The Nigerian-Biafran War

Igbo soldiers 1968 (Unknown photographer, source: http://www.igbofocus.co.uk)May 30 2017 marks the 50th birthday of the declaration of independence of the republic of Biafra, leading up to a 30-month civil war between federal Nigerian troops and the (Igbo) secessionists. On the occasion of this anniversary, the Library, Documentation and Information Department at the African Studies Centre in Leiden (ASCL) has compiled a web dossier on the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970), also known as the Biafran War.
 
Far from being an exhaustive or even representative overview of the record of scholarship that has appeared on this topic, this dossier is an attempt to highlight different discourses reflected in the ASCL Library’s collection. After the introduction, section 2 presents a selection of publications on the war, ranging from a 1967 propaganda leaflet by the Nigerian government of information (Unity in Diversity) to a 2016 article on ‘the tensions in Nigeria-Biafra war discourses’.  A highlight of this section is a collection of student essays on the civil war written in 1971 at the Toro teacher’s college. The cahiers were donated by their teacher, Aart Rietveld. Noteworthy is also the civil war chapters in the textbook series on civics and history for primary schools.
 
The third section deals with fictional accounts, personal narratives and poetry on the Biafran conflict, illustrating how much more literature there is than the (rightly famous) writings of Ken Saro-Wiwa, Adichie and Achebe.
 
Sections 4,5 and 6 capture the conflict through the biographical lenses of key actors. Writings by and about the two political protagonists, General Gowon (Nigerian head of state 1966–1975) and General Ojukwu (president of Biafra 1967–1971), give an insight into the federal and Igbo perspectives of the conflict. The third person chosen for this biographical section is the Yoruba nationalist Obafemi Awolowo, who was active as Federal Commissioner for  Finance in Gowon’s cabinet during the war. Chinua Achebe portrays Awolowo as the architect of the starvation policy meant to crush the Igbo defence: “It is my impression that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was driven by an overriding ambition for power, for himself in particular and for the advancement of his Yoruba people in general. […] In the Biafran case it meant hatching up a diabolical policy to reduce the numbers of his enemies significantly through starvation […].”(There was a country, p. 233). This view contrasts strongly with the almost hagiographic accounts of “the man of courage , wisdom, reason and vision” (according to Moses Makinde).
 
The dossier is concluded with a selection of  web resources and is introduced by former LeidenASA fellow Jays Julius-Adeoye, who recently published ‘The Nigeria-Biafra war, popular culture and agitation for sovereignty of Biafra nation’ in the ASCL working paper series.

Introduction | Early sources published before, during and immediately after the war, up till 1971 | More recent publications: 1972-2017 | Fictional accounts and personal narratives | Igbo secessionist leader Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu and the Igbo perspective | Federal military leader Yakubu Gowon | Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo | Selected web resources

1. Introduction

Fifty years ago, one of the bloodiest wars in modern human history was fought on the African continent. The Nigeria-Biafra thirty-month-long war is undeniably one of the worst in the twentieth century with an estimated three million deaths. The images of starving Biafran children and civilians, broadcast on television around the world, jolted many organizations and individuals to reality and led to the establishment of many humanitarian agencies in Europe and the US. Some writers have classified the Nigeria-Biafra war as a genocidal response by the Nigerian military government under General Yakubu Gowon to the 30 May 1967 declaration of independence of the Republic of Biafra by Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. Others have justified the war, based on the belief that the Federal Government of Nigerian acted rightly in preventing the splintering of its territory by force.            

There has been a tremendous amount published on the war by reporters, relief workers, humanitarian organizations, academics, creative writers both from Africa and the West. Some of the most significant writings on the Nigeria-Biafra war are written by principal actors of the war themselves or through their proxies. For example on the Biafran side the generals Philip Effiong, and Alex Madiebo, as well as major Adewale Ademoyega whereas on the federal side the (conflicting) accounts of commanders Olusegun Obasanjo and Alabi Isama should be mentioned. A few years ago, Chinua Achebe, who spent the war years lobbying for Biafran recognition by other countries, wrote his memoir on the events shortly before his death in 2012. Most of the autobiographies, however, have been criticized for being too self-serving and not true accounts of what really happened. Nevertheless, these writings and others are valuable for the study of the Nigeria-Biafra confrontation.

The war, which commenced on 6 July 1967 and ended on 15 January 1970, seems not to have fully fulfilled the Nigerian Federal Government’s objective of maintaining a united Nigeria because, over the years, there have been major violent conflicts along ethnic lines with formation of ethnic militias demanding for either the collapse of the Nigerian state or her restructuring. In the last two decades, there have been renewed agitations for the excision of the Republic of Biafra from the country by Igbo, who are currently occupying five states of the South Eastern part of the country. Leading in the agitation are two Igbo organizations: Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), which was established in 1999 by Ralph Nwanzuruike and Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) formed in 2015 by Nnamdi Kanu. Despite provocation and the arrest of the leaders and loyalists of these two groups by the Nigerian state security, they have maintained a non-violent approach in pressing their demand for the Republic of Biafra.

Julius-Adeoye, Rantimi Jays
LeidenASA Visiting Fellow 2017
Redeemer’s University (RUN), Nigeria.

2.1 Early sources published before, during and immediately after the war, up till 1971

Crisis and conflict in Nigeria : a documentary sourcebook Dl. 1: January 1966 - July 1967. Dl. 2: July 1967 - January 1970 / A. H. M. Kirk-Greene. - London [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 1971

Les problèmes psychologiques chez les enfants Biafrais / Yves Lamontagne
In: Psychopathologie afr. : (1971), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 225-238.

Nigeria: crisis and beyond / John Oyinbo. - London : C. Knight, 1971

Nigeria: modernization and the politics of communalism / Robert Melson & Howard Wolpe. - [East Lansing] : Michigan State University Press, 1971book cover 'Nigeria: modernization and the politics of communalism'

Nigerian civil war notebook / J. de Saint Jorre
In: Transition: (1971/73), vol. 8, no. 38, p. 36-41.

Reflections on the Nigerian civil war : facing the future / Raph Uwechue. - New York : Africana Pub. Corp, 1971

The American Press and the Nigerian war / A. Bolaji Akinyemi
In: The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies: (1971), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 241-259.

The Nigerian crisis in international law / T. O. Elias
In: The Nigerian Law Journal: (1971), vol. 5, p. 1-8.

The Nigerian war, 1967-1970 : history of the war : selected bibliography and documents / Zdenek Cervenka. - Frankfurt am Main : Bernard & Graefe, 1971. - (Schriften der Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte, Weltkriegsbücherei, Stuttgart, neue Folge der Bibliographien der Weltkriegsbücherei ; Heft 10)

The war economy in perspective / O. Aboyade & A. Ayida
In: The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies: (1971), vol. 13, no. 1, p. 13-37.

After the Nigerian civil war : with malice toward whom? / N. Th Uphoff & H. Ottemoeller
In: Africa Today: (1970), vol. 17, no. 2, p. 1-4.

Biafra : tragedie en hysterie / J. de Kadt. - : 1970

Des concessions reciproques pour une paix juste et durable / Raph Uwechue
In: Revue française d'études politiques africaines: (1970), no. 49, p. 24-39.

Dialog : can there be a peace settlement in Nigeria? / Kennedy Lindsay
In: Africa Report: (1970), vol. 15, no. 1, p. 14-15.

Foreign powers and the Nigerian war / W. Schwarz
In: Africa Report: (1970), vol. 15, no. 2, p. 12-14.

Le dossier federal
In: Revue française d'études politiques africaines: (1970), no. 49, p. 40-68.

Les pays Scandinaves et le Biafra / Camille Olsen
In: Revue française d'études politiques africaines: (1970), no. 52, p. 77-111; v. a. (1970), no. 55, p. 60-62.

Nigeria : the problem of relief in the aftermath of the Nigerian Civil War : report of Lord Hunt's mission. - London : HMSO, 1970. - (Cmnd. ; 4275)

Nigeria after Biafra / David J. Murray
In: Current history: (1970), vol.58, no.343, p.135-141, p.177.

Nigeria in conflict / William Robert Fitz-Gerald Collis. - London : Secker & Warburg, 1970

Nigerian crisis 1966-1970 : a preliminary bibliography / George B. Affia. - Lagos : Un. of Lagos, Yakubu Gowon Library, 1970

Nigerie : einde van 'n oorlog
In: Bulletin: a record of events in Africa. Africa Institute: (1970), vol. 10, no. 3, p. 90-101.

Re-absorption of former Civil Servants and the appointment of Central-Eastern State Indigenes in the Federal Public Service and other Public Services of the Federation / Nigeria. Federal Public Service Commission, Lagos. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information Printing division, 1970

Reflections on the Nigerian civil war / Margery Perham. - London : [s.n.], 1970

Semi - annual report : January - June 1970 / Lutheran World Federation. Department of World Service. - [S.l.] : Lutheran World Federation. Department of World Service [etc.], 1970

Separatist agitations in Nigeria since 1914 / Tekena N. Tamuno
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (1970), vol. 8, no. 4, p. 563-584.

Special Biafra
In: Jeune Afrique: (1970), no. 473, p. 22-41.

The Nigerian crisis and foreign intervention : a focus on international law / Funso Adaramola
In: The Nigerian Law Journal: (1970), vol. 4, p. 76-84.

The other Nigerian war / B. Oudesarchival material ASCL
In: Africa Report: (1970), vol. 15, no. 2, p. 15-17.

The politics of relief / Audrey Smock
In: Africa Report: (1970), vol. 15, no. 1, p. 24-26.

The search for peace in Nigeria : state boundaries a critical issue / R. Hornby
In: The Round Table: (1970), no.237 (January), p.34-38.

The war of Nigerian unity, 1967-1970 / Rex Niven. - Ibadan : Evans, 1970

Who killed Biafra? / S. Diamond
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1970), no. 1, p. 45-61.

Yakubu Gowon : soldier-statesman. - Ibadan : Sketch Publishing, 1970

70% Iboland under federal control : observer team to Nigeria : report on activities of the representatives of Canada, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom during the period 1st May, 1969 - 27th June, 1969. - [S.l. s.n.], 1969

Biafra : achtergronden van een strijd : aanleiding, toestand, oplossing / Dick Boevink & Benno Groeneveld / Biafra Actie Comité. - Amsterdam : Biafra Actie Comité, 1969

Biafra, naissance d'une nation ? / Alain Renard. - Paris : 1969. - (Tiers-monde et développement)

Biafra: Britain's shame / Auberon Waugh & Suzanne Cronjé. - London : M. Joseph, 1969

Biafraanse vlugtelinge
In: Bulletin / Africa Institute: (1969), vol. 9, no. 7, p. 306-310.

Ibo et non-Ibo : les chances d'une "nation biafraise" / R. Cornevin
In: Revue de Psychologie des Peuples: (1969), vol. 24, no. 2, p. 157-167.

La guerre des rapaces : la vérité sur la guerre du Biafra / Jean Wolf & Claude Brovelli. - Paris : 1969. - (Histoire du XXe siècle)

La Guerre du Nigeria vue par les pays enrichis / Y. Morel
In: Tam-Tam: (1969), n. s. , 1/2. p. 15-23.

Le Biafra sous l'angle de l'Unité Africaine / M. Modo Nana
In: Tam-Tam: (1969), n. s. , no. 1/2, p. 5-13.

Le conflit nigero-biafrais : première guerre nationale africaine / François Debré
In: Revue française d'études politiques africaines: (1969), no. 39, p. 29-47.

Le drame du Nigéria / Jules Chomé. - Waterloo : 1969

Nigeria/Biafra : armed conflict with a vengeance
In: The Review / International Commission of Jurists: (1969), no. 2, p. 10-14.

Press actions 1. 2/2-31/12. - 1968. - (Markpress 3, 14, 19/472). - 2. 1/1-30/6. - 1969. (Markpress 472/675). - 3. 1/7-31/12. - 1969. - (Markpress 676/792). - Geneva : Biafran Overseas Press Division [etc.], 1969

Spanningsveld Afrika, trefpunt Biafra / K. L. Roskam, W. de Berg & J. van der Meulen / Werkgroep 2000. - Hilversum : Werkgroep 2000 i.s.m. Brand, 1969. - (Eurosboekje, ISSN 0014-3227 ; 1969/4)

The Ahiara declaration : the principles of the Biafran revolution / Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. - [Geneva : Markpress], 1969

The Biafra story / Frederick Forsyth. - Baltimore [etc.] : Penguin Books, 1969. - (A Penguin special, S276)

The Commonwealth and the Nigeria/Biafra conflict / B. J. Dudley
In: The impact of African issues on the Commonwealth: (1969), p.14-30.

The making of a nation : Biafra : [documents and appendices] / Arthur Agwuncha Nwankwo & Samuel Udochukwu Ifejika. - London : Hurst & Company, 1969

The Nigeria-Biafra crisis / Julius K. Nyerere. - Dar es Salaam : The Government Printer, 1969

The OAU and Nigeria / Suzanne Cronje
In: New Africa: (1969), vol. 11, no. 3/4, p. 5-6.

Beyold the conflict / Timothy Adebanjo
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 12-15.

Biafra : reflections on the nation-state in sub-Saharan Africa / Evalyn Aligwekwe
In: Insight and Opinion: (1968), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 41-53.

Biafra : Tragödie eines begabten Volkes / Jean Bühler. - Zürich [etc.] : Flamberg Verlag, 1968

Biafra en Afrika / J. van der Meulencover 'kroniek van afrika'
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1968), Biafra-nummer, p. 32-38.

Biafra en het volkenrecht / P. H. Kooymans
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1968), Biafra-nummer, p. 26-31.

Biafra, an II / François Debré. - Paris : 1968

Chinua Achebe on Biafra
In: Transition: (1968), vol. 7, no. 36, p. 31-37.

Is there a case for Biafra? / K. W. J. Post
In: International Affairs: (1968), vol.44, no.1 (Jan.), p.26-39.

La mort du Biafra! / F. de Bonneville & Gilles Caron. - [Paris] : Solar, 1968

Lessons from the arms race / H. Maning
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 42-47.

Nigeria's civil war : the tragedy of the Ibo people / B. J. Dudley
In: The Round Table: (1968), no.229 (January), p.28-34.

Nigeria's politieke crisis in perspectief / Etim N. E. Udoh
In: Streven: (1968), vol.21, dl.2, 9 (juni), p.1005-1013.

igeria : British relief advisory mission. - London : HMSO, 1968. - (Cmnd. ; 3727)

Nigeria : international observers team reports : final report of the first phase from October 5 to December 10 by the Organization of African Unity observers in Nigeria / Sliman Haffman & Negga Teghegn. - [S.l. s.n.], 1968

Nigeria : the task of conflict resolution / M. Dent
In: World Today: (1968), vol. 24, no. 7, p. 269-280.

Nigeria at war / John D. Chick
In: Current history: (1968), vol.54, no.318, p.65-71, p.113.

Nigeria in Turmoil : the factual background / Sol Dubula
In: The African Communist: (1968), no. 35, p. 46-56.

No victors; no vanquished : opinions 1967-1968 / Ukpabi Asika / East-Central State Information Service (Enugu). - Enugu : East-Central State Information Service, 1968

Ojukwu's rebellion and world opinion / Nabo B. Graham-Douglas. - Apapa : Nigerian National Press, 1968

Some assumptions reexamined
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 20-24; p. 41.

Statement on Tanzania's recognition of Biafra / C. Y. Mgonja
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1968), Biafra-nummer, p. 39-43.

The "Biafran" illusion : fate and future of the non-Ibo peoples in the Eastern States of Nigeria. - [Lagos : s.n.], 1968

The African writer and the Biafran cause / Chinua Achebe
In: Kroniek van Afrika, Biafra-nummer: (1968), p. 65-70.

The Biafran possibility / S. Diamond
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 16-19.

The emergence of Biafra : balkanization or nationbuilding? / R. K. Baker. - [S.l. s.n.], 1968

The OAU and the Nigerian issue / K. Whiteman
In: World Today: (1968), vol. 24, no. 11, p. 449-453.

The right to self-determination : its application to Nigeria / S. K. Panter-Brick
In: International Affairs: (1968), vol.44, no.2, p.254-266.

The scope of the tragedy / J. O'Connell
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 8-12.

Tussen pro en contra : voordelen van het handhaven der 'koloniale grenzen' / P. Heil
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1968), Biafra-nummer, p. 22-25.

Why the Soviets chose sides / A. J. Klinghoffer
In: Africa Report: (1968), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 47-49.

A lament for Nigeria / R. H. Green
In: Mawazo: (1967), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 48-56.

Birth of New Nigeria. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1967

Challenge of unity. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1967

Der Einfluss historischer Faktoren auf die heutige Politik Nigerias / S. Uba
In: Internationales Afrikaforum: (1967), vol. 3, no. 9/10, p. 456-460.

Education and national integration in Nigeria / A. Peshkin
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (1967), vol. 5, no. 3, p. 323-334.

Enough is enough = Ife Zulu - Ezugo : a challenging appeal to the Ibos of Nigeria / Ukpabi Asika. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1967

Ibos and their fellow Nigerians / Samson Amali. - [S.l. s.n.], 1967

Modernisation and political disintegration : Nigeria and the Ibos / P. Anber
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (1967), vol. 5, no. 2, p. 163-179.

Political developments in Nigeria
In: Survey of British and Commonwealth Affairs: (1967), vol. 1, no. 14, p. 687-691; see also 2 (1968). 16, p. 697-713.

The issue at stake : Nigeria 1967 / R. G. Armstrong. - Ibadan : U.P., 1967

The O.A.U. consultative mission. - [Apapa : Nigerian National Press], 1967

The people of Nigeria : the cultural background to the crisis / A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
In: African Affairs: (1967), vol. 66, no. 262, p. 3-11.

The struggle for one Nigeria. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1967

Unity in diversity. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1967

2.2 More recent resources : 1972-2017book cover  ' Writing the Nigeria-Biafra War'

Shared histories, divided memories : mediating and navigating the tensions in Nigeria-Biafra war discourses / Godwin Onuoha
In: Africa Today: (2016), vol.63, no.1, p.3-21.

Writing the Nigeria-Biafra War / Toyin Falola & Ogechukwu Ezekwem. - Suffolk : James Currey, 2016

Counting the cost : the politics of relief operations in the Nigerian civil war, a critical appraisal / Kenneth Chukwuemeka Nwoko
In: African Study Monographs: (2015), vol. 35, no. 3&4, p. 129-148 : krt.

The people's right to the novel : war fiction in the postcolony / Eleni Coundouriotis. - New York : Fordham University Press, 2014

Blood on the Niger : the first black-on-black genocide : the untold story of the Asaba massacre during the Nigeria-Biafra War / Emma Okocha. - New York [etc.] : Gomslam International, 2012book cover "Blood on the Niger'

Ethnic re-empowerment : the Igbo experience through individual and group efforts in modern Nigeria / Kenneth C. Nwoko
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2012), vol. 12, p. 63-82.

The Biafran War according to Hollywood : militainment and historical distortion in Antoine Fuqua's 'Tears of the Sun' (2003) / Okaka Opio Dokotum
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2012), vol. 12, p. 23-40.

A gentleman in military uniform : a biography of Lt. Col. Y.M. Anifowoshe / Olawale Aderibole. - Ibadan : Kraft Books, 2011

Carl Gustav von Rosen och semesterkrigarna i Biafra / Marcus Hansson. - [Stockholm] : Sveriges Radio, 2011. - (P3 Dokumentär)
http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/60467?programid=2519

Gender palava : Nigerian women writing war / Marion Pape. - Trier : WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2011. - (LuKA, Studien zu Literaturen und Kunst Afrikas ; 1)

The history and legacy of the Asaba, Nigeria, massacres / S. Elizabeth Bird & Fraser Ottanelli
In: African Studies Review: (2011), vol. 54, no. 3, p. 1-26.

Visions of nationhood : prelude to the Nigerian Civil War / G. N. Uzoigwe. - Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press, 2011

'Resourceful and progressive blackmen' : modernity and race in Biafra, 1967-70 / Douglas Anthony
In: The Journal of African History: (2010), vol. 51, no. 1, p. 41-61.

Blaming the gods: Christian religious propaganda in the Nigeria-Biafra war / Nicholas Ibeawuchi Omenka
In: The Journal of African History: (2010), vol. 51, no. 3, p. 367-389.

Christopher Okigbo, 1930-67 : thirsting for sunlight / Obi Nwakanma. - Woodbridge : James Currey, 2010

L'arme du chant collectif au cur du conflit biafrais / Françoise Ugochukwu
In: Journal des africanistes: (2010), t. 80, fasc. 1/2, p. 29-50 : krt.

Nigeria : Macht und Ohnmacht am Golf von Guinea / Heinrich Bergstresser. - Frankfurt am Main : Brandes & Apsel, 2010

Biafra in the present : trauma of a loss / Olajide Oloyede
In: African Sociological Review: (2009), vol. 13, no. 1, p. 2-25.

Legacies of Biafra : violence, identity and citizenship in Nigeria / Ike Okonta & Kate Meagher
In: Africa Development: (2009), vol. 34, no. 1, p. 1-82.

Biafra as heritage and symbol: Adichie, Mbachu, and Iweala / John C. Hawley
In: Research in African Literatures: (2008), vol. 39, no. 2, p. 15-26.

J.P. Clark-Bekederemo : the weeping poet / Iyabode Omolara Daniel
In: African Study Monographs: (2008), vol. 29, no. 4, p. 147-157.

La conscience historique africaine / Babacar Mbaye Diop & Doudou Dieng. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008. - (Études africaines)

Of war and women, oppression and optimism : new essays on the African novel / Eustace Palmer. - Trenton, NJ : Africa World Press, 2008

Oil, British interests and the Nigerian civil war / Chibuike Uche
In: The Journal of African History: (2008), vol. 49, no. 1, p. 111-135 : tab.

Portraits de femmes au Biafra: étude comparée de Chinua Achebe et Leslie Ofoegbu / Françoise Ugochukwu
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2008), vol. 48, cah. 191, p. 437-456.

War in African literature today : a review / Ernest N. Emenyonu
In: African literature today, ISSN 0065-4000 ; 26

A train ride to Zaria / Bankole Ososanwo. - Lagos State : Globmere Publishers, 2007

Biafra 40 år efteråt / Marcus Hansson & Mikael Funke. - [Stockholm] : Sveriges Radio, 2007. - (Vetenskapsradion historia)
http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/94245?programid=407

Nigeria and Biafra : my story / Philip Efiong. - Elmont, NY : African Tree Press, 2007

Recollections of childhood experiences during the Nigerian civil war / Egodi Uchendu
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2007), vol. 77, no. 3, p. 393-418 : krt.

The untold story of the Nigeria-Biafra War : a chronological reconstruction of the events and circumstances of the Nigerian Civil War / Luke Nnaemeka Aneke. - New York : Triumph Publishing, 2007

Women and conflict in the Nigerian civil war / Egodi Uchendu. - Trenton, NJ [etc.] : Africa World Press [etc.], 2007

Biafra revisited / Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe. - Dakar [etc.] : African Renaissance, 2006

Legacies of Biafra: marriage, 'home people' and reproduction among the Igbo of Nigeria / Daniel Jordan Smith
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2005), vol. 75, no. 1, p. 30-45.

Between ethics and politics : lessons from Biafra : the role of the International Community and its sociopolitical implications / Tobe Nnamani & Bernhard Uhde. - Bloomington, IN : AuthorHouse, 2004

I remain, Sir, your obedient servant / Omo N'Oba Erediauwa. - Abuja [etc.] : Spectrum Books, 2004

Broken lives and other stories / Anthonia C. Kalu. - Athens : Ohio University Press, 2003. - (Ohio University research in international studies. Africa series ; 79)

Ideology and pragmatism : the Biafra War and Nigeria's response to the Soviet Union, 1966-1970 / M. Matusevich
In: Nigerian Journal of International Affairs: (2002), vol. 28, no. 1/2, p. 97-138 : tab.

Poison and medicine : ethnicity, power, and violence in a Nigerian city, 1966 to 1986 / Douglas A. Anthony. - Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann [etc.], 2002. - (Social history of Africa, ISSN 1099-8098)

The economics of the Nigerian civil war and its prospects for national development / Nwabeze Reuben Ogbudinkpa. - Enugu : Fourth Dimension, 2002

A break in the silence : a historical note on Lt. Col. Victor Adebukunola Banjo / F. Adetowun Ogunsheye. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books, 2001

Ethnic politics in Kenya and Nigeria / Godfrey Mwakikagile. - Huntington, NY : Nova Science Publishers, 2001

Massacre of Ndi-Igbo in 1966 : report of the G.C.M Onyiuke Tribunal of Inquiry / G.C.M. Onyiuke Tribunal of Inquiry. - Lagos : Tollbrook, 2000

Speaking through the wound : irruption and memory in the writing of Ben Okri and Festus Iyayi / Andrew Armstrong
In: Journal of African Cultural Studies: (2000), vol. 13, no. 2, p. 173-183.

The battle of love / Kingsley Ogoro & Segun Arinze. - Paris : Kingsley Ogoro Productions, 2000. - 1 dvd-video (95 min.). : kleur, gel. ; 1/2

Time and identity : the legacy of Biafra to the Igbo in diaspora / Raisa SimolaIn: in Nordic Journal of African Studies: (2000), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 98-117.

Shadows : airlift and airwar in Biafra and Nigeria 1967-1970 / Michael I. Draper. - Aldershot : Hikoki, 1999

For love of Biafra / Amanda N. Adichie. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books [etc.], 1998

A social history of the Nigerian civil war : perspectives from below / Axel Harneit-Sievers, Jones O. Ahazuem & Sydney Emezue. - Hamburg : Lit Verlag, 1997. - (Studien zur afrikanischen Geschichte ; 17)

Ethnicity and Nigeria since the end of the civil war / Frank A. Salamone
In: Dialectical Anthropology: (1997), vol. 22, no. 3/4, p. 303-333.

Fighting on all fronts: gendered spaces, ethnic boundaries, and the Nigerian civil war / Obioma Nnaemeka
In: Dialectical Anthropology: (1997), vol. 22, no. 3/4, p. 235-263.

A harvest from tragedy : critical perspectives on Nigerian civil war literature / Chinyere Nwahunanya. - Owerri : Springfield Publishers, 1996

Igbos : 25 years after Biafra / Joe Igbokwe. - [S.l.] : Advent Communications, 1995

Africa divided : the creation of "ethnic groups" / Antoine Lema. - Lund : Lund University Press, 1993. - (Lund dissertations in sociology, ISSN 1102-4712 ; vol. 6)

The United States and the Nigerian civil war : an American dilemma in Africa, 1966-1970 / George A. Obiozor. - Lagos : Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1993

Honger als wapen : de Biafraoorlog 1967-1970 / J. L. R. Huydecoper van Nigtevecht & A. van Emden. - 's-Gravenhage : Sdu Uitgeverij Koninginnegracht, 1992

Nigerian writers on the Nigerian civil war (anguish, commitment, catharsis) / Olu Obafemi. - [S.l.] : J. Olu Olatiregun, 1992

Perspectives on the Nigerian civil war / Siyan Oyeweso. - Lagos : OAP Publications, 1992. - (O.A.P. humanities series)

The post-Gowon Nigerian accounts of the civil war 1975-1990 : a preliminary review / Siyan Oyeweso. - Lagos : Africa Peace Research Institute, 1992. - (Africa peace research monograph series ; no. 2)

The spirit of agony : war poetry from Biafra / Afam Ebeogu
In: Research in African Literatures: (1992), vol. 23, no. 4, p. 35-49.

C. C. Onoh : politics and power in eastern Nigeria / Joe Asogwa. - Enugu : Idika Press, 1991

Conflict and contradiction in women's writing on the Nigerian civil war / J. Bryce
In: African Languages and Cultures: (1991), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 29-42.

Hausa poetry on the Nigerian civil war / G. Furniss
In: African Languages and Cultures: (1991), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 21-28.

La guerre de Biafra à la radio : situation militaire et livraisons d'armes en 1968-1969 / F. Ugochukwu
In: Peuples noirs, peuples africains: (1991), année 14, no. 80, p. 60-76 : tab.

Songs and war: the mixed messages of Biafran war songs / Ogonna Agu
In: African Languages and Cultures: (1991), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 5-19.

War, history, aesthetics, and the thriller tradition in Eddie Iroh's novels / T. Akachi Ezeigbo
In: African Languages and Cultures: (1991), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 65-76.

American policy and African famine : the Nigeria-Biafra War, 1966-1970 / Joseph E. Thompson. - New York [etc.] : Greenwood Press, 1990. - (Contributions in Afro-American and African studies, ISSN 0069-9624 ; no. 130)

Nigerian civil war literature : seeking an "imagined community" / Craig W. MacLuckie. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. - (Studies in African literature, ISBN 0-88946-725-0 ; vol. 3)

Pressure groups and foreign policy : a comparative study of British attitudes and policy towards secessionist moves in the Congo (1960-63) and in Nigeria (1966-69) / Oladapo Olusola Fafowora. - Ibadan : Heinemann Educational Books Nigeria, 1990

The Biafra war : Nigeria and the aftermath / Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe. - Lewiston, NY [etc.] : Mellen Press, 1990. - (African studies ; vol. 17)

Het Biafra-conflict in de Nederlandse dagbladen : een beknopt overzicht van de meningen die over dit conflict in de Nederlandse dagbladpers geventileerd werden / G. J. Hosson. - ['s-Gravenhage] : Wetenschappelijk en Technisch Documentatie- en Informatiecentrum voor de Krijgsmacht, 1989

Nigeria since independence : the first twenty-five years / Panel on Nigeria Since Independence History Project Vol. 6: The civil war years / Tekena N. Tamuno & Samson C. Ukpabi / Panel on Nigeria Since Independence History Project. - Ibadan [etc.] : Heinemann Educational Books, 1989

Reminiscences / David Akpode Ejoor. - Lagos : Malthouse Press, 1989

A preliminary checklist of primary and secondary sources on Nigerian civil war/Biafran war literature / C. W. Macluckie
In: Research in African Literatures: (1987), vol. 18, no. 4, p. 510-527.

Nigerian literature and the search for socio-political alternatives : the relevance of Nigerian war fiction / Chinyere Nwahunanya
In: Nigeria Magazine: (1987), vol. 55, no. 2, p. 50-55.

Anomy and beyond : Nigeria's civil war in literature / Willfried F. Feuser
In: Présence africaine: (1986), no. 137/138, p. 113-151.

News out of Africa : Biafra to Band Aid / Paul Harrison & Robin Palmer. - London : Shipman, 1986

War and identity in Melanesia and Africa / Caroline Ifeka
In: Ethnic and Racial Studies: (1986), vol. 9, no. 2, p. 131-149.

Children and the Nigerian civil war: a study of the rehabilitation programme for war-displaced children / Dan S. Obikeze & Ada A. Mere. - Nsukka : University of Nigeria Press, 1985

Anomy and beyond : Nigeria's civil war in literature / Willfried F. Feuser
In: Cultures et developpement: (1984), vol. 16, no. 3/4, p. 733-820.

Conflict resolution : the case of Nigeria and Sudan / Kamal el Din Osman Salih
In: Southern Sudan : regionalism & religion : selected essays / ed.by Mohamed Omer Beshir.- Khartoum : University of Khartoum, Graduate college.ISBN 0-86372-019-6: (1984), p.60-87.

Generale hungern nie : Geschichte einer Hilfsaktion in Afrika / August R. Lindt & Hans O. Staub. - Bern : Zytglogge, 1983

The combat experience of the civil war : an analysis of the Nigerian soldier / Folajinmi Olabode Adisa
In: The Quarterly Journal of Administration: (1983/84), vol. 18, no. 1/2, p. 63-79 : tab.

The economics of political instability : the Nigerian-Biafran war / E. Wayne Nafziger. - Boulder, Colo : Westview Press, 1983. - (Westview replica edition)

The Nigerian civil war and the evolution of Nigerian literature / Chidi Amuta
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (1983), vol. 17, no. 1, p. 85-99.

The Nigerian civil war and the invasion of Czechoslovakia / S. E. Orobator
In: African Affairs: (1983), vol. 82, no. 327, p. 201-214.

A selected checklist of primary and critical sources on Nigerian civil war literature / Chidi Amuta
In: Research in African Literatures: (1982), vol. 13, no. 1, p. 68-72.

Krieg in Afrika : die nachkolonialen Konflikte in Nigeria, Sudan, Tschad und Kongo / Albert Wirz. - Wiesbaden : Steiner, 1982. - (Beiträge zur Kolonial- und Überseegeschichte ; Bd. 23)

My command : an account of the Nigerian Civil war, 1967-1970 / Olusegun Obasanjo. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1981. - (African writers series ; 249)

The Nigerian revolution and the Biafran war / Alexander A. Madiebo. - Enugu, Nigeria : Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1980

The political economy of the Nigerian oil sector and the civil war / Amechi Okolo
In: The Quarterly Journal of Administration: (1980/81), vol. 15, no. 1/2, p. 107-126.

Litterature and the Nigerian civil war / Ime Ikiddeh
In: Teaching of African literature in schools; vol.I / ed.by Eddah Gachukia and S.Kichamu Akivaga: (1978), p.149-162.

Nigeria : a decade of crises in pictures / Peter Obe. - Surulere, Lagos : Peter Obe Photo Agency, 1977

Race and foreign policy : the South African and Rhodesian press and the Nigerian civil war / A. Bolaji Akinyemi
In: Nigerian Journal of International Affairs: (1977), vol. 3, no. 1/2, p. 107-135.

The international politics of the Nigerian civil war, 1967-1970 / John J. Stremlau. - Princeton, N. J., [etc.] : Princeton University Press, 1977

The Nigerian civil war and the Angolan civil war : linkages between domestic tensions and international alignments / J. I. Elaigwu
In: The warrior tradition in modern Africa / ed.by Ali A.Mazrui: (1977), p.215-235.

Reluctant rebel / Fola Oyewole. - London : Collings, 1975

The broken bridge : reflections and experiences of a medical doctor during the Nigerian civil war / R. B. Alade. - Ibadan : The Caxton press, 1975

The British parliament and foreign policy-making : a case study of Britain's policy towards the Nigerian civil war / W. A. Ajibola
In: The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies: (1974), vol. 16, no. 1, p. 129-147.

The internationalization of the civil war : lessons from the Congo, Nigeria and Vietnam / Y. Tandon
In: Africa: the next thirty years / ed.by A.A.Mazrui and H.H.Patel: (1974), p.63-78.

Nigerian civil war, 1967-70 : an annotated bibliography / Christian Chukwunedu Aguolu. - Boston : G. K. Hall, 1973

Soviet involvement in the Nigerian civil war / G. Obiozor
In: Social change and economic development in Nigeria / ed.by Ukandi G.Damachi and H.D.Seibel: (1973), p.230-234.

Nigeria: dilemma of nationhood : an African analysis of the Biafran conflict / Joseph Okpaku. - New York : The Third Press, 1972. - (Contributions in Afro-american and African studies ; 12)

The British press and the Nigerian civil war / A. B. Akinyemi
In: African Affairs: (1972), vol. 71, no. 285, p. 408-426.

The Nigerian Civil War / John De St.Jorre & John de St.Jorre. - London [etc.] : Hodder and Stoughton, 1972

The world and Nigeria : the diplomatic history of the Biafran War, 1967-1970 / Suzanne Cronjé. - London : Sidgwick and Jackson, 1972

3. Fictional accounts and personal narratives

The caged bird sang no more : my Biafra odyssey, 1966-1970 / Philip Efiong. - Pinetown : 30 Degrees South Pub Pty, 2016

Dreams of yesterday : fiction / Lilian Uchenna Amah. - Ibadan : Kraft Books Limited, 2015. - (Kraftgriots)

Last train to Biafra : the memoirs of a Biafran child / Diliorah Chukwurah. - Ibadan : Constellation (Nigeria) Publishers, 2015book cover 'The last train to Biafra'

Sector IV / Abigail Anaba. - [Nigeria] : [El Jara], 2015

The beggars' song / Pious Okoro. - Milwaukee, WI : Cissus World Press, 2015

Roses and bullets / Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo. - Ibadan : University Press PLC, 2014

The forest dames : an account of the Nigeria-Biafra war (1967-1970) / AdaOkere Agbasimalo. - Lagos : Origami Books, 2014

The tragedy of victory : on-the-spot account of the Nigeria-Biafra War in the Atlantic theatre / Godwin Alabi-Isama. - Ibadan : Spectrum Books Limited, 2013

The fall of Biafra / Ben Gbulie. - Enugu : Snaap Press, 2012

There was a country : a personal history of Biafra / Chinua Achebe. - London : Allen Lane, 2012book cover 'There was a country'

Biafra : lest we forget! / Richie Adewusi. - Bloomington, IN : AuthorHouse, 2010

The Republic of Biafra : once upon a time in Nigeria : my story of the Biafra-Nigerian civil war - a struggle for survival (1967-1970) / Onyema Nkwocha. - Bloomington, IN : Authorhouse, 2010

Just another soldier / Richard Maduku. - Lagos : Malthouse Press, 2009. - (Malthouse African fiction)

The last flight : a pilot remembers the Air Force and the Biafran air attacks / August Okpe. - Ikeja : Aeromax International Ltd, 2009

After the Biafran war! / Doris Fred. - Lagos : Doris Fred Communications, 2008

Half of a yellow sun / Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. - London : Fourth Estate, 2006

Memoirs of the Nigerian-Biafran bureaucrat : an account of life in Biafra within Nigeria / Godwin Alaoma Onyegbula. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books, 2005

War games / Dulue Mbachu. - Lagos : The New Gong Publishers, 2005

I saw Biafra / Ndubueze Charles Akuneme. - Lagos : Book Company, 2004. - (War series)

Years of the locusts / David Chukwuemeka Nwizu. - Enugu : El'Demak, 2004
Surviving in Biafra : the story of the Nigerian civil war : over two million died / Alfred Obiora Uzokwe. - New York [etc.] : Writers Advantage, 2003

The survivor / Therese C. Odigwe. - Enugu : Academic Publishing Company, 2000

The seed yams have been eaten / Phanuel Akubueze Egejuru. - Ibadan : Heinemann Educational Books, 1993. - (Heinemann frontline series)

Years of challenge / Samuel Osaigbovo Ogbemudia. - Ibadan : Heinemann Educational Books, 1991

On a darkling plain : an account of the Nigerian civil war / Ken Saro-Wiwa. - Port Harcourt [etc.] : Saros International Publishers, 1989. - (Saros star series ; 10)

Gerillapilot i Biafra / Gunnar Haglund. - Stockholm : Allt om Hobby, 1988

Blow the fire / Leslie Jean Ofoegbu. - Enugu : Tana Press, 1986

Heroes / Festus Iyayi. - Harlow : Longman, 1986. - (Longman African writers)

Songs in a time of war / Ken Saro-Wiwa. - Port Harcourt [etc.] : Saros International Publishers, 1985

Biafra testament / Kalu Okpi. - London [etc.] : Macmillan, 1982. - (M novels)

Sunset in Biafra / Elechi Amadi. - Oxford : Heinemann, 1982. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 140)

The siren in the night / Eddie Iroh. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1982. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 255)

The Anonymity of Sacrifice / Ifeanyichukwu Ndubuisi Chikezie Aniebo. - Oxford : Heinemann, 1981. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 148)

Why we struck : the story of the first Nigerian coup / Adewale Ademoyega. - Ibadan : Evans Brothers Limited, 1981book cover 'why we struck'

Divided we stand : a novel of the Nigerian civil war / Cyprian Ekwensi. - Enugu : Fourth Dimension Publisher, 1980

Songs of steel / Andrew Ekwuru. - London : Collings, 1979

Survive the peace / Cyprian Ekwensi. - Oxford : Heinemann, 1979. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 185)

Toads of war / Eddie Iroh. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1979. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 213)

Forty-eight guns for the general / Eddie Iroh. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1976. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 189)

Sunset at dawn : a novel about Biafra / Chukwuemeka Ike. - London : Collins, 1976

Never again / Flora Nwapa. - Enugu : Nwamife publishers, 1975

Christmas in Biafra and other poems / Chinua Achebe. - Garden City, NY : Doubleday, 1973

Behind the rising sun / S. O. Mezu. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1972. - (African writers series, ISSN 0065-4108 ; 113)

The combat / Kole Omotoso. - London [etc.] : Heinemann, 1972. - (African writers series ; no. 122)

The man died : prison notes / Wole Soyinka. - London : Collings, 1972

4. Igbo secessionist leader Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu and the Igbo perspective

[Portrait de] Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu / Alain Foka & Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. - [Paris] : Radio France Internationale, 2016. - (Archives d'Afrique)

In quest of perpetuity : bio-sketches of sir Odumegwu Ojukwu / Ifeze. - Mustang, Oklahoma : Tate Publishing & Enterprises LLC, 2015

The politics of 'hope' and 'despair' : generational dimensions to Igbo nationalism in post-civil war Nigeria / Godwin Onuoha
In: African Sociological Review: (2014), vol.18, no.1, p.2-26.

Who are the Igbo? : history & culture, Biafra, most influential Igbo personalities (1810A.D-2010A.D) and contemporary commentary / Iheanetu C. Evans & Iheanetu Margaret Kabuo. - Yaba-Lagos : Clarkson Evans & Associates, 2013

Biafran ghosts : the MASSOB ethnic militia and Nigeria's democratisation process / Ike Okonta. - Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2012. - (Discussion paper, ISSN 1104-8417 ; 73)
http://nai.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:538466/FULLTEXT01

Contemporary Igbo nationalism and the crisis of self-determination in Nigeria / Godwin Onuoha
In: African Studies: (2012), vol. 71, no. 1, p. 29-51.

Ojukwu / Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu & Ray Ekpu. - Lagos : MayFive Media Limited, 2012

Ojukwu : the last patriot / Valentine Obienyem. - Ibadan : Wisdom Publishers, 2012book cover :  'Ojukwu : the last patriot '

Stakeholders at war in Nigeria : from Lord Lugard to President Goodluck Jonathan / Tekena N. Tamuno. - Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria : Stirling-Horden Publishers, 2012

Challenging the state in Africa : MASSOB and the crisis of self-determination in Nigeria / Godwin Onuoha. - Berlin : Lit, 2011. - (African politics ; v. 4)

Biafran pound notes / Olly Owen
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2009), vol. 79, no. 4, p. 570-594 : ill.

Beyond the wealth of nations : essays on a search for understanding, community & productivity / Emeka Aniagolu. - Columbus, OH : Griot Press, 2006. - (Political science, International relations)

Pursuing the night hawk: the political thought of C. Odumegwu-Ojukwu / Obododimma Oha
In: Africa / Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente: (2000), a. 55, n. 1, p. 72-85.

Emeka / Frederick Forsyth. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books [etc.], 1992

Because I am involved / Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books, 1989

The struggle for secession, 1966-1970 : a personal account of the Nigerian civil war / Ntieyong U. Akpan & Ojukwu. - London : F. Cass, 1972

Ahiara declaration : Ojukwu's manifesto for a Biaran revolution, 29th May, 1969 / Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. - [Nigeria] : Wisdom Publishers Limited, 1969book cover 'Ahiara declaration ...'

Biafra I: Selected speeches with diaries of events. II: Random thoughts / C. Odumegwu Ojukwu. - New York [etc.] : Harper & Row, 1969. - (Perennial library ; P 154, 153)

Le ghetto biafrais tel que je l'ai vu / Carl Gustaf von Rosen & Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. - Paris : 1969. - (Collection A la une)

The Ahiara declaration (the principles of the Biafran revolution) : an address to the nation on Thankgivings Day, June 1, 1969 / C. Odumegwu Ojukwu. - Geneva : Markpress, 1969

Nigerian crisis 1966 : [Eastern Nigeria viewpoint : selected speeches and statements / C. Odumegwu Ojukwu. - [S.l.] : The Ministry of Information Eastern Nigeria, 1966

5. Federal military leader: Yakubu Gowon

General Yakubu Gowon : the supreme commander / Olufemi Ogunsanwo. - [Lagos, Nigeria] : Pace Books and Periodicals, 2009book cover 'The supreme commander'

Yakubu Gowon and the outbreak of the Nigerian civil war / Said Adejumobi
In: Afrika Zamani: (1996), no. 4, p. 19-37.

Nigeria's foreign policy under two military governments, 1966-1979 : an analysis of the Gowan and Muhammed/Obasanjo regimes / Kenoye Kelvin Eke. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. - (African studies, ISBN 0-88946-175-6 ; vol. 16)

Yakubu Gowon : faith in a united Nigeria / John Digby Clarke. - London [etc.] : Frank Cass, 1987

Gowon : the biography of a soldier-statesman / J. Isawa Elaigwu & J. Isawa Elaigwu. - Ibadan : West Books Publisher Limited, 1986

The rise and persistence of Nigeria's general Gowon / Norman Uphoff
In: Pan-African Journal: (1972), vol. 5, no. 3, p. 347-355.

Peace, stability and harmony in post-war Nigeria / Yakubu Gowon. - Lagos : Federal Ministry of Information, 1968

The dawn of lasting peace : broadcast to the nation (March 31, 1968) / Yakubu Gowon. - [Lagos] : Federal Rep. of Nigeria, 1968

6. Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo

The political philosophy of Chief Obafemi Awolowo / Olayiwola Abegunrin. - Lanham, MD [etc.] : Lexington Books, 2015

Awo on the Nigerian civil war / Obafemi Awolowo. - Ikeja : John West Publications, 2013book cover "Awo on the Nigerian civil war'

Zik, Ndi-Igbo and their southern neighbours : charting a new political direction for Nigeria / Uchenna Nwankwo. - Houston, TX : Strategic Book Publishing, 2013

Chief Obafemi Awolowo : the political Moses / Adedara S. Oduguwa. - Bristol : Trafford Publishing, 2012

A comprehensive bibliography on the writings and works of Chief Obafemi Awolowo from 1940-1984 / Ebenezer Olu Adeniyan. - Ibadan : Mustar Printers [etc.], 2011

Awo : the last conversation / Moses Akin Makinde. - Ibadan : 2009book cover 'Awo : the last conversation'

Awo, on the trail of a titan : essays in celebration of the Obafemi Awolowo centennial / David O. Oke. - Lagos : Obafemi Awolowo Foundation, 2009

Awo, unfinished greatness : the life and times of chief Obafemi Awolowo / Olufemi Ogunsanwo. - Lagos : Pace Books and Periodicals, 2009

Obafemi Awolowo and the making of Remo : the local politics of a Nigerian nationalist / Insa Nolte. - Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2009. - (International African library, ISSN 0951-1377 ; 40)

Obafemi Awolowo and the beginning of the Yoruba political image in Nigeria / A. S. Ajala
In: Journal of Environment and Culture: (2008), vol. 5, no. 1, p. 29-48.

The cult of Awo: the political life of a dead leader / Wale Adebanwi
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2008), vol. 46, no. 3, p. 335-360.

Necrophilia and elite politics : the case of Nigeria Necrophilia and elite politics : the case of Nigeria / Wale Adebanwi. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2007. - (ASC working paper ; 71)

House of war : the story of Awo's followers and collapse of Nigeria's Second Republic / Dare Babarinsa. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum [etc.], 2003

Awo as a philosopher / Moses Akin Makinde. - Ile-Ife : Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 2002

His truth is marching on : a pictorial biography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo / Olatokunbo Awolowo Dosumu. - Lagos : Obafemi Awolowo Foundation, 1997

The transition of Obafemi Awolowo / Lai Olurode. - Lagos : John West Publications, 1992

Awo and the politics of the 90s / Tunji Otegbeye. - Lagos [etc.] : Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 1991

Awo speaks of revolution / Mike Omoleye. - Ibadan : Omoleye Publishing Company Ltd, 1991. - (Leisure-time series ; no. 3)

Obafemi Awolowo : the end of an era? / lasope O. Oyelaran. - Ile-Ife, Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 1988

The travails of democracy and the rule of law / Obafemi Awolowo. - Ibadan : Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Limited, 1987. - (Adventures in power ; book 2)

Adventures in power / Obafemi Awolowo. - Lagos [etc.] : Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 1985

Adventures in power / Obafemi Awolowo B. I: My march through prison / Obafemi Awolowo. - Lagos [etc.] : Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 1985

Path to Nigerian greatness / Obafemi Awolowo. - Enugu : Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1981

Voice of wisdom : selected speeches of Chief Obafemi Awolowo / Obafemi Awolowo. - Akure : Fagbamigbe Publishers, 1981. - (Selected speeches Obafemi Awolowo ; vol. 3)

Awo : the portrait of a leader / Ebenezer Babatope. - Lagos : Star Union Publishers, 1978

Personality variable in political leadership and decision-making : an analysis of Obafemi Awolowo's operational codes / B. A. Ogundimu
In: The Quarterly Journal of Administration: (1977/78), vol. 12, no. 3, p. 217-238.

The strategy and tactics of the People's Republic of Nigeria / Obafemi Awolowo. - London [etc.] : Macmillan and Co. (Nigeria), 1970

The People's Republic / Obafemi Awolowo. - Ibadan : Oxford University Press, 1968

The trial of Obafemi Awolowo / L. K. Jakande. - London : Secker & Warburg [etc.], 1966

Thoughts on Nigerian constitution / Obafemi Awolowo. - Ibadan [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 1966

Awo : the autobiography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo / Obafemi Awolowo. - Cambridge : University Press, 1960

Path to Nigerian freedom / Obafemi Awolowo & Margery Perham. - London : Faber and Faber, 1947

7. Selected web resources

Channels book club
Some of the more recent books on Biafra are discussed in the Book Club programme broadcast on the Nigerian Channels Television. For example “Port Harcourt Volunteer” by  Sam Ohuabunwa and the critical reaction of Brigadier General Godwin Alabi-Isama against Obasanjo’s war memoirs.
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=channels+book+club

Dan Nwanyanwu's perspectives on Massob, IPOB and Biafra
Interview with Dan Nwanyanwu
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNPmNjAg6aw

The Biafra war : a glimpse through pictures and interviews on the Nigerian Civil War
Website compiled by Uchenna Okoye. Most interesting are a couple of audio interviews with (Igbo) eyewitnesses.
http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall12/okoye_u/timeline/vertical.html

Indigenous People of Biafra
Website of the Indigenous People of Biafra with news and (graphic) video footage on police violence against protesters.
http://www.ipob.org/

National War Museum Umuahia
Three video’s presenting a tour of the museum.
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7kAPiJG6uIw6Iibj7HKvvg

Nigerian History Channel
Website of Nigerian historian Max Siollun presenting video’s and  speeche , amongst others Speech by Major-General Yakubu Gowon Declaring a Twelve State Structure for Nigeria – May 1967; and Broadcast by (Biafran) Major-General Phillip Effiong on Monday, January 12, 1970 declaring the surrender of the Biafra republic. And “The Dawn of National Reconciliation” – Gowon’s Civil War Victory Message to the Nation, 15 January 1970.
https://maxsiollun.wordpress.com

Remembering Biafra
The Critical Investigations Into Humanitarianism in Africa (CIHA) runs a blog series Remembering the 50 Year Anniversary of the Biafra/Nigerian War.
http://www.cihablog.com/remembering-biafra-blog-series-commemorating-50-...