Conflict in the Sudan: the case of Darfur

  1. Introduction
  2. Darfur
  3. Conflict in Sudan
  4. Media coverage of conflict in Africa
  5. Selected Web resources

map Darfur (source: www.cafod.org.uk)The Library, Documentation and Information Department of the African Studies Centre Leiden  compiled this web dossier to coincide with a workshop which was held at the ASC on 10 September 2004. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scholars involved in African Studies and journalists with a special interest in Africa in order to exchange ideas on information gathering and media coverage of African issues. The discussion focused, amongst others, on  conflicts and war situations and the challenges for foreign news reporters  in their efforts to present a true picture of the situation in Africa. The current crisis in Darfur is a case in point. This dossier aims to give background information on the Darfur crisis within the context of the wider conflict in Sudan. It contains a selection of  titles from the ASC library's online catalogue on Darfur, the conflict in Sudan, and media coverage of conflicts in Africa in general, covering monographs as well as articles and chapters from edited works. Each title in the dossier links directly to the corresponding record in the online catalogue, which provides a more detailed description of the titles as well as abstracts of articles and edited works. The dossier further contains  an introduction on the Darfur crisis and  links to selected web resources. For further information, please email us at asclibrary@ascleiden.nl or phone: +31 (0)71 5273354

Introduction

Sudan, one of the largest countries in Africa, has experienced numerous civil wars since it became independent in 1956. One of the most recent and best-documented is the civil war that has been taking place in the south of the country for the last 21 years, but which seems finally to be nearing an end. A new conflict has recently broken out in the Darfur region in the west of the country that borders Chad and Libya and is inhabited by ethnic groups of African and Arab descent. The majority
are non-Arab farmers of African descent, with the largest group being the Fur.                                                                

Encouraged by the success of the SPLM/A, the rebel movement in the south, two groups in Darfur – the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have decided to challenge the government in Khartoum and are demanding a certain degree of autonomy. The SLM/A is a non-Arab, African rebel group that started as a self-defence militia, while the JEM is led by the Islamist Hasan el-Turabi, a political opponent of President Omar el-Bashir, but it also has a large African component. The two groups initially clashed but have been working together since they successfully took up arms against the government in February 2003. To stop them, the Sudanese armed forces and the Janjaweed have conducted coordinated attacks on groups of villages,  even attacking them from the air. The Janjaweed  is a militia that previously confined itself to banditry but now its members, backed by the central government,  are attacking Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa villages, murdering the men and raping the women, and generally following a scorched-earth policy. 

It is tempting to see this conflict as one of African farmers against Arab nomads but the situation is much more complicated. For a start, the Arab groups have complained of political marginalization by the Fur, while the Fur, the Masalit and the Zaghawa complain of political marginalization by the Sudanese government.  Everyone in Darfur is Muslim and has a similar skin colour. An important indicator is language, whether a person is Arabic-speaking or not, although some groups have only relatively recently started speaking Arabic. A further point is the difference between the Islamic fundamentalists (influenced by Egypt) and the majority of the population who adhere to  West African Sufism. Through inter-tribal marriages, which are quite common, and forms of co-existence between farmers and pastoralists, ethnic differences have become less apparent. (Im)migration has also led to different groups living more closely together in society.

Since independence, successive governments have either ignored the region or followed a policy which has had a negative effect on intergroup relations.  They disregarded the traditional mechanisms for dealing with  disputes until these had blown up out of all proportion, ending in serious clashes. Two more recent developments have also played a role in the current problems. As a result of long-term drought and the advancing desert, camel-owning nomads from the north of Darfur have moved in steadily increasing numbers to villages in the south of the region, altering the centuries-old balance between farmers and nomads. In addition, the surge in Islamic fundamentalism has led to a strengthening of the Arab-African divide.

Darfur

Briefing: Sudan: the new war in Darfur / Ulrich Mans
In: African Affairs: (2004), vol. 103, no. 411, p. 291-294

Darfur destroyed : ethnic cleansing by government and militia forces in Western Sudan / [written by Julie Flint ; ed. by Jemera Rone and Georgette Gagnon]. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2004. - 75 p., [7] p. pl. : krt.; (Human rights watch publications ; vol. 16 (2004) no. 6 (May). A: Sub-Saharan Africa) Boven omslagtitel: Sudan. - Met bijl., noten, samenvatting

Darfur in flames : afrocities in Western Sudan / [written by Leslie Lefkow ; ed. by Jemera Rone and Georgette Gagnon]. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2004. - 50 p. ;(Human rights watch publications ; vol. 16 (2004) no. 5 (Apr.). A: Sub-Saharan Africa) Boven omslagtitel en inhoudsopg.: Sudan. - Met noten, samenvatting

book cover One foot in heaven'One foot in heaven' : narratives on gender and Islam in Darfur, West-Sudan / Catharina Laurentia Alida Willemse. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2001. - 403 p. : krt. ; Auteursnaam op omslag: Karin Willemse. - Proefschrift Universiteit Leiden. - Bibliogr.: p. 385-398. - Met bijl., gloss, noten, Nederlandse samenvatting

"Where East meets West" : the development of Qur'anic education in Darfur/ Rüdiger Seesemann
In: Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara: (1999), no. 13, p. 41-61

The conquest of Darfur, 1873-1882 / by R.S. O'Fahey
In: Sudan Notes and Records: (1997), n.s., no. 1, p. 47-67

Coping with famine and poverty : the dynamics of nonagricultural rural employment in Darfur, Sudan / Hamid el Bashir Ibrahim
In: Farewell to farms : de-agrarianisation and employment in Africa / ed. by Deborah Fahy Bryceson and Vali Jamal. - Aldershot : Ashgate: (1997), p. 23-40 : tab

Handing over an operational project to community management in North Darfur, Sudan/ Peter Strachan
In: Development in Practice: (1996), vol. 6, no. 3, p. 208-216

Land resources in Darfur Region, Sudan : prisoners' dilemma or Coase outcome? / J.F. Morton
In: The Journal of Development Studies: (1996/97), vol. 33, no. 1, p. 63-80 : graf., tab

The UMM Keddada experience : report of a people-to-people visit to UMM Keddada Province North Darfur Republic of Sudan: January 25 - February 9, 1995 / [comp. by J.D. Ekundayo Thompson ... et al.]. - [S.l.] : African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE), [ca. 1995]. - 26 p. : foto's, krt., tab. ; Met bijl

Are rich and poor equally vulnerable to famine in North Darfur, Sudan? / by Susanne Jaspars and Helen Young. - [The Hague : Institute of Social Studies], [1992]. - 20 p. : fig. ; (Research seminars ; 92/13. Rural development studies) A paper prepared for presentation at the Rural Development Studies Seminar Series, on 22nd April, 1992, at the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague. - Bibliogr.: p. 19-20

Activités commerciales et dynamisme socio-économique au Darfûr / par Fatima Abdel-Rahman El-Rasheed. - Bruxelles : Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer, 1991. - 228 p. : ill., krt., tab. ; (Mémoires ; T. 51, fasc. 2. Classe des Sciences Morales et Politiques. [Collection] in-8º) Lit. opg.: p. [217]-228

Salzherstellung und Salzhandel im Gebiet des Jebel Marra (Darfur/Sudan) : der Rückgang eines lokalen Gewerbes / Jörg Adelberger
In: Paideuma: (1991), Bd. 37, p. 5-14 : krt

Werken maakt sterk : een antropologische studie naar de mate van autonomie van Fur-vrouwen in Jebel-Marra, Darfur (West Soedan) / Karin Willemse ; [foto's: Johan de Smedt ... et al.]. - Leiden : Centrum Vrouwen en Autonomie, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, cop. 1991. - VIII, 286 p. : ill., foto's; (Vrouwen en autonomie, ISSN 0923-0505) Met lit. opg ISBN 90-72631-32-3

Gifts worthy of kings : an episode in D¯ar F¯ur-Taqal¯i relations / Lidwien Kapteijns and Jay Spaulding
In: Sudanic Africa: (1990), vol. 1, p. 61-70

Impacts of male outmigration on women : case study of Kutum/Northern Darfur/Sudan/ by Elke Grawert. - Bremen : University of Bremen, Sudan Economy Research Group, 1990. - 23 p. ;  (Discussion papers ; 18) Met bibliogr., noten

book cover Famine that killsFamine that kills : Darfur, Sudan, 1984-1985/ Alexander de Waal. - Oxford [etc.] : Clarendon Press, 1989. - x, 258 p. : fig., graf., krt., tab. ;  (Oxford studies in African affairs) Oorspr. thesis, Oxford University. - Met lit. opg. en index ISBN 0-19-827349-5 ISBN 0-19-827749-0 pbk

Merging relief and development: the case of Darfur / Martin E. Adams and Elizabeth Hawksley
In: Development Policy Review: (1989), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 143-169 : krt., tab

Wanderungen und Transhumanzzyklen von Rindernomaden in Darfur (Sudan) / Ulrich Braukämper
In: Paideuma: (1989), Bd. 35, p. 17-38 : fig., krt., tab  

After the millennium : diplomatic correspondence from Wadai and Dâr Fûr on the eve of colonial conquest, 1885-1916/ Lidwien Kapteijns and Jay Spaulding. - [East Lansing, Mich.] : African Studies Center, Michigan State University, cop. 1988. - XVI, 603 p. : krt. ;  (Northeast African Studies Series ; monograph no. 18)(Fontes historiae Africanae. Series Arabica / Union Académique ; 10) Op de titelpag.: Published on the recommendation of the International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies and with the financial assistance of UNESCO. - Tekst gedeeltelijk in Arabisch. - Met bibliogr., gloss., ind

Hunger in Sudan : the case of Darfur/ Ray Bush
In: African Affairs: (1988), vol. 87, no. 346, p. 5-23 : graf., krt., tab

Land and social stratification in the Dar Fur region of the Sudan, 1785-1875 : the hakura system / G. Michael La Rue
In: The State and the market: studies in the economic and social history of the Third World / ed. by Clive Dewey.: (1987), p. 24-44

Land law & land use control in Western Sudan : the case of Southern Darfur / Mechthild Rünger. - London [etc.] : Ithaca, 1987. - [XIV], 146 p. : krt. ; (Sudan studies series ; no. 12) Met bibliogr., gloss., noten ISBN 0-86372-083-8 cased  ISBN 0-86372-084-6 pbk

The export trade of Dar Fur, ca. 1785 to 1875/ G.M. La Rue
In: Figuring African trade : proceedings of the Symposium on the quantification and structure of the import and export and long distance trade in Africa, 1800-1913, [St. Augustin, 3-6 January, 1983] / G. Liesegang, H. Pasch, A. Jones (eds.): (cop. 1986), p. 635-668 : krt., tab

Problems and prospects of horticulture in a subsistence economy : the case of Wadi Kutum (Northern Darfur) / Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil & Siddig Umbadda Rabih
In: Perspectives on development in the Sudan : selected papers from a research workshop in The Hague, July 1984 / ed. by Paul van der Wel and Abdel Ghaffar Mohamed Ahmed.: (1986), p. 339-371 : fig., krt., tab

Regionalisation and the quest for revenue : Darfur Region / Paul Doornbos
In: Perspectives on development in the Sudan : selected papers from a research workshop in The Hague, July 1984 / ed. by Paul van der Wel and Abdel Ghaffar Mohamed Ahmed: (1986), p. 277-308 : tab

A new approach to agricultural development in Southern Darfur - elements of an evaluation of the Jebel Marra rural development project / by Dirk Hansohm. - Bremen : University of Bremen . Sudan Economy Research Group, 1985. - 16 p. ;  (Discussion papers  6) Met lit. opg

Promotion of rural handicrafts as a means of structural adjustment in Sudan : with special reference to Darfur Region/ by Dirk Hansohm and Karl Wohlmuth. - [Bremen] : University of Bremen, Sudan Economy Research Group, [1985]. - 34 p. ;  (Discussion paper / Sudan Economy Research Group ; no. 7) Includes bibliographical references (p. 31-34)

Ecological imbalance in the Republic of the Sudan : with reference to desertification in Darfur / by Fouad N. Ibrahim. - Bayreuth : Bayreuth Verlagsgesellschaft, 1984. - 215 p. : fig., foto's, graf., krt., tab. (Bayreuther geowissenschaftliche Arbeiten ; vol. 6). Bibliogr.: p. 193-214. - Met gloss. ISBN 3-922808-09-3

Khabir 'Ali at home in Kubayh : a brief biography of a D¯ar F¯ur caravan leader/ by G. Michael LaRue. - Boston, Mass. : African Studies Center, Boston University, 1984. - 23 p. ; (Working papers ; no. 90) Met lit. opg. Also published in: African Economic History: (1984), no. 13, p. 56-83

The organization of exchange in pre-colonial western Dar Fur / by L. Kapteijns
In: Aspecten van staat en maatschappij in Afrika : recent Dutch and Belgian research on the African state / onder red. van Wim van Binsbergen en Gerti Hesseling. - Leiden : African Studies Centre: (1984), p. 211-237

The use of slaves in precolonial western D¯ar F¯ur: the case of D¯ar Mas¯al¯it, 1870-1905 / by Lidwein Kapteijns. - Boston, Mass. : African Studies Center, Boston University, 1984. - 17 p. : krt. ; (Working papers / African Studies Center, Boston University ; no. 92) . - Met lit. opg. Also published in: Northeast African Studies: (1984), vol. 6, no. 1/2, p. 105-126
 

Conflict in Sudan

The Sudan-IGAD peace process : signposts for the way forward : African security analysis programme. - Pretoria : Institute for Security Studies (ISS), 2004. - 15 p. : tab. ; (ISS Paper, ISSN 1026-0404 ; 86) Met noten

book cover Inside SudanInside Sudan : political Islam, conflict, and catastrophe / Don Petterson. - Rev. and upd. - Boulder, CO : Westview Press, 2003. - XI, 269 p. : krt. ; Oorspr. uitg.: 1999. - Met index, noten ISBN 0-8133-4111-6 pbk

The root causes of Sudan's civil wars / Douglas H. Johnson. - Oxford : James Currey ; Bloomington, IN. : Indiana University Press ; Kampala : Fountain Publishers, 2003. - XX, 234 p. : krt. ; (African issues) Met bijl,. chronologie, index, noten. - Bibliogr.: p. 181-194 ISBN 0-85255-391-9 (Oxford) ISBN 0-85255-392-7 (Oxford) pbk ISBN 0-253-34213-9 (Bloomington) ISBN 0-253-21584-6 (Bloomington) pbk ISBN 9970-02299-7 (Kampala)

Le Soudan entre pétrole et guerre civile / Jennifer Héry ; préf. de Denis Rolland. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, cop. 2003. - 118 p. : foto's, krt. ; (Inter-National ; Série première syntése)Bibliogr.: p. [113]-114. - Met bijl., noten. ISBN 2-7475-5276-4

Soudan et Somalie: de la fabrication ethnique par la guerre/ Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
In: Autrepart: (2003), no. 26, p. 53-72 : fig., krt

Sudan: liberation movements, regional armies, ethnic militias & peace / John Young
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 423-434

Sudan: oil & war / Jemera Rone
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 504-510

Sudan: prospects for peace / Justice Africa
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 97, p. 489-497

War and peace in the Sudan: a tale of two countries / Mansour Khalid. - London [etc.] : Kegan Paul, 2003. - XXXI, 536 p. : fig., krt. ; Bibliogr.: p. [517]-527. - Met bijl., index, noten. ISBN 0-7103-0663-6

Children of the forgotten war: a comparison of two intervention programmes for the promotion of well-being of Sudanese refugee children / Brechtje Pietersdochter Paardekooper. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2002 (Kraków : Malopolska Poligrafia). - 282 p. : ill. ; Auteursnaam op omslag: Brecht P. Paardekooper. - Proefschrift Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. - Met lit. opg. - Met samenvatting in het Nederlands ISBN 90-9016168-6

Peaceful change and the rise of Sudan's democracy movement/ Dave Peterson
In: African Security Review: (2002), vol. 11, no. 4, p. 59-69

Une perspective de paix pour le Soudan en 2002? / Alex de Waal
In: Politique africaine: (2002), no. 85, p. 93-107

The search for peace in the Sudan : a chronology of the Sudanese peace process 1989-2001 / [ed. by David Hoile]. - London : The European-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, cop. 2002. - 366 p. : tab. Bibliogr.: p. 287-290. - Met bijl., noten. ISBN 1-903545-36-6

Le Soudan: une guerre de religions en trompe-l'œil/ Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
In: L'Afrique politique: (2002), p. 33-49

Sudan: an African dilemma/ Francis M. Deng
In: The causes of war and the consequences of peacekeeping in Africa / ed. by Ricardo René Laremont. - Portsmouth, N.H. : Heinemann: (cop. 2002), p. 61-89

La guerre au Soudan: une histoire sans fin/ Robert O. Collins
In: Géopolitique africaine / OR.IMA International: (2001), no. 4, p. 143-154

Soudan : coulisses d'une guerre oubliée ... / Zygmunt L. Ostrowski. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, cop. 2001. - 203 p., [16] p. pl. ;  (Mémoires africaines, ISSN 0297-1763) ISBN 2-7475-1414-5

Sudan: civil war, terrorism, and U.S. relations/ Ted Dagne and Donald Deng
In: Politics and economics of Africa / Frank Columbus (ed.). - Huntington, N.Y. [etc.] : Nova Science Publishers. - Vol. 1: (cop. 2001), p. 139-161

Sudan's civil war: slavery, race and formational identities / Amir H. Idris. - Lewiston, NY. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press, cop. 2001. - VI, 159 p. ;  (African studies ; vol. 56) Bew. van thesis Kingston. - Bibliogr.: p. 137-156. - Met index, noten ISBN 0-7734-7619-9

book cover Sudanese society in the context of civil warSudanese society in the context of civil war : papers from a seminar at the University of Copenhagen, 9-10 February 2001 / ed. by Maj-Britt Johannsen and Niels Kastfelt. - Copenhagen : University of Copenhagen, North/South Priority Research Area, 2001. - 130 p. : tab. ;  Met bibliogr., bijl., noten ISBN 87-91040-01-9

War and slavery in Sudan / Jok Madut Jok. - Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press, cop. 2001. - XV, 211 p. : ill., krt. ; (Ethnography of political violence). Bibliogr.: p. [197]-200. - Met index. ISBN 0-8122-3595-9 : alk. paper; ISBN 0-8122-1762-4 pbk

Battle for peace in Sudan : an analysis of the Abuja conferences, 1992-1993 / Steven Wöndu and Ann Lesch. - Lanham, Md. [etc.] : University Press of America, cop. 2000. - XIII, 247 p. : foto's, krt. ;  Met bijl., index, noten ISBN 0-7618-1516-3

Fueling war: a political-ecology of poverty and deforestation in Sudan / Cindi Katz
In: Producing nature and poverty in Africa / ed. by Vigdis Broch-Due and Richard A. Schroeder. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet: (2000), p. 321-339 : foto's, krt., tab

The Netherlands and Sudan : Dutch policies and interventions with respect to the Sudanese civil war / M.V. van Baarsen. - The Hague : Clingendael, Conflict Research Unit, 2000. - 79 p. : fig., tab. Conflict Policy Research Project (CPRP). - Bibliogr.: p. 75-79. - Met bijl., noten, samenvatting

Soudan: les séquelles de la honte/ Ahmed Bachir dit Bola
In: Journal des africanistes: (2000), t. 70, fasc. 1/2, p. 197-220

Sudan, civil war and terrorism, 1956-1999/ Edgar O'Ballance. - New York [etc.] : St. Martin's Press [etc.], 2000. - xx, 220 p. : krt. Bibliogr.: p. 209. - Met chronology, index ISBN 0-312-23360-4

White Nile, black blood : war, leadership, and ethnicity from Khartoum to Kampala/ ed. by Jay Spaulding & Stephanie Beswick. - Lawrenceville, N.J. [etc.] : The Red Sea Press, cop. 2000. - XXVIII, 336 p. : krt. Met index ISBN 1-569-02098-1 ISBN 1-569-02099-X pbk

Africans, Arabs, and Islamists : from the conference tables to the battlefields in the Sudan / Robert O. Collins
In: African Studies Review: (1999), vol. 42, no. 2, p. 105-123

Civil war and failed peace efforts in Sudan/ Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews
In: Civil wars in Africa : roots and resolution / ed. by Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews. - Montreal [etc.] : McGill-Queen's University Press: (1999), p. 193-220

Constitutional perspectives on Sudan(proceedings of the IDF seminar) / ed. by Michel Hoebink. - Durham : University of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1999. - (Durham Middle East paper ; no. 62) Met bijl

Famine in Sudan, 1998 : the human rights causes / [by Human Rights Watch and Jemera Rone]. - New York, [etc.] : Human Rights Watch, cop. 1999. - XVI, 208 p. : foto's, krt., tab. ; Met bijl., gloss., noten. - Met samenvatting ISBN 1-564-321932
 

Media coverage of conflict in Africa

Considering the role of the BBC in African conflict / Jonathan Temin
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 98, p. 654-660

Ambushed : a war reporter's life on the line/ Ian Stewart. - Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2002. - XX, 310 p. : krt. ; Oorspr. uitg.: Freetown ambush : a reporter's year in Africa. - Toronto : Penguin, 2002. - Bibliogr.: p. 303-305 ISBN 1-565-12380-8

Médias et conflits en Afrique/ sous la dir. de Michel Ben Arrous. - Paris : Karthala [etc.], 2001. - 223 p. : tab. Cet ouvrage est publié par l'Institut Panos Afrique de l'Ouest. - Bibliogr.: p. 211-215. - Met noten ISBN 2-8458-6189-3

Hardened images : the Western media and the marginalization of Africa / Asgede Hagos. - Trenton N.J. : Africa World Press, cop. 2000. - 188 p. : fig., tab. ; Bibliogr.: p. [167]-182. - Met index. ISBN 0-86543-900-1. ISBN 0-86543-901-X pbk

Me against my brother : at war in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda : a journalist reports from the battlefields of Africa / Scott Peterson. - New York [etc.] : Routledge, 2000. - XXII, 357 p., [16] p. pl. : ill., krt. ; Met lit. opg. en index ISBN 0-415-92198-8
ISBN 0-415-93063-4

The reception of Mau Mau in Southern Rhodesia, 1952-1961 / Terence Ranger
In: Trajectoires de libération en Afrique contemporaine : hommage à Robert Buijtenhuijs / sous la dir. de Piet Konings, Wim van Binsbergen et Gerti Hesseling. - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.]: (cop. 2000), p. 49-68

Media and conflict : promoting peace : a symposium with journalists from Eritrea and Ethiopia / [ed. by the Heinrich Boell Foundation ; in cooperation with Ephraim Isaac ; photos Indrias Getachew]. - Berlin : Heinrich Boell Foundation, cop. 1999. - 80 p. : ill., foto's. ; (Documentations and reports of the Heinrich Boell Foundation ; no. 1) The symposium took place from 24th - 27th January, 1999. - Met bibliogr., bijl

The media of conflict : war reporting and representations of ethnic violence /ed. by Tim Allen and Jean Seaton. - London [etc.] : Zed Books, 1999. - [VII], 312 p. : foto's. ; Met bibliogr., index, noten ISBN 1-85649-569-8 ISBN 1-85649-570-1 pbk

Journalism & armed conflict in Africa : the civil war in Sierra Leone / Amadu Wurie Khan
In: Review of African Political Economy: (1998), vol. 25, no. 78, p. 585-597

Rwanda & the media : imagery, war & refuge/ Niranjan S. Karnik
In: Review of African Political Economy: (1998), vol. 25, no. 78, p. 611-623

Before 'Hope was restored': news media portrayals of Somalia prior to the U.S. intervention/ Folu Ogundimu, Jo Ellen Fair
In: Northeast African Studies: (1997), n.s., vol. 4, no. 2, p. 19-41

Journalistiek in conflict : over journalistiek werken in crisissituaties in Afrika / Dick Scherpenzeel Stichting. - [Utrecht] : Dick Scherpenzeel Stichting, [1997]. - 32 bl. : ill. ;  Verslag van een discussiemiddag ter gelegenheid van de uitreiking van de Dick Scherpenzeelprijs 1996 aan Koert Lindijer

Broadcasting genocide : censorship, propaganda & State-sponsored violence in Rwanda 1990-1994/ [Linda Kirschke]. - London : Article 19, 1996. - 180 p. Met bijl., gloss., noten ISBN 1-87079-833-3

Fleeing the jungle bloodbath : the method in the madness : British press reporting of Rwanda / Judith Murison. - Edinburgh : Centre of African Studies, Edinburgh University, 1996. - 65 p. : graf. (Occasional papers ; no. 65) Met bibliogr., bijl., noten, samenvatting

"Operation restore hope": recolonizing Africa for the 21st century / Anna Everett
In: Ufahamu: (1993), vol. 21, no. 1/2, p. 3-13

The Cold War guerrilla : Jonas Savimbi, the U.S. media, and the Angolan War / Elaine Windrich. - New York [etc.] : Greenwood Press, 1992. - X, 183 p. ; (Contributions to the study of mass media and communications, ISSN 0732-4456 ; no. 31). Bibliogr.: p. 175-176. - Met index, noten. ISBN 0-313-27989-6

Honger als wapen : de Biafraoorlog 1967-1970/ J.L.R. Huydecoper van Nigtevecht, A. van Emden. - 's-Gravenhage : Sdu Uitgeverij Koninginnegracht, 1992. - 88 p. : ill. ; ISBN 90-12-06610-7

Media coverage of the Angolan war / Elaine Windrich
In: Africa Today: (1992), vol. 39, no. 1/2, p. 89-99

La guerre de Biafra à la radio : situation militaire et livraisons d'armes en 1968-1969 / F. Ugochukwu
In: Peuples noirs, peuples africains: (1991), année 14, no. 80, p. 60-76 : tab

Eritrea in the world press : a collection of English language press clippings, 1986-1988/ [comp.: Emnety Tesfay ; lay out: Kiflay Beraki]. - [Oslo, etc.] : [RICE], [1989]. - 100 bl. : ill. Omslagtiphone - Met ind

News out of Africa : Biafra to Band Aid/ Paul Harrison, Robin Palmer. - London : Shipman, 1986. - X, 147 p. : ill. ; Bibliography: p. 141-142. - Includes index. ISBN 0-948096-02-0 cased; ISBN 0-948096-03-9 (pbk)
 

Selected Web Resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites

Online articles

refugee locations (source Oxfam)Dying in Darfur: a reporter at large, by Samantha Power
In: The New Yorker, issue of 2004-08-30
www.newyorker.com/

Disaster in Darfur, by John Ryle
In: The New York Review of Books, vol. 51, no. 13, August 12, 2004
www.nybooks.com/articles/17326

Counterinsurgency on the cheap, by Alex De Waal
In: London Review of Books, vol. 26, no. 15, August 5, 2004
www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n15/waal01_.html                                                                                                                                                     

Links

Darfur Information Center
Comprehensive source which aims to serve as a gateway for the plethora of news on Darfur; maintained by Ali B. Ali-Dinar (African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania). Information about the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A)  and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). Links to documents on Darfur history, geography and development; the Darfur conflict; Fur, Massalit, Zaghawa and Arab resources; video/audio reports; Sudanese newspapers; and the main news sites.
http://www.darfurinfo.org/

Special Report Sudan
Guardian Unlimited report on the crisis in Darfur, presenting latest news and items on, amongst others, international aid, refugees, African Union action, government action, militias.
http://www.theguardian.com/world/sudan

Sudan: Latest  News
News and opinion on Sudan, currently in particular on the Darfur crisis, from sources around Africa, including the UN's integrated regional information network (IRIN).
allafrica.com/sudan/

UNAMID
African Union-United Nations Mission in Darfur
http://unamid.unmissions.org/