestiality of representation in '100 Days' (2001) and 'Shooting Dogs' (2005) / Piotr A. Cieplak
In: Journal of African Cinemas: (2010), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 49-63.

The Rwandan genocide: a critical re-evaluation / Maurice T. Vambe & Abebe Zegeye (ed.). - Abingdon [etc.] : Routledge, 2010. - (African identities, ISSN 1472-5843 ; vol. 8, no. 4 (November 2010))

Un idéologue dans le génocide rwandais : enquête sur Ferdinand Nahimana/ Hervé Deguine. - Paris : Mille et une nuits, 2010

Writing and filming the genocide of the Tutsis in Rwanda : dismembering and remembering traumatic history/ Alexandre Dauge-Roth. - Lanham, MD [etc.] : Lexington Books, 2010. - (After the empire. The Francophone world and postcolonial France)

De la décolonisation belge au génocide rwandais : un parcours humanitaire/ Paul Antheunissens. - Lille : Sources du Nil, 2009. - (Mémoire collective, ISSN 1966-8007)

Demain ma vie : enfants chefs de famille dans le Rwanda d'après/ Berthe Kayitesi. - Paris : Laurence Teper, 2009 Book cover writing and filming the genocide

France et Rwanda: le cercle vicieux / Jean Pierre Chrétien
In: Politique africaine: (2009), no. 113, p. 121-137.

Killing neighbors : webs of violence in Rwanda/ Lee Ann Fujii. - Ithaca, NY [etc.] : Cornell University Press, 2009

La complicité de la France dans le génocide des Tutsi au Rwanda : 15 ans après, 15 questions pour comprendre / Association Survie. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2009

Learning from the past : three lessons from the Rwandan genocide / Janine Clark
In: African Studies: (2009), vol. 68, no. 1, p. 1-28.

Making violence ordinary : radio, music and the Rwandan genocide / Jason McCoy
In: African Music: (2009), vol. 8, no. 3, p. 85-96.

The dynamics of violence in central Africa/ René Lemarchand. - Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press (PENN), 2009. - (National and ethnic conflict in the 21st century)

The men who killed me : Rwandan survivors of sexual violence / Anne Marie de Brouwer & Sandra Ka Hon Chu (ed.). - Vancouver, BC [etc.] : Douglas & McIntyre, 2009

Waramutseho! [Bonjour!] / Kouemo Auguste Bernard. - Yaounde [etc.] : Horizon d'Afrique [etc.], 2009. - 1 dvd-video (21 min.). : kleur, gel.

The gacaca courts and the process of national reconciliation

From model to practice: researching and representing Rwanda's 'modernized' gacaca courts/ Bert Ingelaere
In: Critique of Anthropology: (2012), vol.32, no.4, p.388-414.

La justice transitionnelle : de l'Afrique du Sud au Rwanda/ Kora Andrieu. - Paris : Gallimard, 2012. - (Folio Essais ; 571)

Who will save these endangered species? : evaluating the implications of the principle of complementarity on the traditional African conflict resolution mechanisms / Ifeonu Eberechi
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2012), vol. 20, pt. 1, p. 22-41.

Building peace and security after genocide : the contribution of the 'gacaca' courts of Rwanda / Cori Wielenga & Geoff Harris
In: African Security Review: (2011), vol. 20, no. 1, p. 15-25.

The darker side of transitional justice: the power dynamics behind Rwanda's 'gacaca' courts / Susan Thomson
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2011), vol. 81, no. 3, p. 373-390.

'You're either with us or against us': civil society and policy making in post-genocide Rwanda / Paul Gready
In: African Affairs: (2010), vol. 109, no. 437, p. 637-657.

The gacaca courts, post-genocide justice and reconciliation in Rwanda : justice without lawyers/ Phil Clark. - Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press, 2010. - (Cambridge studies in law and society)

Dilemmas of justice and reconciliation : Rwandans and the gacaca courts / Amaka Megwalu & Neophytos Loizides
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2010), vol. 18, pt. 1, p. 1-23 : tab.

Mon voisin, mon tueur = My neighbor, my killer / Anne Aghion. - Paris : Dry Valley Productions, 2010. - 1 dvd-video (80 min.). + 1 guide [18] p. : ill., 18 cm. Film poster My neighbor, my killer

National unity and reconciliation in Rwanda : a flawed approach? / Janine Natalya Clark
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2010), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 137-154.

Peace versus justice? : the dilemma of transitional justice in Africa/ ed. by Chandra Lekha Sriram & Suren Pillay. - Woodbridge [etc.] : Currey, 2010

Performative functions of genocide trials in Rwanda: reconciliation through restorative justice? / Carla De Ycaza
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2010), vol. 10, no. 3, p. 9-28.

Politik der gesellschaftlichen Versöhnung : eine theologisch-ethische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Gacaca-Gerichte in Ruanda/ Sebastian Friese. - Stuttgart : Kohlhammer, 2010. - (Theologie und Frieden ; 39)

'Does the truth pass across the fire without burning?': locating the short circuit in Rwanda's gacaca courts / Bert Ingelaere
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2009), vol. 47, no. 4, p. 507-528 : tab.

Different approaches to genocide trials under national jurisdiction on the African continent : the Rwandan, Ethiopian and Sudanese cases / Hatem Elliesie, Urs Behrendt & Niway Zergie Aynalem
In: Recht in Afrika: (2009), Jg. 12, H. 1, p. 21-67.

L'Afrique des Grands Lacs : annuaire 2008-2009 / S. Marysse & F. Reyntjens (ed.). - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan [etc.], 2009. - (L'Afrique des Grands Lacs)

Gacaca: truth, justice, and reconciliation in postconflict Rwanda? / Max Rettig
In: African Studies Review: (2008), vol. 51, no. 3, p. 25-50 : tab.

Rwanda's experiment in people's courts (gacaca) and the tragedy of unexamined humanitarianism : a normative/ethical perspective/ Dadimos Haile. - Antwerpen : Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB), 2008. - (Discussion paper ; 2008.01)

The gacaca courts in Rwanda/ Bert Ingelaere
In: Traditional justice and reconciliation after violent conflict : learning from African experiences / ed.Luc Huyse and Mark Salter.- Stockholm : International IDEA: (cop.2008), p.25-59 : tab.

What justice for Rwanda? : gacaca versus truth commission?/ Min Reuchamps. - Boston, MA : African Studies Center, 2008. - (Working papers ; no. 259)

"Does the truth pass across the fire without burning?" : transitional justice and its discontents in Rwanda's gacaca courts/ Bert Ingelaere. - Antwerpen : Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB), 2007. - (Discussion paper ; 2007.07)

Eradicating delay in the prosecution of crimes of genocide in Rwanda through 'gacaca' courts: will any form of justice do? / A. W. Mwenifumbo
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2007), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 309-320.

L'Afrique des Grands Lacs : annuaire 2006-2007 / S. Marysse & F. Reyntjens (ed.). - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan [etc.], 2007. - (L'Afrique des Grands Lacs)

État des lieux de la libération de certains détenus, suite au communiqué de la Présidence de la République du Rwanda du 1er janvier 2003 / Ligue des Droits de la personne dans la région des Grands Lacs (LDGL). - Kigali : Ligue des Droits de la personne dans la région des Grands Lacs, 2006

Participatory justice : an overview of gacaca courts in Rwanda/ Stephen Agaba. - Kampala : African Research and Documentation Centre, 2006. - (Monograph series, ISSN 1607-0011 ; no. 18)

Rwanda's 'gacaca' courts : a preliminary critique / Coel Kirkby
In: Journal of African Law: (2006), vol. 50, no. 2, p. 94-117 : tab.

Building nations : transitional justice in the African Great Lakes Region/ Charles Villa-Vicencio, Paul Nantulya & Tyrone Savage. - Cape Town : Institute for Justice & Reconciliation, 2005

Gacaca, grassroots justice after genocide : the key to reconciliation in Rwanda?/ Arthur Molenaar. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2005. - (Research report / African Studies Centre ; 77/2005)

Justice on the grass : three Rwandan journalists, their trial for war crimes, and a nation's quest for redemption/ Dina Temple-Raston. - New York, NY [etc.] : Free Press, 2005

Revisiting the horrors : gacaca courts in Rwanda and their struggle for justice after genocide/ Margot Leegwater. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2005

Rwanda, les collines parlent / Bernard Bellefroid. - [S.l.] : Arte, 2005. - 1 dvd-video (48 min.). : kleur, gel.

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Transfer or transformation? : a review of the Rule 11 'bis' decisions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda / Nicola Palmer Book cover Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity
In: African Journal of International and Comparative Law: (2012), vol. 20, pt. 1, p. 1-21.

Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity : a digest of the case law of the International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda/ Jennifer Trahan. - New York [etc.] : Human Rights Watch, 2010

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the development of international criminal justice / Tamfuh Y. N. Wilson
In: East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights: (2010), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 268-293.

Le Burundi à la veille des élections de 2010/ Stef VandenGiste & others. - Bruxelles : Dialogue, 2009. - (Dialogue, ISSN 0257-0017 ; 246)

Rwanda, quinze ans après : penser et écrire l'histoire du génocide des Tutsi / Georges Bensoussan (ed.). - [Paris : Revue d'histoire de la Shoah], 2009. - (Revue d'histoire de la Shoah, ISSN 1281-1505 ; 190 (2009))

The challenges facing the International Criminal Court in prosecuting cases of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes / Frank Khachina Matanga
In: Africa Insight: (2009/10), vol. 39, no. 2, p. 103-113.

Justice internationale et liberté d'expression : les médias face aux crimes internationaux/ Joseph Bemba. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008. - (Collection justice internationale)

Testifying before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda / United Nations, Arusha, Tanzania. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR);Nations Unies, Arusha, Tanzania. Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda (TPIR). - Arusha : International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, ICTR = Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda, TPIR, 2008

The ICC's favourite customer : Africa and international criminal law / Chikeziri Sam Igwe
In: The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa: (2008), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 294-323.

Crimes et châtiments dans la région des Grands Lacs : Cour pénale internationale, Tribunaux pénaux internationaux et Tribunaux pénaux nationaux/ Lwamba Katansi. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2007. - (Collection Comptes rendus)

Peace versus justice? : truth and reconciliation commissions and war crimes tribunals in Africa/ Helen Scanlon & Suren Pillay. - Cape Town : The Centre for Conflict Resolution, 2007. - (Seminar report ; 22)

Regional and sub-regional platforms for vindicating human rights in Africa / George Mukundi Wachira (ed.). - Nairobi : Kenyan Section of the International Commission of Jurists, 2007. - (Judiciary Watch series ; no. 6)

The jurisprudence on regional and international tribunals digest. - Nairobi : LawAfrica, 2007. - (EALS practice manual series ; 5)

The media and the Rwanda genocide / Allan Thompson (ed.). - London : Pluto Press, 2007

Criminal justice through international criminal tribunals : reflections on some lessons for national criminal justice systems / George William Mugwanya
In: African Human Rights Law Journal: (2006), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 26-63.

De l'articulation entre le national et l'international à la lumière de la stratégie d'achèvement du Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda / Jean Pelé Fomété
In: African Yearbook of International Law: (2006), vol. 14, p. 125-143.

Justice à Arusha : un tribunal international politiquement encadré face au génocide rwandais/ André Michel Essoungou. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 2006. - (Études africaines)

Deontological retributivism and the legal practice of international jurisprudence : the case of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda / Jason Benjamin Fink
In: Journal of African Law: (2005), vol. 49, no. 2, p. 101-131.

Les secrets de la justice internationale : enquêtes truquées sur le génocide rwandais/ Charles Onana. - Paris : Duboiris, 2005

The contribution of the Rwanda Tribunal to the development of international law/ L. J. Herik. - Leiden [etc.] : Nijhoff, 2005. - (Developments in international law, ISSN 0924-5332 ; vol. 53)

Selected websites

(The ASC is not responsible for the content of external websites)

Genocide Archive of Rwanda
This archive houses a wide range of materials such as footage of gacaca court proceedings and annual remembrance ceremonies, maps, historical  photographs, colonial documents, propaganda literature, identification cards and other official documents.
http://www.genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php/Welcome_to_Genocide_Archive_Rwanda

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ICTR logo
The ICTR was created by the UN Security Council’s Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994. Based in Arusha, Tanzania, its aim was to contribute to the process of national reconciliation in Rwanda and to the maintenance of peace in the region. It offers the latest news, a calendar of events and cases, and various legal documents.
http://www.unictr.org/

Kwibuka20
Rwanda officially launched Kwibuka20, a series of events to mark the 20th anniversary of the genocide in Rwanda, on 7 January 2014.
http://www.kwibuka.rw/

The Outreach Programme on the Rwanda Genocide and the United Nations
This programme was initiated by the UN’s General Assembly on 23 December 2005 to ‘mobilize civil society for Rwanda genocide victim remembrance and education in order to help prevent future acts of genocide’. Its mandate was extended in December 2007, 2009 and 2011.
http://www.un.org/en/preventgenocide/rwanda/

Reparation for Genocide Survivors
This website advocates Rwandan genocide survivors' rights to adequate and prompt justice.
http://reparation4genocidesurvivors.wordpress.com/reparationindishyi-campaign-rendez-vous-2014-at-the-20th-genocide-commemoration/

Rwanda 20 – Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide, the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect is organizing a number of events throughout 2014.
http://www.globalr2p.org/our_work/rwanda_20

The Rwandan Genocide Project
Part of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University, this website has maps of Rwanda before and after the genocide, databases of genocide victims and perpetrators of the violence and other online publications.
http://www.yale.edu/gsp/rwanda/