Islam in Nigeria

There has been considerable recent media coverage of the implementation of Islamic (sharia) law in the northern states of Nigeria. In particular, international attention has been drawn to the application of sharia law to criminal offences and the imposition of sharia sentences such as amputation for theft and death by stoning for adultery or for having sex outside marriage. Human rights organizations have strongly opposed the application of this interpretation of Islamic law and the death penalty in Nigeria.

With this dossier about Islam in Nigeria, the Library, Documentation and Information Department of the African Studies Centres aims to provide background information on the history of Islam and Islamic law in Nigeria. It contains a selection of titles from the library catalogue, an introduction on Islam in Nigeria, and a selection of links to relevant web resources. The titles from the online catalogue deal with the origins and spread of Islam in Nigeria, the nineteenth-century jihad, Islam and politics, sharia law, and various Islamic movements. Abstracts of most of the publications and details about the availability and borrowing of titles can be found in the library catalogue. For information about this dossier please contact us by email (asclibrary@ascleiden.nl) or phone (+31 (0)71 527 3354).
 

Introduction

The spread of Islam in Nigeria dates back to the eleventh century when it first appeared in Borno in the northeast of the country. Later Islam emerged in Hausaland in the northwest and its influence was evident in Kano and Katsina. Islam was for quite some time the religion of the court and commerce, and was spread peacefully by Muslim clerics and traders. Increasingly, trans-Saharan trade came to be conducted by Muslims. In the second half of the eighteenth century a Muslim revival took place in western Africa, in which Fulani cattle-driving people, who had settled and adopted Islam, played a central role. In northern Nigeria, the Fulani scholar Uthman dan Fodio launched a jihad in 1804 that lasted for six years, aiming to revive and purify Islam, to eliminate syncretist beliefs and rituals, to remove all innovations contrary to the Koran and sharia, and to encourage less devout Muslims to return to orthodox and pure Islam. However, this religious revolution also had a political element concerning state formation and state conflict. It united the Hausa states under sharia law. In 1812 the Hausa dynasties became part of the Islamic State or Caliphate of Sokoto. The Sokoto Caliphate ended with partition in 1903 when the British incorporated it into the colony of Nigeria and the Sultan's power was transferred to the High Commissioner. However, many aspects of the caliphate structure, including the Islamic legal system, were retained and brought forward into the colonial period.

A new impetus to the spread of Islam was provided by Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northern Region after Nigerian independence in 1960, with his Islamization programme that led to the conversion of over 100,000 people in the provinces of Zaria and Niger. The military coup in 1966, which claimed the lives of many politicians including Ahmadu Bello, brought his Islamization programme to an abrupt end but the 1970s saw continued government policy favouring the dominance of Islam. History has shown that Islamization was easier under military dictatorship and Islam spread quickly under Ibrahim Babangida (1985-1993).

Religious tensions between Evangelical Christians and Islamic groups have long existed, but the anticipated extension of sharia law in a number of northern states has caused increased religious tension since December 1999. For example, in Ilorin, Kwara State, fourteen churches were burnt to the ground by suspected Islamic fundamentalists. News of the introduction of sharia law on 1 January 2000 in Zamfara State led to widespread violence in February/March 2000 in which property was destroyed and more than 1,000 people were killed. A second state, Kano State, adopted Islamic law in June 2001 and in 2002, a further ten northern states followed suit. Though the Nigerian central government has openly recognized the incompatibility of sharia law with the federal constitution of the nation, President Olusegun Obasanjo has avoided intervening in decisions taken by states that apply Islamic law, merely calling for moderation. As an outspoken born-again Christian, he knows that vigorous condemnation of strict Islamic law will only inflame passions further and at the same time he fears that the spread of sharia law will increase religious tension and undermine Nigerian unity.
 

History of Islam in Nigeria

The growth of Islam in pre-colonial Igbomina / Adesina Yusuf Raji.
In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1999), vol. 19, no. 2, p. 211-221.

Islamische Bildung und soziale Integration in Ilorin (Nigeria) seit ca. 1800 / Stefan Reichmuth. - Muenster : Lit Verlag, 1998. - VI, 430 p. : krt., tab. Bibliogr.: p. 380-408. - Met index. ISBN 3-8258-3570-7

book cover Les routes de l'islamLes routes de l'islam : anthropologie politique de l'islamisation de l'Afrique de l'Ouest en général et du pays hawsa en particulier du VIIIe au XIXe siècle / Olivier Meunier. - Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, cop. 1997. - 203 p. : krt. ;Bibliogr.: p. 151-186. - Met index, noten. ISBN 2-7384-5688-X

The ruler factor in the Islamization of the Yoruba 1840-1940 / by E.O. Oyelade.
In: Orita: (1995), vol. 27, no. 1, p. 22-34.

Nana Asma'u, her elegies and the possibility of 'insider alternatives' / Nikki Merritt.
In: African Languages and Cultures: (1994), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 91-99.

The heritage of Islam : women, religion, and politics in West Africa / Barbara Callaway, Lucy Creevey. - Boulder, Col. [etc.] : Lynne Rienner, 1994. - x, 221 p. : tab. Bibliogr.: p. 197-212. - Met index. ISBN 1-555-87253-0; ISBN 1-555-87414-2 pbk

Ajagbemokeferi the missionary / Gbolagade Azeez and Abidoye Sarumi. - Ibadan : Caltop Publications, 1992. - 34 p., [26] p. foto's. Met bijl., index. ISBN 978-31653-0-5

The popular phase of Islam in Ebiraland, Nigeria : the roles of Sheikh Ahmad Rufai and Al-Hajj Abdulmalik / Ahmed Rufai Mohammed.
In: Islam et sociétés au Sud du Sahara: (1992), no. 6, p. 47-63.

The spread of Islam in Nigeria / by I.O. Umejesi.
In: Orita: (1992), vol. 24, no. 2, p. 85-96.

The 'Ishriniyat' of Al-Fazazi : an aspect of the precedence of the Kanem-Borno empire in Arabic and Islamic scholarship / by R.A. Raji.
 In: Annals of Borno: (1989/90), vol. 6/7, p. 1-10.

"Di:n wa dawla" : Islam, Politik und Ethnizitaet im Hausaland und in Adamawa /
Elsa Barbara Blanckmeister. - [Emsdetten] : Andreas Gehling, [1989]. - 167 p. : krt., tab.(Reihe Ethnologie & Islam ; Bd. 2)
Zugl.: Muenster (Westfalen), Univ., Diss., 1986. - Proefschr. Muenster. - Bibliografie: p. 153-166. ISBN 3-89049-009-3

The historical impact of Islam and its future prospects in Africa : a case study of Sudan and Nigeria / Hawthorne Emery Smith.
In: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1988), vol. 9, no. 2, p. 311-330.

The Nupe factor in Nigerian Islamic history : the Akoko example / E.O. Babalola.
In: Orita: (1984), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 98-110.

Key issues in Anglo-Yoruba Muslim relations 1884-1914 / T.G.O. Gbadamosi.
In: African Notes: (1983), vol. 9, no. 2, p. 9-22.

Progrès de l'islam et changement politique au Kanem du XIe au XIIIe siècle : un essai d'interprétation / Dierk Lange.
In: The Journal of African History: (1978), vol. 19, no. 4, p. 495-513.

The growth of Islam among the Yoruba, 1841-1908 / [by] T.G.O. Gbadamosi. - London : Longman, 1978. - XVII, 265 p. : map (Ibadan history series) Bew. van proefschrift Ibadan. - Lit.opg.: p.235-258. - Index. ISBN 0-582-64629-4

The episode of Islam in the ancient City of Benin and its environs (an oral tradition) / I.A.B. Balogun.
In: Afrika Zamani: (1978), no. 8/9, p. 84-112.

A Moslem Igbo village / S. Ottenberg.
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (1971), vol. 11, no. 42, p. 231-260.

Power and diplomacy in Northern Nigeria, 1804-1906 : the Sokoto Caliphate and its enemies / [by] R.A. Adeleye. - London : Longman, 1971. - xvi, 387 p., 8 plates. : ill., facsim., krt., port. (Ibadan history series) Bibliography: p. 360-370. ISBN 0-582-64516-6

The penetration of Islam into Nigeria / Ismail A.B. Balogun. - Khartoum : University of Khartoum, Faculty of arts, 1969. - 32 p. (African studies seminar paper ; no. 7) Met noten.

A seventeenth century chronicle of the origins and missionary activities of the Wangarawa / Muhammad Al-Hajj.
In: Kano Studies: (1968), vol. 1, no. 4, p. 7-42.

The Sokoto caliphate / Murray Last. - London : Longmans, 1967. - LXXXII, 280 p. : ill. + tab. (Ibadan history series)Oorspr. proefschrift Ibadan. - Lit. opg. en index.

L' Islam peul de l'Adamawa / P.F. Lacroix.
In: Islam in tropical Africa / ed. by I.M. Lewis: (1966), p. 401-406.
 

Jihad

Uthman dan Fodio et la question du pouvoir en pays haoussa / Thomas Fillitz.
In: Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée: (2000), no. 91/94, p. 209-220.

Legitimacy of the Holy War and of the Sokoto caliphate in some Fulani writings, oral traditions and court practices / Stanislaw Pilaszewicz.
In: Africana Bulletin: (1991), no. 37, p. 35-47.

The jihad in the South / by Z.O. Apata.
In: Orita: (1990), vol. 22, no. 1, p. 40-51

book cover The caliph's sisterThe Caliph's sister : Nana Asma'u 1793-1865 : teacher, poet and Islamic leader / Jean Boyd. - London [etc.] : Cass, 1989. - XX, 164 p. : ill., geneal., krt. Bibliogr. van Nana Asma'u: p. 121-135. - Met bibliogr., chronology, gloss., index, noten. ISBN 0-7146-3319-4; ISBN 0-7146-4067-0 pbk.

The impact of the Sokoto jihad on the Kurama people of eastern Zazzau c. 1800-1900 / by John Garah Nengel.
In: Afrika und Uebersee: (1988), vol. 71, no. 2, p. 245-265.

A little new light : selected historical writings of professor Abdullahi Smith / [ed. George Amale Kwanashie ... et al.]. - Zaria : The Abdullahi Smith Centre for Historical Research, 1987. - X, 202 p. : geneal., krt. Vol. 1. - Met ind., noten. ISBN 978-2557-96-x

A revolution in history : the jihad of Usman Dan Fodio / Ibraheem Sulaiman ; with a forew. by Shehu Usman M. Bugaje. - London [etc.] : Mansell, 1986. - xvii, 189 p. (East-West University Islamic studies) Met ind., noten. ISBN 0-7201-1815-8

Music and the Islamic reform in the early Sokoto empire : sources, ideology, effects / Veit Erlmann. - Stuttgart : Steiner-Wiesbaden-GmbH, 1986. - XI, 68, XXII p. pl. : ill. (Abhandlungen fuer die Kunde des Morgenlandes ; 48,1) Met bibliogr., bijl.. ISBN 3-515-04280-6

The Jihad in Hausaland and the Kano Fulani / S.A. Albasu.
In: Nigeria Magazine: (1985), vol. 53, no. 1, p. 52-54.

The Fulani Jihad and the Sokoto Caliphate in the nineteenth century / Akin Olorunfemi.
In: Nigerian history and culture / ed. by Richard Olaniyan: (1985), p. 123-137 : foto.

Uthman ibn Fudi revisited / B.G. Martin. - [S.l. : s.n.], [ca. 1984]. - 6 p. ; Paper presented at the congress of the Middle East studies association of North America "Islam in Africa", San Francisco, 29.11-2.12.1984. - Met noten.

Plateau societies' resistance to Jihadist penetration / J.H. Morrison.
In: Studies in the history of Plateau State, Nigeria / ed. by E. Isichei: (1982), p. 136-150.

The Jihad of Uthman and the Sokoto caliphate / D. Robinson, D. Smith.
In: Sources of the past; case studies of five nineteenth-century African societies/ ed. by D. Robinson and D. Smith, 1979, p. 122-160.

Bayan wujub al-hijra 'ala 'L-'ibad / [by] 'Uthman ibn Fudi ; edited and translated [from the Arabic] by F.H. El Masri. - Khartoum : Khartoum University Press ; Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 1978. - [11],194,151 p. English and Arabic text. - Bibl.iogr.: p.176-185. - Index. ISBN 0-19-822703-5

Uthman Dan Fodio : the theory and practice of his leadership / Alhaji Shehu Shagari and J. Boyd. - Lagos : Islamic publications bureau, 1978. - XIV, 74 p. : krt, foto's. ; Met bibliogr.

The intellectual origin of Sokoto jihad / Ahmad Muhammad Khani. - Ibadan : Iman Publications, [na 1978]. - VI, 112 p. ; Gebaseerd op auteur's Master of Library Science thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 1978. - Met bibliogr., gloss., noten.

The Sokoto jihad and the "O-kun" Yoruba : a review / Ade Obayemi.
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: (1977/78), vol. 9, no. 2, p. 61-87.

The jihad in Hausaland as an episode in African history : some concepts, theories and hypotheses / Peter Waterman.
In: Kroniek van Afrika: (1975), 2, n.s., no. 5, p. 141-152.

The Shehu and the Mullah : the jihads of Usuman dan Fodio and Muhammed Abd-allah Hassan in comparative perspective / Martin R. Doornbos.
In: Genève-Afrique: (1975), vol. 14, no. 2, p. 7-31.

The place of Argungu in Gwandu history / S.A. Balogun.
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: (1974), vol. 7, no. 3, p. 403-415.

The jihad in the south : an outline of the ninetheenth century Nupe hegemony in North-Eastern Yorubaland and Afenmai / Michael Mason.
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: (1970), vol. 5, no. 2, p. 193-209.

The Jihad of Shehu Dan Fodio : some problems / M.G. Smith.
In: Islam in tropical Africa / ed. by I.M. Lewis: (1966), p. 408-420.

The Fulani concept of jihad : Shehu Uthman dan Fodio / Muhammad Al-Hajj.
In: Odu: (1964), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 45-58.

Tazyin al-waraqat / by Abdullah ibn Muhammad ; ed., with a transl. and introd. study of the author's life and times by M. Hiskett. - Ibadan : Ibadan University Press, 1963. - viii, 144 p. : ill.
 

Islamic Law (sharia)

Domestication of the shari'ah in Nigeria / by Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa. - Kano : Transwest Africa, 2002. - 208 p. Bibliogr.: p. 189-202. - Met bijl., index, gloss., noten.

Islamic law and judicial practice in Nigeria: an historical perspective / Allan Christelow.
In: Journal of Muslim MInority Affairs, vol. 22, no. 1 (2002), p. 185-204

The Talibanization of Nigeria : sharia law and religious freedom / Center for Religious Freedom. - Washington : Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, 2002. - 101 p. : foto's, krt., tab. Met bijl., noten, samenvatting. SBN 0-932088-51-1

Safiyatu's conviction untenable under sharia / Buba Iman.
In: Jenda, a Journal of Culture and African Women Studies: (2001), vol. 1, no. 2.

The Shariyah debate in Nigeria October 1999-October 2000 / by Modupe Oduyoye. - Ibadan : Sefer, 2000. - 130 p. Met bijl., index. ISBN 978-34645-7-4

Status and role of women under the Shari'ah / by Juwayriya Bint Badamasiuy. - Kaduna : Zakara, 1998. - XI, 72 p.Bibliogr.: p. 70-72. - Met noten. ISBN 978-135-053-9

The Waziri and the thief: Hausa Islamic law in a Yoruba city : a case study from Ibadan, Nigeria / Frank A. Salamone.
In: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law: (1998), no. 42, p. 139-156.

In search of one word's meaning: 'zaman' in early twentieth-century Kano / Allan Christelow.
In: History in Africa: (1997), vol. 24, p. 95-115.

Sharia and Christianity in Nigeria : Islam and a 'secular' State / by Joseph Kenny.
In: Journal of Religion in Africa: (1996), vol. 26, fasc. 4, p. 338-364.

Thus ruled Emir Abbas : selected cases from the records of the Emir of Kano's judicial council / Allen Christelow, ed. - East Lansing, Mich. : Michigan State University Press, 1994. - XX, 285 p. : krt., tab. Bibliogr.: p. [193]-204. - Met gloss., noten. ISBN 0-87013-309-8; ISBN 0-87013-359-4 (alk. paper)

Sharia law reports of Nigeria / comp. and ed. by Yahaya Mahmood. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books, 1993. - XIX, 231 p. Vol.1:1961-1989. - Met index. ISBN 978-2460-83-4

An assessment of the intellectual response of the Nigerian ulama to the sharia debate since independence / Matthew Hassan Kukah.
In: Islam et sociétés au Sud du Sahara: (1993), no. 7, p. 35-55.

Colonialism and the transformation of Islamic law in the northern States of Nigeria / Auwalu H. Yadudu.
In: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law: (1992), no. 32, p. 103-139.

Where I stand / Abubakar Guma with Ismaila Abubakar Tsiga. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum Books in association with Safari Books, 1992. - VIII, 220 p., [6] p. foto's. : foto's.Met index. ISBN 978-2461-51-2; ISBN 978-2461-57-1 pbk

Le droit islamique entre "traditionalisme" et droit occidental au Nigeria / Jamil M. Abun-Nasr.
In: Droit et cultures: (1991), no. 21, p. 51-57.

The historical roots of the Shariah question in Nigeria / Chinedu N. Ubah.
In: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1990), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 321-333.

Hausa vrouwen en Islam : islamisering van de Hausastaten in de negentiende eeuw en de plaats van islamitische huwelijksinstituties in de samenleving van Hausa groeperingen in Nigeria / Rimkje Koster. - Leiden : Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Onderzoek en Dokumentatie Centrum Vrouwen en Autonomie (VENA), [1990]. - 77 p. : krt. (VENA working papers ; no. 90/3) Met lit. opg. ISBN 90-72631-27-7

The Alkali court in Ilorin Emirate during colonial rule / H.O. Danmole.
In: Transafrican Journal of History: (1989), vol. 18, p. 173-186.

The impact of English law concepts on the administration of Islamic law in Nigeria / Abdur Rahman I Doi.
In: African and Western legal systems in contact / [T. Akinola Aguda ... et al.] . - Bayreuth : Bayreuth University: (cop. 1989), p. 25-56.

Étude sur la situation du droit islamique au Nigeria / par Abdur Rahman I. Doi ; [préf. par Alhaji Shehu Idriss] ; préf. trad. par Pierre-Jean Buisson ; texte trad. de l'anglais par Adrien C. Ogan. - Talence : Centre d'étude d'Afrique noire, Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux, 1988. - [II], 59 p. (Travaux et documents / Centre d'étude d'Afrique noire, Université de Bordeaux I, Institut d'études politiques, ISSN 0298-8879 ; no. 17) Met noten.

The shariah in Nigeria : a Christian view / by John Onaiyekan.
In: Bulletin onIslam & Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa.: (1987), vol. 5, no. 3, p. 1-17.

book cover Sharia Law ReportsShari'a in Nigeria : a historical survey / Joseph Kenny.
In: Bulletin Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa: (1986), vol. 4, no. 1; p. 1-21.

The impact of Islam on the urban structure and economy of Kano, Nigeria / Alan Frishman.
In: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs (1986), vol. 7, no. 2, p. 464-475.

Testamentary disposition of property under Islamic law and the general law in the northern states of Nigeria : the conflict between the two systems / by Hamidu B. Usman.
In: Annals ofBorno: (1985), vol. 2, p. 203-218.

Islamic legal system and the westernization process in the Nigerian emirates / C.N. Ubah.
In: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law: (1982), no. 20, p. 69-93.

Land in accordance with Islamic law and decree / Abdulmalik Bappa Mahmud.
In: The Land Use Act; report of a national workshop / ed. by J.A. Omotola: (1982), p. 23-24.

The Sharia debate and the origins of Nigeria's Second Republic / David D. Laitin.
In: Journal of Modern African Studies: (1982), vol. 20, no. 3, p. 411-430.

Hausa women and Islamic law : is reform necessary? / R. Pittin. - [Waltham, Mass. : African Studies Association], 1979. - 20 p. : ill., tab.Papers presented at the 22nd annual meeting of the African Studies Association, Los Angeles, California, October 31 - November 3, 1979. - Met bibliogr.

Moslem law in Nigeria : the decision in Kharie Zaidan v. Fatima Khalil Mohssen / Gordon Woodman.
In: Journal of African Law: (1976), vol. 20, no. 1, p. 63-69.

Application of Islamic law in Nigeria : a reflection / I. Olu. Agbede.
In: The Nigerian Law Journal: (1971), vol. 5, p. 119-128.

The proper place of Islamic law in Nigeria / J.O. Ijaodola.
In: The Nigerian Law Journal: (1969), vol. 3, p. 129-140.

Conflict of laws in Northern Nigeria / J.N.D. Anderson.
In: Journal of African Law: (1957), vol. 1, no. 2, p. 86-98.

The Moslem Court of Appeal / A.N. Allott.
In: West Africa: (1957), vol. 41, p. 749.
 

Islam and Politics

Islam et politique au Nigeria: du malikisme au wahhabisme / Alhadji Bouba Nouhou.
In: Afrique contemporaine, no. 201 (2002), p. 72-82

Muslim ethnopolitics and presidential elections in Nigeria / William Miles.
In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs: (2000), vol. 20, no. 2, p. 229-241 :

Islam and cultural identity in Nigeria : the Osogbo-Yoruba experience / David O. Ogungbile.
In: Orita: (1998), vol. 30, no. 1/2, p. 125-137.

Issues and trends on religious tolerance in Nigeria : the contemporary scene / Abdul Razaq O. Kilani.
In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1996), vol. 16, no. 2, p. 273-278.

Religion and the crisis of national unity in Nigeria / Nereus I. Nwosu.
In: African Study Monographs: (1996), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 141-152.

Religious militancy and self-assertion : Islam and politics in Nigeria / Matthew Hassan Kukha and Toyin Falola. - Aldershot [etc.] : Avebury, cop. 1996. - XII, 298 p. Bibliogr.: p. 273-288. - Met index, noten. ISBN 1-85972-474-4

book cover Religion, politics and power in Northern NigeriaReligion, politics and power in Northern Nigeria / M.H. Kukah. - Ibadan [etc.] : Spectrum in association with Safari Books, 1993. - XIII, 280 p. : krt., tab. Bibliogr.: p. [266]-274. - Met index, noten. ISBN 978-2461-96-2 pbk

Religious dichotomy in Nigerian politics / by Jude C.U. Aguwa. - Enugu : Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1993. - 32 p. Met noten. ISBN 978-156-300-1

Muslime in Nigeria : Religion und Gesellschaft im politischen Wandel seit den 50er Jahren / Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (Hrsg.). - Muenster [etc.] : Lit, 1993. - XI, 255 p. : krt. Bibliogr.: p. 227-245. - Met gloss., index. ISBN 3-89473-694-1

Muslim-Christian conflict and political instability in Nigeria / D. Ohadike.
In: Religion and national integration in Africa : Islam, Christianity, and politics in the Sudan and Nigeria / ed. with an introd. by John O. Hunwick. - Evanston, Ill. : Northwestern University Press: (1992), p. 101-123.

The role of religion in national life : reflections on recent experiences in Nigeria / Ibrahim Gambari.
In: Religion and national integration in Africa : Islam, Christianity, and politics in the Sudan and Nigeria / ed. with an introd. by John O. Hunwick. - Evanston, Ill. : Northwestern University Press: (1992), p. 85-99.

Die Dynamik religiöser Unruhen in Nord-Nigeria / Roman Loimeier.
In: Afrika Spectrum: (1992), Jg. 27, H. 1, p. 59-80.

Wie religiös sind die 'Religiösen Unruhen'? : Fallbeispiele aus dem Bauchi-State, Nigeria / Klaus Hock.
In: Afrika Spectrum: (1992), Jg. 27, H. 1, p. 43-58.

Islam and party politics in Lagos : a study of the United Muslim Party 1953-1966 / H.D. Danmole.
In: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1990), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 334-346

Religion and national integration in Africa : Islam, Christianity, and politics in the Sudan and Nigeria / ed. with an introd. by John O. Hunwick. - Evanston, Ill. : Northwestern University Press, 1992. - XII, 176 p. (Series in Islam and society in Africa) Papers van een seminar gehouden in Evanston, Ill. in 1988. - Met noten. ISBN 0-8101-1037-7

Religion and politics in independent Nigeria / by S.O. Ilesanmi.
In: Orita: (1991), vol. 23, no. 1, p. 49-70.

Religion and political turbulence in Nigeria / by Jibrin Ibrahim.
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (1991), vol. 29, no. 1, p. 115-136.

Government and religious patronage in contemporary Nigeria (1980-1989): implications for the stability of the nation / by 'Gboyega Ajayi.
In: Zeitschrift für Afrikastudien: (1990), Nr. 7/8, p. 55-65.

Religious factor in Nigerian politics : implications for Christian-Muslim relations in Nigeria / Muhib O. Opeloye.
 In: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1989), vol. 10, no. 2, p. 351-360 : tab.

Rumours of Maitatsine : a note on political culture in northern Nigeria / Niels Kastfelt.
In: African Affairs: (1989), vol. 88, no. 350, p. 83-90.

Problems of desecularizing Nigeria's political order / by M.O. Opeloye.
In: Bulletin on Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa: (1988), vol. 6, no. 2, p. 1-14.

A little new light : selected historical writings of professor Abdullahi Smith / [ed. George Amale Kwanashie ... et al.]. - Zaria : The Abdullahi Smith Centre for Historical Research, 1987. - X, 202 p. : geneal., krt. Vol. 1. - Met ind., noten. ISBN 978-2557-96-x

The Maitatsine risings in Nigeria 1980-85 : a revolt of the disinherited / by Elizabeth Isichei.
In: Journal of Religion in Africa: (1987), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 194-208.

The Maitatsine riots in Kano, 1980 : an assessment / by Mervyn Hiskett.
In: Journal of Religion in Africa: (1987), vol. 17, no. 3, p. 209-223.

Les nouveaux ulama et la résurgence islamique au Nord Nigeria / par Christian Coulon.
In: Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara: (1987), no. 1, p. 27-48.

Religious protest and dissent in Northern Nigeria : from Mahdism to Qur'anic integralism / Allan Christelow.
Icover Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairsn: Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: (1985), vol. 6, no. 2, p. 375-393.

Métamorphose de l'Islam nigérian / G. Nicolas.
In: Mois en Afrique: (1984/85), vol. 20, no. 223/224, p. 118-133; no. 225/226, p. 132-143.

The 1982 Maitatsine uprisings in Nigeria : a note / R. Hickey.
In: African Affairs: (1984), vol. 83, no. 331, p. 251-256.

Islam et politique extérieur au Nigeria : essai de mise en perspective historique (1960-1983) / R. Otayek.
In: Canadian Journal of African Studies: (1984), vol. 18, no. 3, p. 523-545.

"Guerre sainte" à Kano / G. Nicolas.
In: Politique africaine: (1981), vol. 1, no. 4, p. 47-70.

Islamic political culture and constitutional change in Nigeria / John N. Paden.
In: Issue: (1981), vol. 11, no. 1/2, 24-28.

Political change and the emergence of Alhajis among the Bokkos Fulan / J.V. Hickey. - [Waltham, Ma. : African Studies Association], 1980. - 16 p. Met bibliogr.

Muhammed al-Amin al-Kanimi and religion and politics in Bornu / L. Brenner.
In: Studies in West African Islamic history / ed. with an introd. by J.R. Willis: (1979), p. 147-159.

The contribution of Islam to national life in West Africa.
In: Oversea Education: (1956), vol. 28, no. 3, p. 99-105.
 

Islamic Movements, Islamic Reform

Education and Islamic trends in Northern Nigeria: 1970s-1990s / Muhammad S. Umar.tion and Islamic trends in Northern Nigeria: 1970s-1990s / Muhammad S.
In: Africa Today: (2001), vol. 48, no. 2, p. 127-150.

The development of women's authority in the Kano Tijaniyya, 1894-1963 / Alaine S. Hutson.
In: Africa Today: (1999), vol. 46, no. 3/4, p. 43-64.

The 'Takfir' debate : sources for the study of a contemporary dispute among African Sufis : part I, the Nigerian arena : part II, the Sudanese arena / Ruediger Seesemann.
In: Sudanic Africa: (1998-1999), vol. 9, p. 39-70. Vol. 10, p. 65-110.

Die radikale islamische Opposition in Nordnigeria / Roman Loimeier.
In: Afrika Spectrum: (1997), Jg. 32, H. 1, p. 5-23.

Education and the growth of religious associations among Yoruba Muslims : the Ansar-Ud-Deen Society of Nigeria / by Stefan Reichmuth.
In: Journal of Religion in Africa: (1996), vol. 26, fasc. 4, p. 365-405.

Islamische Erneuerung und politischer Wandel in Nordnigeria : die Auseinandersetzungen zwischen den Sufi-Bruderschaften und ihren Gegnern seit Ende der 50er Jahre / Roman Loimeier. - Muenster [etc.] : Lit, 1993. - 307 p. : krt. Oorspr. proefschrift Universität Bayreuth, 1992. - Bibliogr.: p. 277-296. - Met bijl., gloss., index, noten, samenvatting in Engels. ISBN 3-89473-551-1

Les nouveaux oulémas et le renouveau islamique au Nord-Nigeria / Christian Coulon.
In: Le radicalisme islamique au sud du Sahara : da'wa, arabisation et critique de l'Occident / sous la dir. de René Otayek. - Paris [etc.] : Karthala [etc.]: (cop. 1993), p. 123-149.

Shiaism and the Islamic movement in Nigeria 1979-1991 / Muhammad Dahiru Sulaiman.
In: Islam et sociétés au Sud du Sahara: (1993), no. 7, p. 5-16 : tab.

British fears over Mahdism in northern Nigeria: a look at Bormi 1903, Satiru 1906 and Dumbulwa 1923 / Asmau G. Saeed.
In: Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blaetter: (1992), Nr. 4, p. 34-46 : krt.

Les mouvements religieux et le champ politique au Nigeria septentrional: le cas du réformisme musulman a Kano / Ousmane Kane.
In: Islam et sociétés au Sud du Sahara: (1990), no. 4, p. 7-24 : krt.

Revolutionary Mahdism and resistance to colonial rule in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1905-6 / by Paul E. Lovejoy and J.S. Hogendorn.
In: The Journal of African History: (1990), vol. 31, no. 2, p. 217-244 : krt.

La confrérie 'Tijaniyya Ibrahimiyya' de Kano et ses liens avec la zawiya mère de Kaolack / par Ousmane Kane.
In: Islam et sociétés au Sud du Sahara: (1989), no. 3, p. 27-40.

book cover Charisma and brotherhood in African IslamCharismatic authority and the creation of a new order : the case of the Mahdiyyat movement in south-western Nigeria / Peter B. Clarke.
In: Charisma and brotherhood in African Islam / ed. by Donal B. Cruise O'Brien and Christian Coulon. - Oxford : Clarendon Press: (1988), p. 157-182.

Islamic reform in contemporary Nigeria : methods and aims / Peter Clarke.
In: Third World Quarterly: (1988), vol. 10, no. 2, p. 519-538.

Islamic protest under semi-industrial capitalism : 'Yan Tatsine explained / Paul M. Lubeck.
In: Africa - Manchester: (1985), vol. 55, no. 4, p. 368-389.

Qadiriyyah and Tijaniyyah relations in Nigeria in the 20th century / Y.A. Quadri.yah and Tijaniyyah relations in Nigeria in the 20th century / Y.A.
In: Orita: (1984), vol. 16, no. 1, p. 15-30.

Between two religions of the Book : the Children of the Israelites (c. 1846 - c. 1920) / Ian Linden.
In: Varieties of Christian experience in Nigeria / ed. by Elizabeth Isichei: (1982), p. 79-98.

The children of the Israelites in Northern Nigeria : Islam and change in Nigeria, 1850-1918 / I. Linden.
In: Religion and change in African societies: (1979), p. 75-93.

Mahdist triumph and British revenge in Northern Nigeria : Satiru 1906 / R.A. Adeleye.
In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: (1972), vol. 6, no. 2, p. 193-214.

The Ahmadiyya movement in Nigeria / H.J. Fisher.
In: African Affairs, 1 / ed. by K. Kirkwood: (1961), p. 60-88.
 

Selected web resources

The ASC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites.

Nigeria Page
Selection of online resources related to Nigeria; maintained by Ali B. Dinar, African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania.
www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Country_Specific/Nigeria.html

Political Resources on the Net - Nigeria
Links to government, parties and organizations, media; edited by Roberto Cicciomessere.
www.politicalresources.net/nigeria.htm

Nigeria Law
"Everything about the laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria"; International Centre for Nigerian Law in association with The Chambers of E.C.M. Obata, Lagos
www.nigeria-law.org

Constitution
The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria  
www.nigeria-law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm

Islamisierung in Nigeria = Islamization in Nigeria
Bibliography of some 60 recent (2000-2004) titles on Islam in Nigeria, compiled by Anne Jansen and published in the series Dok-line Afrika, 1/2005 (Deutsches Übersee-Institut in Hamburg). The titles are extracted from the database of the ‘Specialized Information Network International Relations and Area Studies’(FIV-IBLK). Titles have German keywords and sometimes abstracts (in English or German).
http://www.giga-hamburg.de/de/system/files/iz_publications/dok-line_afrika_2005_1.pdf

Nigerian Muslims Network
The Nigerian Muslims Network (NMN) is an Internet-based discussion forum of Nigerian Muslims living in different parts of the world. The site contains information on various aspects of Islam in Nigeria, including sharia.
www.nmnonline.net

Sharia debates in Africa
This site contains the full text of “Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria 1999-2006: A Sourcebook”, published by Spectrum Books in 2007
http://www.sharia-in-africa.net/pages/publications/sharia-implementation-in-northern-nigeria.php

Human Rights in Nigeria
Links to actions, organizations, reports and articles, UN documents, news (Nigerian and international journals), government, politics and law; maintained by Derechos Human Rights
 www.derechos.org/human-rights/afr/nigeria/