The African National Congress at 100

The library of the African Studies Centre Leiden has compiled this web dossier to coincide with the conference  The African National Congress at 100 on 10 September 2012, organized by the ASC together with the International Institute of Social Studies, and ISS-Scholas.

The web dossier is based on the ASC library collection and contains  a selection of titles on the ANC  published in the last  ten years.  These are arranged in two sections: one on the history of the ANC and its development before 1994, the other on the ANC  after the end of apartheid in 1994. Each title in the dossier links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue. This provides further bibliographic details, abstracts and links to full-text publications if available. The dossier begins with an Introduction on the ANC at 100 by Stephen Ellis and ends with a selection of links to relevant websites.

More titles on the ANC can be found in the ASC library catalogue.

For further information, please email us at asclibrary@ascleiden.nl or phone us on +31 (0)71 527 3354.

Introduction

With exactly one hundred years of existence, the African National Congress (ANC) is often described as Africa’s oldest political party. But this description is a bit misleading.  The ANC has changed character several times since its foundation in Bloemfontein in 1912.

At the outset, it was an elite lobby of chiefs and mission-educated black South Africans seeking a voice in response to the creation in 1910 of the Union of South Africa, a conglomeration of four British colonies.  The establishment of South Africa in its modern form largely excluded black people from power. 

For the next three decades, the ANC remained a rather genteel lobby group.  Membership was open to black Africans of any political persuasion. 

The ANC’s radicalisation is generally regarded as beginning with the formation of a Youth League in 1944, animated by a cohort of young activists including Nelson Mandela and many others who were later to become famous.  In the words of the veteran Communist Jack Simons, the ANC ‘consisted of a rather weak central committee, stronger provincial leadership, an annual conference meeting in Bloemfontein, and a membership of perhaps 10,000 subscribers. It had neither the organisation nor discipline expected of a party’. As South African society changed with the effects of the Second World War and the election of a National Party government in 1948, the ANC adopted many of the radical ideas advanced by its Youth League.  After a decade of radicalisation in the 1950s, the ANC’s membership had increased to somewhere around 100,000 and 120,000 members and the ANC had reached out to other groups to form a grand Congress Alliance in opposition to apartheid. 

In 1960 the ANC was banned, and the following year key leaders of the organisation followed the South African Communist Party in embracing the strategy of armed struggle.  After its leadership had been devastated by arrests in 1963, the ANC was led from exile.  In 1969 it formally admitted members of non-black minorities, and in 1985 it allowed members of the minorities to be elected to its governing body for the first time. By the time the ANC was unbanned in 1990, again according to Jack Simons, the ANC had become ‘a centralised party with a code of conduct, enforced by severe sanctions, a distinct ideology and a well defined programme’.  It had transformed itself  into a liberation movement. 

Since 1994, the ANC has been South Africa’s party of government.  It has once again changed, in ways that are still a subject of academic research and of daily commentary in South African media. book cover External mission: the ANC in exile, 1960-1990
 

History of the ANC up to 1994

 

External mission: the ANC in exile, 1960-1990 /  Stephen Ellis. – London : Hurst, 2012

'Holy war' against South Africa : how the Vatican and various Protestant institutions supported South Africa's communist revolution ... and why/ Shaun Willcock. - Cape Town : New Voices Publishing, 2011

Chris Hani's 'country bumpkins': regional networks in the African National Congress underground, 1974-1994 / Timothy Gibbs
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2011), vol. 37, no. 4, p. 677-691.

Die Konferensie van Kabwe en die ANC/SAKP se gewapende stryd = The conference of Kabwe and the ANC/SACP's armed struggle / Leopold Scholtz & Ingrid Scholtz
In: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe: (2011), jg. 51, nr. 4, p. 551-574 : tab.

Main machinery : the ANC's armed underground in Johannesburg during the 1976 Soweto uprising / Thula Simpson
In: African Studies: (2011), vol. 70, no. 3, p. 415-436.

Military combat work : the reconstitution of the ANC's armed underground, 1971-1976 / Thula Simpson
In: African Studies: (2011), vol. 70, no. 1, p. 103-122.

Party politics jeopardised the credibility of the Women's National Coalition for Afrikaner women in the organisation / Loraine Maritz
In: New Contree: (2011), no. 61, p. 99-121.

The first president : a life of John Dube founding president of the ANC/ Heather Hughes. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd, 2011

The genesis of the ANC's armed struggle in South Africa 1948-1961 / Stephen Ellis
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2011), vol. 37, no. 4, p. 657-676.

A prose of ambivalence: liberation struggle discourse on necklacing / Riedwaan Moosage
In: Kronos: (2010), no. 36, p. 136-156.

Indians versus Russians : an oral history of political violence in Nxamalala (1987-1993)/ Philippe Denis, Radikobo Ntsimane & Thomas Cannell. - Dorpspruit : Cluster Publications, 2010

The African National Congress's Radio Freedom and its audiences in apartheid South Africa, 1963-1991 / Sekibakiba Peter Lekgoathi
In: Journal of African Media Studies: (2010), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 139-153.

The ANC and the turn to armed struggle, 1950-1970/ Ben Turok. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2010. - (Understanding the ANC today ; 2)

The ANC's early years : nation, class and place in South Africa before 1940/ Peter Limb. - Pretoria : UNISA Press, 2010. - (Hidden histories series)

book cover The historical roots of the ANCThe historical roots of the ANC / Ben Turok (ed.). - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2010. - (Understanding the ANC today ; 1)

The mission : a life for freedom in South Africa / Denis Goldberg. - Johannesburg : STE, 2010. - 426 p., [24] p. foto's. : foto's. ; 23 cm. + CD-ROM

'The bay and the ocean' : a history of the ANC in Swaziland, 1960-1979 / Thula Simpson
In: African Historical Review: (2009), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 90-117 : krt.

'Umkhonto we sizwe, we are waiting for you' : the ANC and the township uprising, September 1984 - September 1985 / Thula Simpson
In: South African Historical Journal: (2009), vol. 61, no. 1, p. 158-177.

Die ANC/SAKP in Angola: 'n gevallestudie rakende interne demokrasie / Leopold Scholtz & Ingrid Scholtz
In: Historia: (2009), vol. 54, no. 1, p. 211-238.

Men of dynamite : pen portraits of MK pioneers / Rashid Seedat & Razia Saleh (ed.). - Johannesburg : Ahmed Kathrada Foundation, 2009

People's war : new light on the struggle for South Africa/ Anthea Jeffery. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball, 2009

Periodisation, cultural construction and representation of ANC masculinities through dress, gesture and Indian nationalist influence / Raymond Suttner
In: Historia: (2009), vol. 54, no. 1, p. 51-91 : foto's.

Special issue: Liberation struggles, exile and international solidarity/ Hilary Sapire & Wayne Dooling. - [Abingdon] : Routledge, 2009. - (Journal of Southern African studies, ISSN 0305-7070 ; vol. 35, no. 2)

The 'Hani Memorandum' : introduced and annotated / Hugh Macmillan
In: Transformation: (2009), no. 69, p. 106-129.

When the soldiers returned : the Mkatashinga and the ANC politics of denial / Heather Castel
In: Africa Review / African Studies Association of India: (2009), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 15-33.

A house in Zambia : recollections of the ANC and Oxfam at 250 Zambezi Road, Lusaka, 1967-97 / Robin Palmer (ed.). - Lusaka : Bookworld Publishers House, 2008

Challenges to repatriation and preservation of tangible heritage in South Africa : Black art and the experiences of the Ifa Lethu Foundation / Brown Bavusile Maaba
In: South African Historical Journal: (2008), vol. 60, no. 3, p. 500-513.

In a different time : the inside story of the Delmas four/ Peter Harris. - Roggebaai : Umuzi, 2008

Patronage and corruption under the National Party and African National Congress governments in South Africa, 1948-2000 / D. Sebudubudu
In: Pula: (2008), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 56-74.

Pointing to the dead : victims, martyrs and public memory in South Africa / Sabine Marschall
In: South African Historical Journal: (2008), vol. 60, no. 1, p. 103-123 : foto's.

book cover The ANC underground in South Africa to 1976The ANC underground in South Africa to 1976 : a social and historical study/ Raymond Suttner. - Auckland Park [etc.] : Jacana Media [etc.], 2008

Oliver Tambo remembered / Z. Pallo Jordan (ed.). - Johannesburg : Pan Macmillan, 2007

Singing against apartheid: ANC cultural groups and the international anti-apartheid struggle / Shirli Gilbert
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2007), vol. 33, no. 2, p. 421-441 : tab.

"'I-Kongilesi Lilizwi ezindi ezindlwini' (Congress' name is household)" : politics and class in the Cape Province during the 1920s / Peter Limb
In: Historia: (2006), vol. 51, no. 1, p. 49-85.

50 years of the Freedom Charter/ Raymond Suttner, Jeremy Cronin, Mosiuoa Patrick Lekota & others. - Pretoria : UNISA, 2006. - (Hidden histories series)

Indians versus Russians: an oral history of the political violence in Nxamalala (1987-1992) / Philippe Denis
In: Journal of Natal and Zulu History: (2006/07), vol. 24/25, p. 64-94 : tab.

The African element in Gandhi/ Anil Nauriya / National Gandhi Museum. - New Delhi : National Gandhi Museum in association with Gyan Publishing House, 2006

The BNF and BDP's 'fight' for the attention of the ANC, 1912-2004: a historical perspective / Christian John Makgala
In: Botswana Notes and Records: (2006), vol. 38, p. 115-133.

Walking on air/ Colleen Matthews. - Johannesburg : Ste Publishers, 2006

50 years of the Freedom Charter : a cause to celebrate?/ Michael Blake. - Cape Town : Workers World Media Productions, 2005

All my life and all my strength/ Ray Alexander Simons / Raymond Suttner (ed.). - Johannesburg : STE Publishers, 2004

Alternative schooling for South Africans : notes on the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College in Tanzania, 1978-1992 / Brown Bavusile Maaba
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2004), vol. 37, no. 2, p. 289-308.

Armed and dangerous : from undercover struggle to freedom/ Ronnie Kasrils. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2004

De donkere kamer van Eli Weinberg / Rudi Boon & Hans Fels. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2004. - 1 dvd-video (58 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Dokwerk)

Education in exile : SOMAFCO, the African National Congress school in Tanzania, 1978 to 1992/ Seán Morrow, Brown Maaba & Loyiso Pulumani. - Cape Town : HSRC Press, 2004

Nationalism, feminism and autonomy: the ANC in exile and the question of women / Shireen Hassim
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2004), vol. 30, no. 3, p. 433-455.

book cover Oliver Tambo: beyond the Egeli mountainsOliver Tambo : beyond the Engeli mountains/ Luli Callinicos. - Cape Town [etc.] : David Philip [etc.], 2004

"No people can be expected to be loyal under such difficulties": ambiguities and identities of early African National Congress leaders in South Africa / Peter Limb
In: Social Dynamics: (2003), vol. 29, no. 1, p. 1-26.

'The workers' struggle': a South African text revisited / Martin Plaut
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 96, p. 305-313.

Gateway to international victory : the diplomacy of the African National Congress in Africa, 1960-1994 / Roger Pfister
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2003), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 51-73 : tab.

Nothing but the truth : behind the ANC's struggle politics/ Ben Turok. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball, 2003

The African National Congress (ANC) underground : from the M-Plan to Rivonia / Raymond Suttner
In: South African Historical Journal: (2003), no. 49, p. 123-146.

Afrika ke nako : 90 years of struggle : a history of the African National Congress 1912-2002 / African National Congress. - Marshalltown : African National Congress, 2002

Oliver Tambo : his life and legacy/ Luli Callinicos. - Marshalltown : ANC, 2002

The African National Congress and the policy of non-racialism: a study of the membership issue / Nhlanhla Ndebele
In: Politikon: (2002), vol. 29, no. 2, p. 133-146.

The key challenge facing the movement in the NDR : unity in the ANC and unity of the Alliance / Philip Dexter
In: The African Communist: (2002), no. 161, p. 13-16 : foto.

Walter & Albertina Sisulu : in our lifetime/ Elinor Sisulu. - Claremont : David Philip, 2002

Tshekedi Khama, Patrick Duncan and the ANC leadership vacuum in South Africa 1949-55 / Christian John Makgala
In: Botswana Notes and Records: (2001), vol. 33, p. 47-53.

Mayibuye. - Marshalltown

The ANC after 1994

100 years of struggle : Mandela's ANC/ Heidi Holland. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Penguin Books, 2012

Eight days in September : the removal of Thabo Mbeki/ Frank Chikane. - Johannesburg : Picador, 2012

Honderdjarig ANC is diep verdeeld over zichzelf en Zuid-Afrika / Ineke van Kessel
book cover Eight days in September: the removal of Thabo MbekiIn: Internationale Spectator: (2012), jrg. 66, nr. 5, p. 253-258 : ill.

South Africa: ANC is 100 years old, but what does it mean to the black man? / Pusch Commey & Motsoko Pheko
In: New African: (2012), no. 514, p. 12-22 : foto's.

Family and favour at the court of Jacob Zuma / Roger Southall
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2011), vol. 38, no. 130, p. 617-626.

Seducing the people: populism and the challenge to democracy in South Africa / Louise Vincent
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2011), vol. 29, no. 1, p. 1-14.

The African National Congress and the regeneration of political power/ Susan Booysen. - Johannesburg : Wits University Press Press, 2011

The reluctant president : the presidency of Kgalema Motlanthe / Kwandiwe Kondlo & Mashupye H. Maserumule
In: African Renaissance: (2011), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 65-96.

A (qualified) reaffirmation of ANC hegemony : assessing South Africa's 2009 election / James Hamill
In: Politikon: (2010), vol. 37, no. 1, p. 3-23.

ANC decline, social mobilization and political society : understanding South Africa's evolving political culture / Thiven Reddy
In: Politikon: (2010), vol. 37, no. 2/3, p. 185-206.

Democracy and the rule of law in South Africa : observations on significant legislative and other developments after Polokwane / Dieter Welz
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2010), Jg. 43, Quart. 3, S. 304-327.

Espoir d'une renaissance sud-africaine? / Ludmilla Ommundsen
In: Africa / Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente: (2010), a. 65, n. 1/4, p. 319-329.

Jesus, Jacob Zuma, and the new Jerusalem : religion in the public realm between Polokwane and the presidency / Gerald West
In: Journal for the Study of Religion: (2010), vol. 23, no. 1/2, p. 43-70.

Party opposition perpetually on the verge of promise : South Africa's election 2009 / Susan Booysen
In: Journal of African Elections: (2010), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 80-109 : tab.

South Africa: the ANC's difficult allies / Martin Plaut
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 124, p. 201-212.

The root of the matter : scenes from an ANC branch / Jacob Dlamini
In: African Studies: (2010), vol. 69, no. 1, p. 187-203.

'He had a mandate': the South African Constitutional Court and the African National Congress in a dominant party democracy/ Sujit Choudhry. - [Pretoria : PULP, Pretoria University Law Press], 2009. - (Overdr. uit: Constitutional Court Review; vol. 2, 2009, p. 1-86)

After Mandela : the battle for the soul of South Africa/ Alec Russell. - London : Hutchinson, 2009

book cover After Mandela: the battle for the soul of South Africa

After the party : corruption, the ANC and South Africa's uncertain future/ Andrew Feinstein. - London [etc.] : Verso, 2009

Bring me my machine gun : the battle for the soul of South Africa from Mandela to Zuma/ Alec Russell. - New York : PublicAffairs, 2009

Cadres, capitalists, elites and coalitions : the ANC, business and development in South Africa/ Jo Ansie Van Wyk. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2009. - (Discussion paper, ISSN 1104-8417 ; 46)

Comrades 'back on track'? : the durability of the Tripartite Alliance in South Africa / Alexander Beresford
In: African Affairs: (2009), vol. 108, no. 432, p. 391-412.

Die ANC en die nasionale demokratiese rewolusie: polities strategiese perspektiewe = The ANC and the national democratic revolution: political and strategic perspectives / André Duvenhage
In: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe: (2009), jg. 49, nr. 4, p. 705-727 : fig.

From "struggle" to "post-revolutionary" politics: the National Party, the African National Congress, and the "great rapprochement" / Patrick J. Furlong
In: New Contree: (2009), no. 57, p. 109-128.

In your face : passionate conversations about people and politics/ Rhoda Kadalie. - Cape Town : Tafelberg, 2009

No 'new' ANC? / Nicola De Jager
In: Politikon: (2009), vol. 36, no. 2, p. 275-288 : fig.

The lack of internal party democracy in the African National Congress : a threat to the consolidation of democracy in South Africa / Kebapetse Lotshwao
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2009), vol. 35, no. 4, p. 901-914.

The Nelson Mandela Bay municipality and the "Third Way" politics of the African National Congress / Gary Prevost
In: Politeia: (2009), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 23-40.

The uses and abuses of political economy: the ANC's media policy / Jane Duncan
In: Transformation: (2009), no. 70, p. 1-30.

The world according to Julius Malema/ Max Du Preez & Mandy Rossouw. - Cape Town : Kwela Books, 2009

The Zuma era: its historical context and the future / Raymond Suttner
In: African Historical Review: (2009), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 28-59.

"Nous nous retrouverons au Limpopo!": la National Policy Conference de l'ANC (juin 2007) / Vincent Darracq
In: Politique africaine: (2008), no. 109, p. 182-199.

African National Congress change in leadership : what really won it for Zuma? / Claire Ceruti
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2008), vol. 35, no. 115, p. 107-114.

Being a 'movement of the people' and a governing party : study of the African National Congress mass character / Vincent Darracq
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2008), vol. 34, no. 2, p. 429-449.

Briefing: South Africa: Jacob Zuma and the difficulties of consolidating South Africa's democracy / William M. Gumede
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 427, p. 261-271.

COSATU, the SACP and the ANC post-Polokwane : looking left but does it feel right? / Devan Pillay
In: Labour, Capital and Society: (2008), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 4-37.

Politics in South Africa/ Allister Sparks. - [Cape Town] : Shikana Media, 2008. - (African analyst quarterly, ISSN 1993-8950 ; vol. 3, no. 3)

Post-apartheid South Africa : class, culture, the neo-patrimonial welfare State and African nationalism / Ineke van Kessel
In: Viva Africa: (2008), p. 162-182.

South Africa's democracy : from celebration to crisis / Greg Cuthbertson
In: African Identities: (2008), vol. 6, no. 3, p. 293-304.

The African National Congress (ANC) organization at the grassroots / Vincent Darracq
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 429, p. 589-609.

The ANC for sale?: money, morality & business in South Africa / Roger Southall
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2008), vol. 35, no. 116, p. 281-299 : tab.

The road to Polokwane? : politics and populism in KwaZulu-Natal / Ari Sitas
In: Transformation: (2008), no. 68, p. 87-98.

The undeserving poor : poverty and the politics of service delivery in the poorest nodes of South Africa / David Everatt
In: Politikon: (2008), vol. 35, no. 3, p. 293-319 : graf. , tab.

African National Congress (ANC) : attainment of power, post liberation phases and current crisis / Raymond Suttner
In: Historia: (2007), vol. 52, no. 1, p. 1-46.

Changing concepts of articulation : political stakes in South Africa today / Gillian Hart
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2007), vol. 34, no. 111, p. 85-101.

Political management of ethnic perceptions: an assessment of the African National Congress / Mcebisi Ndletyana
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2007), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 135-160.

Social movement unions and political parties (in South Africa and the Philippines): a win-win situation? / Michael Schiavone
In: African and Asian Studies: (2007), vol. 6, no. 4, p. 373-393.

The evolution of the African National Congress in power : from revolutionaries to social democrats? / Gary Prevost
In: Pobook cover A people's contract to advance the vision of the Freedom Charterlitikon: (2006), vol. 33, no. 2, p. 163-181.

A people's contract to advance the vision of the Freedom Charter. - Johannesburg : ANC, 2005. - (Umrabulo, ISSN 1680-4287 ; no. 23)

Revisiting the negotiated transition to democracy : South Africa through the stages of ambition, distraction, approximation and supersession (1990-1994) / M. L. Thotse
In: New Contree: (2005), no. 49, p. 130-144 : tab.

Season of hope : economic reform under Mandela and Mbeki/ Alan Hirsch. - Scottsville [etc.] : University of KwaZulu-Natal Press [etc.], 2005

Thabo Mbeki and the battle for the soul of the ANC/ William Mervin Gumede. - Cape Town : Zebra Press, 2005

The 'dominant party debate' in South Africa / Roger Southall
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2005), Jg. 40, H. 1, p. 61-82.

The African National Congress, the print media and the development of mediated politics in South Africa / Alexander Johnston
In: Critical Arts: (2005), vol. 19, no. 1/2, p. 12-35.

The Congress Party model: South Africa's African National Congress (ANC) and India's Indian National Congress (INC) as dominant parties / Thiven Reddy
In: African and Asian Studies: (2005), vol. 4, no. 3, p. 271-300.

South Africa ten years on : the tensions between issues and loyalty / Paul Nursey-Bray
In: The Australasian Review of African Studies: (2004), vol. 26, no. 1, p. 52-65 : tab.

Südafrikas neue Elite : die Prägung der ANC-Führung durch das Exil/ Hans Georg Schleicher. - Hamburg : Institut für Afrika-Kunde, 2004. - (Hamburger Beiträge zur Afrika-Kunde, ISSN 0440-1670 ; 74)

book cover Südafrikas neue Elite

The African National Congress' economic and social policy changes in South Africa (1994-2004) : another African straightjacket independence? / Mueni Wa Muiu
In: African and Asian Studies: (2004), vol. 3, no. 3/4, p. 273-294.

The ANC after the 2004 election / Tom Lodge
In: Journal of African Elections: (2004), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 166-174.

The ANC and the development of party politics in modern South Africa / Tom Lodge
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2004), vol. 42, no. 2, p. 189-219 : tab.

The ANC's 'Left Turn' & South African sub-imperialism / Patrick Bond
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2004), vol. 31, no. 102, p. 599-616.

The scourge of the ANC, and: Afrikaner survival under black rule : two essays/ Dan Roodt. - Dainfern [etc.] : Praag [etc.], 2004

Two cheers? : South African democracy's first decade / John Daniel, Roger Southall, & Morris Szeftel (ed.). - Basingstoke [etc.] : Carfax, 2004. - (Review of African political economy, ISSN 0305-6244 ; vol. 31, no. 100)

ANC today : online voice of the African National Congress. - [Johannesburg]

Containing the chiefs: the ANC and traditional leaders in the Eastern Cape, South Africa / Roger Southall & Zosa De Sas Kropiwnicki
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2003), vol. 37, no. 1, p. 48-82.

Missing cadres? : list voting and the ANC's management of its parliamentarians in the National Assembly, 1999-2003 / Geoffrey Hawker
In: Journal of African Elections: (2003), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 97-115 : tab.

Power-sharing in Südafrika: ist der ANC eine Konkordanzpartei? / Matthijs Bogaards
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2003), Jg. 38, H. 1, p. 49-70 : tab.

The ANC's 90th Anniversary : why it matters / Raymond Suttner
In: The African Communist: (2002), no. 159, p. 7-13.

Umrabulo = ISSN 1680-4287. - Marshalltown

 

Selected Web Resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites
 

African National Congress 
The website of the ANC,  ‘South Africa’s national liberation movement’,  has information on the history, structure, and leadership of the ANC,  press statements and speeches, ANC publications, such as the weekly ANC Today, and many ANC documents, including the ANC Constitution, declarations, policy documents, resolutions, etc.
http://www.anc.org.za/index.php

ANC Centennial celebrations 1912-2012
ANC pages dedicated to the centenary of the party.
http://www.anc.org.za/centenary/show.php?id=8767

African National Congress (ANC) History Online
South African History Online  pages on the ANC. SAHO is an independent non-partisan peoples’ history project, established in 2000.
http://www.sahistory.org.za/organisations/african-national-congress-anc

Anti-apartheid and Southern Africa Collection
Selection of the archives and documentation of former anti-apartheid groups in the Netherlands, now housed at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam
http://socialhistory.org/en/collections/anti-apartheid-and-southern-africa-collection-guide

Digital Imaging Project of South Africa
DISA is a freely accessible online scholarly resource focusing on the socio-political history of South Africa, particularly the struggle for freedom during the period  from 1950 to the first democratic elections in 1994.
http://disa.nu.ac.za/

Parliament of South Africa 
Official site, with member information, pre4s releases, parliamentary programme , committee notices, a directory of groups monitoring Parliament, the full text of  Hansards (verbatim reports of parliamentary proceedings) up to May 2012,  recent Bills, Acts, etc.
http://www.parliament.gov.za/live/index.php

Politicsweb
Edited by James MyBurgh, Politicsweb focuses on the news and politics of Southern Africa.  Provides breaking news, informed comment and opinion, and easy access to key online resources. Based in South Africa.
http://www.politicsweb.co.za/

Web dossier Nelson Mandela
ASC Leiden library web dossier compiled in February 2010 on  the occasion of the 20th anniversary of Mandela’s release from prison.
http://www.ascleiden.nl/?q=content/webdossiers/nelson-mandela

Web dossier South African Elections
Dossier compiled  by the ASC Leiden library to coincide with the general elections in South Africa on April 22, 2009.
http://www.ascleiden.nl/?q=content/webdossiers/south-african-elections-2009

 

 

The library of the African Studies Centre Leiden has compiled this web dossier to coincide with the conference  The African National Congress at 100 on 10 September 2012, organized by the ASC together with the International Institute of Social Studies, and ISS-Scholas.

The web dossier is based on the ASC library collection and contains  a selection of titles on the ANC  published in the last  ten years.  These are arranged in two sections: one on the history of the ANC and its development before 1994, the other on the ANC  after the end of apartheid in 1994. Each title in the dossier links directly to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue. This provides further bibliographic details, abstracts and links to full-text publications if available. The dossier begins with an Introduction on the ANC at 100 by Stephen Ellis and ends with a selection of links to relevant websites.

More titles on the ANC can be found in the ASC library catalogue.

For further information, please email us at asclibrary@ascleiden.nl or phone us on +31 (0)71 527 3354.

Introduction

With exactly one hundred years of existence, the African National Congress (ANC) is often described as Africa’s oldest political party. But this description is a bit misleading.  The ANC has changed character several times since its foundation in Bloemfontein in 1912.

At the outset, it was an elite lobby of chiefs and mission-educated black South Africans seeking a voice in response to the creation in 1910 of the Union of South Africa, a conglomeration of four British colonies.  The establishment of South Africa in its modern form largely excluded black people from power. 

For the next three decades, the ANC remained a rather genteel lobby group.  Membership was open to black Africans of any political persuasion. 

The ANC’s radicalisation is generally regarded as beginning with the formation of a Youth League in 1944, animated by a cohort of young activists including Nelson Mandela and many others who were later to become famous.  In the words of the veteran Communist Jack Simons, the ANC ‘consisted of a rather weak central committee, stronger provincial leadership, an annual conference meeting in Bloemfontein, and a membership of perhaps 10,000 subscribers. It had neither the organisation nor discipline expected of a party’. As South African society changed with the effects of the Second World War and the election of a National Party government in 1948, the ANC adopted many of the radical ideas advanced by its Youth League.  After a decade of radicalisation in the 1950s, the ANC’s membership had increased to somewhere around 100,000 and 120,000 members and the ANC had reached out to other groups to form a grand Congress Alliance in opposition to apartheid. 

In 1960 the ANC was banned, and the following year key leaders of the organisation followed the South African Communist Party in embracing the strategy of armed struggle.  After its leadership had been devastated by arrests in 1963, the ANC was led from exile.  In 1969 it formally admitted members of non-black minorities, and in 1985 it allowed members of the minorities to be elected to its governing body for the first time. By the time the ANC was unbanned in 1990, again according to Jack Simons, the ANC had become ‘a centralised party with a code of conduct, enforced by severe sanctions, a distinct ideology and a well defined programme’.  It had transformed itself  into a liberation movement. 

Since 1994, the ANC has been South Africa’s party of government.  It has once again changed, in ways that are still a subject of academic research and of daily commentary in South African media. book cover External mission: the ANC in exile, 1960-1990
 

History of the ANC up to 1994

 

External mission: the ANC in exile, 1960-1990 /  Stephen Ellis. – London : Hurst, 2012

'Holy war' against South Africa : how the Vatican and various Protestant institutions supported South Africa's communist revolution ... and why/ Shaun Willcock. - Cape Town : New Voices Publishing, 2011

Chris Hani's 'country bumpkins': regional networks in the African National Congress underground, 1974-1994 / Timothy Gibbs
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2011), vol. 37, no. 4, p. 677-691.

Die Konferensie van Kabwe en die ANC/SAKP se gewapende stryd = The conference of Kabwe and the ANC/SACP's armed struggle / Leopold Scholtz & Ingrid Scholtz
In: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe: (2011), jg. 51, nr. 4, p. 551-574 : tab.

Main machinery : the ANC's armed underground in Johannesburg during the 1976 Soweto uprising / Thula Simpson
In: African Studies: (2011), vol. 70, no. 3, p. 415-436.

Military combat work : the reconstitution of the ANC's armed underground, 1971-1976 / Thula Simpson
In: African Studies: (2011), vol. 70, no. 1, p. 103-122.

Party politics jeopardised the credibility of the Women's National Coalition for Afrikaner women in the organisation / Loraine Maritz
In: New Contree: (2011), no. 61, p. 99-121.

The first president : a life of John Dube founding president of the ANC/ Heather Hughes. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd, 2011

The genesis of the ANC's armed struggle in South Africa 1948-1961 / Stephen Ellis
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2011), vol. 37, no. 4, p. 657-676.

A prose of ambivalence: liberation struggle discourse on necklacing / Riedwaan Moosage
In: Kronos: (2010), no. 36, p. 136-156.

Indians versus Russians : an oral history of political violence in Nxamalala (1987-1993)/ Philippe Denis, Radikobo Ntsimane & Thomas Cannell. - Dorpspruit : Cluster Publications, 2010

The African National Congress's Radio Freedom and its audiences in apartheid South Africa, 1963-1991 / Sekibakiba Peter Lekgoathi
In: Journal of African Media Studies: (2010), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 139-153.

The ANC and the turn to armed struggle, 1950-1970/ Ben Turok. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2010. - (Understanding the ANC today ; 2)

The ANC's early years : nation, class and place in South Africa before 1940/ Peter Limb. - Pretoria : UNISA Press, 2010. - (Hidden histories series)

book cover The historical roots of the ANCThe historical roots of the ANC / Ben Turok (ed.). - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2010. - (Understanding the ANC today ; 1)

The mission : a life for freedom in South Africa / Denis Goldberg. - Johannesburg : STE, 2010. - 426 p., [24] p. foto's. : foto's. ; 23 cm. + CD-ROM

'The bay and the ocean' : a history of the ANC in Swaziland, 1960-1979 / Thula Simpson
In: African Historical Review: (2009), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 90-117 : krt.

'Umkhonto we sizwe, we are waiting for you' : the ANC and the township uprising, September 1984 - September 1985 / Thula Simpson
In: South African Historical Journal: (2009), vol. 61, no. 1, p. 158-177.

Die ANC/SAKP in Angola: 'n gevallestudie rakende interne demokrasie / Leopold Scholtz & Ingrid Scholtz
In: Historia: (2009), vol. 54, no. 1, p. 211-238.

Men of dynamite : pen portraits of MK pioneers / Rashid Seedat & Razia Saleh (ed.). - Johannesburg : Ahmed Kathrada Foundation, 2009

People's war : new light on the struggle for South Africa/ Anthea Jeffery. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball, 2009

Periodisation, cultural construction and representation of ANC masculinities through dress, gesture and Indian nationalist influence / Raymond Suttner
In: Historia: (2009), vol. 54, no. 1, p. 51-91 : foto's.

Special issue: Liberation struggles, exile and international solidarity/ Hilary Sapire & Wayne Dooling. - [Abingdon] : Routledge, 2009. - (Journal of Southern African studies, ISSN 0305-7070 ; vol. 35, no. 2)

The 'Hani Memorandum' : introduced and annotated / Hugh Macmillan
In: Transformation: (2009), no. 69, p. 106-129.

When the soldiers returned : the Mkatashinga and the ANC politics of denial / Heather Castel
In: Africa Review / African Studies Association of India: (2009), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 15-33.

A house in Zambia : recollections of the ANC and Oxfam at 250 Zambezi Road, Lusaka, 1967-97 / Robin Palmer (ed.). - Lusaka : Bookworld Publishers House, 2008

Challenges to repatriation and preservation of tangible heritage in South Africa : Black art and the experiences of the Ifa Lethu Foundation / Brown Bavusile Maaba
In: South African Historical Journal: (2008), vol. 60, no. 3, p. 500-513.

In a different time : the inside story of the Delmas four/ Peter Harris. - Roggebaai : Umuzi, 2008

Patronage and corruption under the National Party and African National Congress governments in South Africa, 1948-2000 / D. Sebudubudu
In: Pula: (2008), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 56-74.

Pointing to the dead : victims, martyrs and public memory in South Africa / Sabine Marschall
In: South African Historical Journal: (2008), vol. 60, no. 1, p. 103-123 : foto's.

book cover The ANC underground in South Africa to 1976The ANC underground in South Africa to 1976 : a social and historical study/ Raymond Suttner. - Auckland Park [etc.] : Jacana Media [etc.], 2008

Oliver Tambo remembered / Z. Pallo Jordan (ed.). - Johannesburg : Pan Macmillan, 2007

Singing against apartheid: ANC cultural groups and the international anti-apartheid struggle / Shirli Gilbert
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2007), vol. 33, no. 2, p. 421-441 : tab.

"'I-Kongilesi Lilizwi ezindi ezindlwini' (Congress' name is household)" : politics and class in the Cape Province during the 1920s / Peter Limb
In: Historia: (2006), vol. 51, no. 1, p. 49-85.

50 years of the Freedom Charter/ Raymond Suttner, Jeremy Cronin, Mosiuoa Patrick Lekota & others. - Pretoria : UNISA, 2006. - (Hidden histories series)

Indians versus Russians: an oral history of the political violence in Nxamalala (1987-1992) / Philippe Denis
In: Journal of Natal and Zulu History: (2006/07), vol. 24/25, p. 64-94 : tab.

The African element in Gandhi/ Anil Nauriya / National Gandhi Museum. - New Delhi : National Gandhi Museum in association with Gyan Publishing House, 2006

The BNF and BDP's 'fight' for the attention of the ANC, 1912-2004: a historical perspective / Christian John Makgala
In: Botswana Notes and Records: (2006), vol. 38, p. 115-133.

Walking on air/ Colleen Matthews. - Johannesburg : Ste Publishers, 2006

50 years of the Freedom Charter : a cause to celebrate?/ Michael Blake. - Cape Town : Workers World Media Productions, 2005

All my life and all my strength/ Ray Alexander Simons / Raymond Suttner (ed.). - Johannesburg : STE Publishers, 2004

Alternative schooling for South Africans : notes on the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College in Tanzania, 1978-1992 / Brown Bavusile Maaba
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2004), vol. 37, no. 2, p. 289-308.

Armed and dangerous : from undercover struggle to freedom/ Ronnie Kasrils. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2004

De donkere kamer van Eli Weinberg / Rudi Boon & Hans Fels. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2004. - 1 dvd-video (58 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Dokwerk)

Education in exile : SOMAFCO, the African National Congress school in Tanzania, 1978 to 1992/ Seán Morrow, Brown Maaba & Loyiso Pulumani. - Cape Town : HSRC Press, 2004

Nationalism, feminism and autonomy: the ANC in exile and the question of women / Shireen Hassim
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2004), vol. 30, no. 3, p. 433-455.

book cover Oliver Tambo: beyond the Egeli mountainsOliver Tambo : beyond the Engeli mountains/ Luli Callinicos. - Cape Town [etc.] : David Philip [etc.], 2004

"No people can be expected to be loyal under such difficulties": ambiguities and identities of early African National Congress leaders in South Africa / Peter Limb
In: Social Dynamics: (2003), vol. 29, no. 1, p. 1-26.

'The workers' struggle': a South African text revisited / Martin Plaut
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2003), vol. 30, no. 96, p. 305-313.

Gateway to international victory : the diplomacy of the African National Congress in Africa, 1960-1994 / Roger Pfister
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2003), vol. 41, no. 1, p. 51-73 : tab.

Nothing but the truth : behind the ANC's struggle politics/ Ben Turok. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball, 2003

The African National Congress (ANC) underground : from the M-Plan to Rivonia / Raymond Suttner
In: South African Historical Journal: (2003), no. 49, p. 123-146.

Afrika ke nako : 90 years of struggle : a history of the African National Congress 1912-2002 / African National Congress. - Marshalltown : African National Congress, 2002

Oliver Tambo : his life and legacy/ Luli Callinicos. - Marshalltown : ANC, 2002

The African National Congress and the policy of non-racialism: a study of the membership issue / Nhlanhla Ndebele
In: Politikon: (2002), vol. 29, no. 2, p. 133-146.

The key challenge facing the movement in the NDR : unity in the ANC and unity of the Alliance / Philip Dexter
In: The African Communist: (2002), no. 161, p. 13-16 : foto.

Walter & Albertina Sisulu : in our lifetime/ Elinor Sisulu. - Claremont : David Philip, 2002

Tshekedi Khama, Patrick Duncan and the ANC leadership vacuum in South Africa 1949-55 / Christian John Makgala
In: Botswana Notes and Records: (2001), vol. 33, p. 47-53.

Mayibuye. - Marshalltown

The ANC after 1994

100 years of struggle : Mandela's ANC/ Heidi Holland. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Penguin Books, 2012

Eight days in September : the removal of Thabo Mbeki/ Frank Chikane. - Johannesburg : Picador, 2012

Honderdjarig ANC is diep verdeeld over zichzelf en Zuid-Afrika / Ineke van Kessel
book cover Eight days in September: the removal of Thabo MbekiIn: Internationale Spectator: (2012), jrg. 66, nr. 5, p. 253-258 : ill.

South Africa: ANC is 100 years old, but what does it mean to the black man? / Pusch Commey & Motsoko Pheko
In: New African: (2012), no. 514, p. 12-22 : foto's.

Family and favour at the court of Jacob Zuma / Roger Southall
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2011), vol. 38, no. 130, p. 617-626.

Seducing the people: populism and the challenge to democracy in South Africa / Louise Vincent
In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies: (2011), vol. 29, no. 1, p. 1-14.

The African National Congress and the regeneration of political power/ Susan Booysen. - Johannesburg : Wits University Press Press, 2011

The reluctant president : the presidency of Kgalema Motlanthe / Kwandiwe Kondlo & Mashupye H. Maserumule
In: African Renaissance: (2011), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 65-96.

A (qualified) reaffirmation of ANC hegemony : assessing South Africa's 2009 election / James Hamill
In: Politikon: (2010), vol. 37, no. 1, p. 3-23.

ANC decline, social mobilization and political society : understanding South Africa's evolving political culture / Thiven Reddy
In: Politikon: (2010), vol. 37, no. 2/3, p. 185-206.

Democracy and the rule of law in South Africa : observations on significant legislative and other developments after Polokwane / Dieter Welz
In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee: (2010), Jg. 43, Quart. 3, S. 304-327.

Espoir d'une renaissance sud-africaine? / Ludmilla Ommundsen
In: Africa / Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente: (2010), a. 65, n. 1/4, p. 319-329.

Jesus, Jacob Zuma, and the new Jerusalem : religion in the public realm between Polokwane and the presidency / Gerald West
In: Journal for the Study of Religion: (2010), vol. 23, no. 1/2, p. 43-70.

Party opposition perpetually on the verge of promise : South Africa's election 2009 / Susan Booysen
In: Journal of African Elections: (2010), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 80-109 : tab.

South Africa: the ANC's difficult allies / Martin Plaut
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2010), vol. 37, no. 124, p. 201-212.

The root of the matter : scenes from an ANC branch / Jacob Dlamini
In: African Studies: (2010), vol. 69, no. 1, p. 187-203.

'He had a mandate': the South African Constitutional Court and the African National Congress in a dominant party democracy/ Sujit Choudhry. - [Pretoria : PULP, Pretoria University Law Press], 2009. - (Overdr. uit: Constitutional Court Review; vol. 2, 2009, p. 1-86)

After Mandela : the battle for the soul of South Africa/ Alec Russell. - London : Hutchinson, 2009

book cover After Mandela: the battle for the soul of South Africa

After the party : corruption, the ANC and South Africa's uncertain future/ Andrew Feinstein. - London [etc.] : Verso, 2009

Bring me my machine gun : the battle for the soul of South Africa from Mandela to Zuma/ Alec Russell. - New York : PublicAffairs, 2009

Cadres, capitalists, elites and coalitions : the ANC, business and development in South Africa/ Jo Ansie Van Wyk. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2009. - (Discussion paper, ISSN 1104-8417 ; 46)

Comrades 'back on track'? : the durability of the Tripartite Alliance in South Africa / Alexander Beresford
In: African Affairs: (2009), vol. 108, no. 432, p. 391-412.

Die ANC en die nasionale demokratiese rewolusie: polities strategiese perspektiewe = The ANC and the national democratic revolution: political and strategic perspectives / André Duvenhage
In: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe: (2009), jg. 49, nr. 4, p. 705-727 : fig.

From "struggle" to "post-revolutionary" politics: the National Party, the African National Congress, and the "great rapprochement" / Patrick J. Furlong
In: New Contree: (2009), no. 57, p. 109-128.

In your face : passionate conversations about people and politics/ Rhoda Kadalie. - Cape Town : Tafelberg, 2009

No 'new' ANC? / Nicola De Jager
In: Politikon: (2009), vol. 36, no. 2, p. 275-288 : fig.

The lack of internal party democracy in the African National Congress : a threat to the consolidation of democracy in South Africa / Kebapetse Lotshwao
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2009), vol. 35, no. 4, p. 901-914.

The Nelson Mandela Bay municipality and the "Third Way" politics of the African National Congress / Gary Prevost
In: Politeia: (2009), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 23-40.

The uses and abuses of political economy: the ANC's media policy / Jane Duncan
In: Transformation: (2009), no. 70, p. 1-30.

The world according to Julius Malema/ Max Du Preez & Mandy Rossouw. - Cape Town : Kwela Books, 2009

The Zuma era: its historical context and the future / Raymond Suttner
In: African Historical Review: (2009), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 28-59.

"Nous nous retrouverons au Limpopo!": la National Policy Conference de l'ANC (juin 2007) / Vincent Darracq
In: Politique africaine: (2008), no. 109, p. 182-199.

African National Congress change in leadership : what really won it for Zuma? / Claire Ceruti
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2008), vol. 35, no. 115, p. 107-114.

Being a 'movement of the people' and a governing party : study of the African National Congress mass character / Vincent Darracq
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2008), vol. 34, no. 2, p. 429-449.

Briefing: South Africa: Jacob Zuma and the difficulties of consolidating South Africa's democracy / William M. Gumede
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 427, p. 261-271.

COSATU, the SACP and the ANC post-Polokwane : looking left but does it feel right? / Devan Pillay
In: Labour, Capital and Society: (2008), vol. 41, no. 2, p. 4-37.

Politics in South Africa/ Allister Sparks. - [Cape Town] : Shikana Media, 2008. - (African analyst quarterly, ISSN 1993-8950 ; vol. 3, no. 3)

Post-apartheid South Africa : class, culture, the neo-patrimonial welfare State and African nationalism / Ineke van Kessel
In: Viva Africa: (2008), p. 162-182.

South Africa's democracy : from celebration to crisis / Greg Cuthbertson
In: African Identities: (2008), vol. 6, no. 3, p. 293-304.

The African National Congress (ANC) organization at the grassroots / Vincent Darracq
In: African Affairs: (2008), vol. 107, no. 429, p. 589-609.

The ANC for sale?: money, morality & business in South Africa / Roger Southall
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2008), vol. 35, no. 116, p. 281-299 : tab.

The road to Polokwane? : politics and populism in KwaZulu-Natal / Ari Sitas
In: Transformation: (2008), no. 68, p. 87-98.

The undeserving poor : poverty and the politics of service delivery in the poorest nodes of South Africa / David Everatt
In: Politikon: (2008), vol. 35, no. 3, p. 293-319 : graf. , tab.

African National Congress (ANC) : attainment of power, post liberation phases and current crisis / Raymond Suttner
In: Historia: (2007), vol. 52, no. 1, p. 1-46.

Changing concepts of articulation : political stakes in South Africa today / Gillian Hart
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2007), vol. 34, no. 111, p. 85-101.

Political management of ethnic perceptions: an assessment of the African National Congress / Mcebisi Ndletyana
In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution: (2007), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 135-160.

Social movement unions and political parties (in South Africa and the Philippines): a win-win situation? / Michael Schiavone
In: African and Asian Studies: (2007), vol. 6, no. 4, p. 373-393.

The evolution of the African National Congress in power : from revolutionaries to social democrats? / Gary Prevost
In: Pobook cover A people's contract to advance the vision of the Freedom Charterlitikon: (2006), vol. 33, no. 2, p. 163-181.

A people's contract to advance the vision of the Freedom Charter. - Johannesburg : ANC, 2005. - (Umrabulo, ISSN 1680-4287 ; no. 23)

Revisiting the negotiated transition to democracy : South Africa through the stages of ambition, distraction, approximation and supersession (1990-1994) / M. L. Thotse
In: New Contree: (2005), no. 49, p. 130-144 : tab.

Season of hope : economic reform under Mandela and Mbeki/ Alan Hirsch. - Scottsville [etc.] : University of KwaZulu-Natal Press [etc.], 2005

Thabo Mbeki and the battle for the soul of the ANC/ William Mervin Gumede. - Cape Town : Zebra Press, 2005

The 'dominant party debate' in South Africa / Roger Southall
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2005), Jg. 40, H. 1, p. 61-82.

The African National Congress, the print media and the development of mediated politics in South Africa / Alexander Johnston
In: Critical Arts: (2005), vol. 19, no. 1/2, p. 12-35.

The Congress Party model: South Africa's African National Congress (ANC) and India's Indian National Congress (INC) as dominant parties / Thiven Reddy
In: African and Asian Studies: (2005), vol. 4, no. 3, p. 271-300.

South Africa ten years on : the tensions between issues and loyalty / Paul Nursey-Bray
In: The Australasian Review of African Studies: (2004), vol. 26, no. 1, p. 52-65 : tab.

Südafrikas neue Elite : die Prägung der ANC-Führung durch das Exil/ Hans Georg Schleicher. - Hamburg : Institut für Afrika-Kunde, 2004. - (Hamburger Beiträge zur Afrika-Kunde, ISSN 0440-1670 ; 74)

book cover Südafrikas neue Elite

The African National Congress' economic and social policy changes in South Africa (1994-2004) : another African straightjacket independence? / Mueni Wa Muiu
In: African and Asian Studies: (2004), vol. 3, no. 3/4, p. 273-294.

The ANC after the 2004 election / Tom Lodge
In: Journal of African Elections: (2004), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 166-174.

The ANC and the development of party politics in modern South Africa / Tom Lodge
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2004), vol. 42, no. 2, p. 189-219 : tab.

The ANC's 'Left Turn' & South African sub-imperialism / Patrick Bond
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2004), vol. 31, no. 102, p. 599-616.

The scourge of the ANC, and: Afrikaner survival under black rule : two essays/ Dan Roodt. - Dainfern [etc.] : Praag [etc.], 2004

Two cheers? : South African democracy's first decade / John Daniel, Roger Southall, & Morris Szeftel (ed.). - Basingstoke [etc.] : Carfax, 2004. - (Review of African political economy, ISSN 0305-6244 ; vol. 31, no. 100)

ANC today : online voice of the African National Congress. - [Johannesburg]

Containing the chiefs: the ANC and traditional leaders in the Eastern Cape, South Africa / Roger Southall & Zosa De Sas Kropiwnicki
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (2003), vol. 37, no. 1, p. 48-82.

Missing cadres? : list voting and the ANC's management of its parliamentarians in the National Assembly, 1999-2003 / Geoffrey Hawker
In: Journal of African Elections: (2003), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 97-115 : tab.

Power-sharing in Südafrika: ist der ANC eine Konkordanzpartei? / Matthijs Bogaards
In: Afrika Spectrum: (2003), Jg. 38, H. 1, p. 49-70 : tab.

The ANC's 90th Anniversary : why it matters / Raymond Suttner
In: The African Communist: (2002), no. 159, p. 7-13.

Umrabulo = ISSN 1680-4287. - Marshalltown

 

Selected Web Resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites
 

African National Congress 
The website of the ANC,  ‘South Africa’s national liberation movement’,  has information on the history, structure, and leadership of the ANC,  press statements and speeches, ANC publications, such as the weekly ANC Today, and many ANC documents, including the ANC Constitution, declarations, policy documents, resolutions, etc.
http://www.anc.org.za/index.php

ANC Centennial celebrations 1912-2012
ANC pages dedicated to the centenary of the party.
http://www.anc.org.za/centenary/show.php?id=8767

African National Congress (ANC) History Online
South African History Online  pages on the ANC. SAHO is an independent non-partisan peoples’ history project, established in 2000.
http://www.sahistory.org.za/organisations/african-national-congress-anc

Anti-apartheid and Southern Africa Collection
Selection of the archives and documentation of former anti-apartheid groups in the Netherlands, now housed at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam
http://socialhistory.org/en/collections/anti-apartheid-and-southern-africa-collection-guide

Digital Imaging Project of South Africa
DISA is a freely accessible online scholarly resource focusing on the socio-political history of South Africa, particularly the struggle for freedom during the period  from 1950 to the first democratic elections in 1994.
http://disa.nu.ac.za/

Parliament of South Africa 
Official site, with member information, pre4s releases, parliamentary programme , committee notices, a directory of groups monitoring Parliament, the full text of  Hansards (verbatim reports of parliamentary proceedings) up to May 2012,  recent Bills, Acts, etc.
http://www.parliament.gov.za/live/index.php

Politicsweb
Edited by James MyBurgh, Politicsweb focuses on the news and politics of Southern Africa.  Provides breaking news, informed comment and opinion, and easy access to key online resources. Based in South Africa.
http://www.politicsweb.co.za/

Web dossier Nelson Mandela
ASC Leiden library web dossier compiled in February 2010 on  the occasion of the 20th anniversary of Mandela’s release from prison.
http://www.ascleiden.nl/?q=content/webdossiers/nelson-mandela

Web dossier South African Elections
Dossier compiled  by the ASC Leiden library to coincide with the general elections in South Africa on April 22, 2009.
http://www.ascleiden.nl/?q=content/webdossiers/south-african-elections-2009