Alcohol in Africa

Introduction | Selected titles: Wine - Beer - Alcoholic beverages | Selected (web) resources

Introduction

Production of handmade beer in Burkina Faso (Ye Shan, Wikimedia Commons) Africans have been making and imbibing alcoholic beverages from a wide array of fruits, grains and other natural substances for as far back as the historical record goes, and continue to do so: ranging from palm-wine in coastal West and East Africa, to banana beer in the Great Lakes region, to mead (tejj) in Ethiopia and maize/sorghum beer across Southern Africa. Fermented drinks have typically been a source of vital nutrients, but at the same time they have inscribed social hierarchies, based on a combination of political precedence, gender and generation. While alcoholic drinks have often been made by women, it is senior men who typically defined who could drink, how much and in what contexts. During the era of the slave trade, the importation of distilled alcohol (rum, but especially gin) further reinforced the linkage between distinction and access to alcohol, and also became integral to religious practice. At the same time, abstention from alcohol became an important marker of identity amongst Muslim reformers seeking to create an alternative conception of community. In the Senegambia, for example, conversion was typically signified by a renunciation of palm-wine.

If anything, the moral associations of alcohol have become more pronounced over the course of the twentieth century. The extension of colonial rule to the continent was partly justified in terms of a commitment to drive out the noxious trade in 'spiritous liquors' (the 1890 Brussels Convention). It is ironic, therefore, that colonial regimes, especially in British West Africa, came to depend heavily on the revenues derived from imports of Dutch gin and other distilled products made in Europe. In South Africa, profits from municipal beer-halls, selling a version of manufactured beer that mimicked what rural Africans drank, underwrote the costs of implementing segregation and later apartheid. However, Black South Africans were debarred from purchasing bottled beer, wine or spirits until 1962. Coloureds in the Cape, who provided a captive source of farm labour and the largest market for wine, were specifically exempted. In this way, alcohol became a marker of racial hierarchy, as it did in the settler colonies. With the growth of distilleries and breweries across Africa during the mid-twentieth century, the influx of private capital (often in the shape of European brewing interests like Heineken), state revenue imperatives and changing consumer preferences became more fully intertwined. Bottled beer became the marker of urban sociability, pushed on by increasingly sophisticated advertising imagery. After independence, governments (and states in federal Nigeria) invested in breweries - creating an exception to the rule that state enterprises generally ran at a loss. However, who wished to mark their elite status would tend to opt for particular imported whisky brands.

In the present, the debate about alcohol has assumed new forms. It has been claimed that some African countries like Uganda have excessively high levels of alcohol consumption. But this seems to reflect inconsistencies in the statistics rather than a significant problem. In general, African alcohol consumption per capita is low by international standards, although it might represent a considerable proportion of household income. With the prolific expansion of African cities, and the growth of a more affluent middle class, consumption patterns are also changing. This is reflected in the increased consumption of wine in the oil-producing states such as Angola, which now provides the largest market for Alentejo wines outside the European Union. Even in South Africa, blacks who have historically preferred bottled beer, have begun to alter their drinking patterns. This is generally in the direction of wine and spirits. However, the emerging pattern is partially offset by other factors. On the one hand, the push of South African Breweries (SAB) across the continent, accompanied by the global restructuring of the brewing industry, is leading to ever-more assertive attempts to defend the market for beer. On the other hand, the growth of the Pentecostal movement has seen a revival of the fortunes of temperance across Africa. More than ever, therefore, alcohol finds itself at the intersection of debates about money, morality, and consumption.

Paul Nugent
Centre of African Studies, Edinburgh

Selected titles

Selected monographs, articles, electronic documents and chapters from edited works on Alcohol in Africa from the library's online catalogue, published since 2000.

Wine

Marketing communication for organic wine : semiotic guidelines for wine bottle front labels / Elsie Magdalena van Tonder & Dalmé Mulder
In: Communicatio: (2015), vol.41, no.1, p.131-151 : fig.

A brief history of wine in South Africa / Stefan K. Estreicher
In: European Review: (2014), vol.22, no.3, p.504-537: foto's, graf., krt., tab.

Wine : Ethiopia
In: Africa research bulletin: (2014), vol.51, no.7, p.20503-20504.

Children of a bitter harvest : child labour in the Cape winelands / Susan Levine. - Cape Town : BestRed, 2013book cover 'Children of a bitter harvest'

Views on the empowerment of farm workers : a case study from the Stellenbosch wine industry in South Africa / Roeland Hemsteede. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2013

Wine : Morocco
In: Africa research bulletin: (2013), vol.51, no.6, p.20032.

A force for good?: markets, cellars and labour in the South African wine industry after apartheid / Joachim Winfried Ewert
In: Review of African Political Economy: (2012), vol. 39, no. 132, p. 225-242 : graf. , tab.

Die wynmakerfamilie van Zonnebloem, Simondium, 1915-1963 / Chris Venter
In: Historia: (2012), vol. 57, no. 2, p. 222-262 : ill. , foto's.

Who killed innovation in the Cape wine industry? : the story of a stuck fermentation, c1930-1986 / Paul Nugent
In: Transforming innovations in Africa : explorative studies on appropriation in African societies / ed.by Jan-Bart Gewald, André Leliveld, Iva Pea.- Leiden [etc.] : Brill: (2012), p.17-38 : krt., tab.

'n Ongelyke oes : die Franse Hugenote en die vroee Kaapse wynbedryf = An unequal harvest: the French Huguenots and early Cape wine-making / Johan Fourie & Dieter Von Fintel
In: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe: (2011), jg. 51, nr. 3, p. 332-353 : graf. , krt. , tab.

Impact of economic partnership agreements on livelihoods in Southern Africa : sugar, grapes, cotton / Rangarirai Machemedze & Ludwig Chizarura. - Stockholm : Africa Groups of Sweden, 2011

Ripe with abuse : human rights conditions in South Africa's fruit and wine industries / Kaitlin Cordes, Clive Baldwin & Sipho Mthathi. - New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2011Delheim Wine Farm, Stellenbosch (Vysotsky, Wikimedia Commons)

The temperance movement and wine farmers at the Cape : collective action, racial discourse, and legislative reform, c. 1890-1965 / Paul Nugent
In: The Journal of African History: (2011), vol. 52, no. 3, p. 341-363.

Lieux de vente de vin de palme et débats publics: une autre face de l'espace public à Kisangani / John Nkoko Lipambala
In: Africa Development: (2010), vol. 35, no. 3, p. 145-157.

How black farm workers become land and business owners: actors, resources, contexts and outcomes of black empowerment projects in the South African wine industry / Erwin Schweitzer
In: Stichproben: (2008), Jg. 8, Nr. 15, S. 31-53.

La viticulture dans la région d'Ain Témouchent: les conditions d'une tentative de résurgence / Zohra Bouziane-Bensafir
In: Insaniyat: (2008), année 12, no. 39/40, p. 105-121 : tab

Efficiency and farm size in Western Cape grape production : pooling small datasets / Beatrice Conradie, Graham Cookson & Colin Thirtle
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2006), vol. 74, no. 2, p. 334-343 : tab.

In search of profitability : wheat and wine production in the post-emancipation Western Cape / Wayne Dooling
In: South African Historical Journal: (2006), no. 55, p. 88-105 : tab.

The history of grapes, vineyards and wine in Ethiopia, prior to the Italian invasion / Richard PankhurstTractor and trailer in South Afrika (Bron: Lettkow, Wikimedia Commons)
In: Journal of Ethiopian Studies: (2006), vol. 39, no. 1/2, p. 35-54.

A deepening divide in the countryside: restructuring and rural livelihoods in the South African wine industry / Joachim Ewert & Andries Du Toit
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2005), vol. 31, no. 2, p. 315-332.

How competitive is South Africa? Advances and challenges in the transformation of the Cape wine industry / Joachim Ewert
In: Les cahiers d'outre-mer: (2005), vol. 58, no. 231/232, p. 371-396 : krt.

The concentration of trade in selected South African industries : two case studies / Antonie Pool
In: African Development Perspectives Yearbook: (2005/06), vol. 11, p. 411-437 : fig. , graf. , tab.

Vignes et vins du Kalahari: des raisins dans les turbulences de la mondialisation / David Blanchon
In: Les cahiers d'outre-mer: (2005), vol. 58, no. 231/232, p. 353-370 : graf. , krt. , tab.

Are prices sticky downwards? : the effect of trade liberalisation on South Africa's wine industry / S. Ssekabira Ntege & C. Harmse
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2003), vol. 71, no. 4, p. 729-761 : tab.

By violent means only? : a comparative analysis of South African agrarian labour relations, c. 1900-2003 / Luke Michael Radoux. - Ann Arbor, MI : UMI, 2003

Hendrik Cloete, Groot Constantia and the VOC 1778-1799 : documents from the Swellengrebel archive = Hendrik Cloete, Groot Constantia en die VOC 1778-1799 : dokumente uit de Swellengrebel-argief / G. J. Schutte, N. O. Van Gylswyk & D. Sleigh. - Vlaeberg : Van Riebeeck Society, 2003. - (Van Riebeeck Society ; Second series, no. 34)

Africa uncorked : travels in extreme wine territory / John and Erica Platter ; [forew. by Hugh Johnson]. - San Francisco : The Wine Appreciation Guild, 2002

Dossier vins / Christelle MarotDelheim Wine Farm, Stellenbosch (Vysotsky, Wikimedia Commons)
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2002), année 57, no. 2936, p. 372-383 : tab.

In the shadow of the vine : child labor in post apartheid South Africa / Susan Lauren Levine. - Ann Arbor, MI : UMI, 2002

Myths of globalization: private regulation and farm worker livelihoods on Western Cape farms / Andries Du Toit & Joachim Ewert
In: Transformation: (2002), no. 50, p. 77-104.

Le boire en pays igbo: le vin parle pour eux / Françoise Ugochukwu
In: Journal des africanistes: (2001), t. 71. fasc. 2, p. 33-47.

Grape production in Namibia / Namene Kalili. - Windhoek : Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit, 2000. - (NEPRU working papers, ISSN 1026-9258 ; no. 76)

Beer

book cover 'Heineken in Afrika'Africa's intoxicating beer markets / Brian J. Hesse
In: African Studies Review: (2015), vol.58, no.1, p.91-111.

Corporate social responsibility and tax avoidance in Sub-Saharan Africa : a case study of the beverage manufacturing sector / Rasmus Torpe Hansen. - [S.l. s.n.], 2015

Grand plans in glass bottles : the economic, social, and technological history of beer in Egypt 1880-1970 / Omar D. Foda. - Philadelphia : University Institutional Repository, 2015

Heineken in Afrika / Olivier van Beemen. - Amsterdam : Prometheus, 2015

The central beer hall as social and municipal infrastructure in twentieth century Pietermaritzburg / Debbie Whelan
In: Historia: (2015), vol. 60, no. 1, p. 75-91.

Articulating regional and ethnic dissent? : Bulawayo's politicians and their campaigns to legalise shebeens : 1980-2012 / Busani Mpofu
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2014), vol.40, no.3, p.479-498.

The politics of alcohol policy in Nigeria : a critical analysis of how and why brewers use strategic ambiguity to supplant policy initiatives / Emeka Wilfred Dumbili
In: Journal of Asian and African studies: (2014), vol.49, no.4, p.473-487.

Brewing security? : Heineken's engagement with commercial conflict-dependent actors in the Eastern DRC / Peer Schouten. - Stockholm : CCDA Project, 2013

Processing methods of 'oshikundu', a traditional beverage from sub-tribes within Aawambo culture in the Northern Namibia / Werner Embashu
In: Journal for studies in humanities and social sciences: (2013), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 117-127: fig. , krt. , tab.

Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development? : how partnerships include smallholders into Sorghum-beer supply chains / Jeroen van Wijk & Herma Kwakkenbos
In: Global value chains : linking local producers from developing countries to international markets / ed.by Meine Pieter van Dijk and Jacques Trienekens.- Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press: (2012), p.71-88 : tab.

Heineken in Sierra Leone : the local sourcing of Sorghum by the Sierra Leone Brewery Limited (SLBL) / Roos Apotheker. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2012

Making HIV programmes work : the Heineken workplace programme to prevent and treat HIV infection 2001-2010 / Stefaan van der Borght. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2011

The branded arena: Ugandan 'traditional' dance in the marketing era / David Pier
In: Africa / International African Institute: (2011), vol. 81, no. 3, p. 413-433 : tab.

Beer in Africa : drinking spaces, states and selves / Steven van Wolputte & Mattia Fumanti. - Münster : Lit Verlag, 2010. - (Afrikanische Studien ; 36)book cover 'Beer, sociability, and masculinity in South Africa'

Beer is the cattle of women : Sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda / Kelsey Needham Dancause, Helen A. Akol & Sandra J. Gray
In: Social Science & Medicine: (2010), vol.70, no.8 p.1123-130: graf., krt., tab.

Beer, sociability, and masculinity in South Africa / Anne Kelk Mager. - Bloomington, IN [etc.] : 2010. - (African systems of thought)

Brewing and consumptions practices of indigenous traditional beer in a typical South African semi-urban area / J. F. R. Lues
In: Indilinga: (2009), vol. 8, no. 2, p. 163-174 : tab.

Contradictions of community within local government in the 1950s with reference to municipal beer trading / Doreen Atkinson
In: New Contree: (2009), no. 57, p. 149-168.

Nigerian Breweries Plc : winning with Nigeria / FSDH Securities Limited. - Lagos : 2009. - (FSDH equity research report)

Complex negotiations in local governance : the municipal beer hall debate in East London, 1956 to 1962 / Doreen Atkinson
In: New Contree: (2008), no. 55, p. 93-113.

Sixty years of winning with Nigeria : the history of Nigerian breweries plc 1946 - 2006 / Yemi Ogunbiyi. - Ibadan : Bookcraft, 2007

FNV company report : Heineken Guiness Ghana Breweries Limited (GGBL) / Akua Britwum, Francis Enu-Kwesi, Angela Akorsu. - Cape Coast : Centre for Development Studies (CDS), 2006

Kapsiki beer dynamics / Walter E. A. Beekbook cover Wouter van Beek 'Thuis in Afrika, een dubbelleven'
In: Ressources vivrières et choix alimentaires dans le bassin du Tchad / éd.scientifiques Christine Raimond, Éric Garine, Olivier Langlois.- Paris : IRD: (cop.2005), p.477-499 : foto's.

Ressources vivrières et choix alimentaires dans le bassin du lac Tchad / Christine Raimond, Eric Garine & Olivier Langlois. - Paris : IRD, 2005. - (Colloques et séminaires, ISSN 0767-2896)

Xhosa beer drinking rituals : power, practice, and performance in the South African rural periphery / Patrick A. MacAllister. - Durham, NC : Carolina Academic Press, 2005

Boire avec esprit : bière de mil et société dogon / Éric Jolly. - Nanterre : Société d'ethnologie, 2004. - (Sociétés africaines, ISSN 0293-9118 ; 18)

Matière à politique : le pouvoir, les corps et les choses / Jean François Bayart, Jean Pierre Warnier & Nicolas Argenti / Fondation nationale des sciences politiques. Centre d'études et de recherches internationales. - Paris : Editions Karthala, 2004. - (Récherches internationales)

The way of the beer : ritual re-enactment of history among the Mafa : terrace farmers of the Mandara Mountains (North Cameroon) / Gerhard Müller-Kosack. - London : Mandaras, 2003

Brewers, woodfuel, and donors : an awkward silence as the fires blaze / Michael K. McCall
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.93-114 : tab

Countering municipal monopoly in Mamelodi : an economic struggle, 1953-1961 / Rendani Moses Ralinala
In: South African Historical Journal: (2002), no. 46, p. 203-218.

Dossier industries des boissons / Christelle Marot & Sabine Cessou
In: Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens: (2002), année 57, no. 2948, p. 1003-1012 : foto, tab.

For women and children : an economic history of brewing among the Nyakyusa of southwestern Tanzania / Justin Willis
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.55-73.

To drink or not to drink : beer brewing, rituals, and religious conversion in Maane, Burkina Faso / Sabine Luning
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.231-248.

Building the homestead : agriculture, labour and beer in South Africa's Transkei / Patrick MacAllister. - Leiden : African Studies Centre, 2001. - (Research series / African Studies Centre ; 16/2001)

De la bière de banane au soda en bouteille : religion et boisson chez les Rwa du Mont Meru (Tanzanie du Nord) / Catherine Baroin
In: Journal des africanistes: (2001), t. 71, fasc. 2, p. 77-94.

La préparation de bière de sorgho chez les Jóòhé (Burkina Faso): étude ethnolinguistique d'une technique / François Belliard
In: Journal des africanistes: (2001), t. 71, fasc. 2, p. 49-76 : ill. , tab.

Leere Speicher, erodierte Felder und das Bier der Frauen : Umweltanpassung und Krise bei den Ouldeme und Platha in den Mandarabergen Nord-Kameruns / Tobias Haller. - Berlin : Reimer, 2001. - (Studien zur Sozialanthropologie)

Alcoholic beverages

Corporate social responsibility and tax avoidance in Sub-Saharan Africa : a case study of the beverage manufacturing sector / Rasmus Torpe Hansen. - [S.l. s.n.], 2015

Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda / Martin Mbonye
In: African Journal of AIDS Research: (2014), vol.13, no.2, p.145-151.

Formalising urban informality : micro-enterprise and the regulation of liquor in Cape Town / Andrew Charman, Clare Herrick & Leif Petersen
In: Journal of Modern African Studies: (2014), vol. 52, no. 4, p. 623-646 : krt.

Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014 / World Health Organization. - Geneva : World Health Organization, 2014

Special Issue : alcohol, poverty and the South African city / Clare Herrick & Susan Parnell. - Johannesburg : The South African Geographical Society, 2014. - (The South African geographical journal, ISSN 2151-2418 ; vol. 96, no. 1)

Alcohol in early Southeastern Nigeria / Uche Uwaezuoke OkonkwoLadies Selling the fresh beer (oshikundu) (Greg Willis, Wikimedia Commons)
In: Lagos Historical Review: (2013), vol. 13, p. 71-84.

Processing methods of 'oshikundu', a traditional beverage from sub-tribes within Aawambo culture in the Northern Namibia / Werner Embashu
In: Journal for studies in humanities and social sciences: (2013), vol. 2, no. 1, p. 117-127: fig. , krt. , tab.

"More comfort, better prosperity, and greater advantage" : free burghers, alcohol retail and the VOC authorities at the Cape of Good of Hope, 1652-1680 / Gerald Groenewald
In: Historia: (2012), vol. 57, no. 1, p. 1-21.

Les alcools dans la littérature et la culture camerounaise / Louis Bertin Amougou
In: Intel'actuel: (2012), no. 11, p. 7-149.

Substance abuse by rural high school students: a case study of one high school in Mutasa district situated in rural Zimbabwe / Charles Dziro & Tendai Makaruse
In: Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research: (2012), vol. 24, no. 3, p. 244-264.

Alcohol marketing practices in Africa : findings from the Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda / Avalon de Bruijn. - Utrecht : Dutch Institute for Alcohol Policy (STAP), 2011book cover 'Alcohol marketing practices in Africa'

Alcohol under the context of the Atlantic slave trade: the case of Benguela and its hinterland (Angola) / José C. Curto
In: Cahiers d'études africaines: (2011), vol. 51, cah. 201, p. 51-85 : tab.

Dynasty building, family networks and social capital : alcohol 'pachters' and the development of a colonial elite at the Cape of Good Hope, c. 1760-1790 / Gerald Groenewald
In: New Contree: (2011), no. 62, p. 23-53 : ill. , tab.

In vino veritas: 'wine' and moonshine and the language of drinking and drunkenness in Debre Birhan / Abbebe Kifleyesus
In: Annales d'Éthiopie: (2011), vol. 26, p. 207-246.

The link between masculinity, alcohol, and HIV/AIDS in Malawi / Norwegian Church Aid Act Aliance;FORUT. - Zomba : Kachere Series, 2011. - (Kachere books ; 52)

Who belongs to the 'Star people'? : negotiating beer and gin advertisements in West Africa, 1949-75 / Dmitri Van den Bersselaar
In: The Journal of African History: (2011), vol. 52, no. 3, p. 385-408 : foto's.

The aräqe dilemma : the socioeconomics of traditional distilled alcohol production, marketing, and consumption in Ethiopia / Admassie Yeraswork & Amdework Ezana. - Addis Ababa : Forum for Social Studies (FSS), 2010. - (FSS monograph series ; no. 6)

The influence of local gin bitters advertisements on the consumption behaviour of Ghanaians / Eric Ofori-Kwakye
In: Legon Journal of Sociology: (2010), vol. 4, no. 1, p. 1-18 : fig. , tab.

"Kill me quick": a history of Nubian gin in Kibera / Johan De Smedt
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2009), vol. 42, no. 2, p. 201-220.

Alcool et nomination dans l'espace interculturel sénégalais / Papa Alioune Ndao
In: Annales de la Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines / Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar: (2009), no. 39A, p. 114-136 : tab.

Budget drinking: alcohol consumption in two Kenyan towns / Dorothy Mutisya & Justin Willisbook cover 'Alcohol: friend of foe?'
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2009), vol. 3, no. 1, p. 55-73 : tab.

Exploring the relationship between HIV and alcohol use in a remote Namibian mining community / Elizabeth Lightfoot, Maretha Maree & Janet Ananias
In: African Journal of AIDS Research: (2009), vol. 8, no. 3, p. 321-327 : tab.

Uncertain tastes : memory, ambivalence, and the politics of eating in Samburu, northern Kenya / Jon Holtzman. - Berkeley, CA [etc.] : University of California Press, 2009

'Clean spirit': distilling, modernity, and the Ugandan State, 1950-86 / Justin Willis
In: Journal of Eastern African Studies: (2007), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 79-92.

The king of drinks : schnapps gin from modernity to tradition / van den Dmitri. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2007. - (African social studies series, ISSN 1568-1203 ; vol. 18)

Fatwa on coke & all soft drinks / Mujlisul Ulama of South Africa. - New Delhi : Kutub Khana Ishayat-ul-Islam, 2006book cover 'Fatwa on coke"

"A bottle of gin is dangled before the nose of the natives" : the economic uses of imported liquor in southern Nigeria, 1860-1920 / Simon Heap
In: African Economic History: (2005), no. 33, p. 69-85 : ill. , tab.

Alcohol : friend or foe? : solving the alcoholism problem / Kwame Owusu-Ansah and Beatrice Owusu-Ansah. - Kumasi : Great Expectations Ministries [etc.]. cop. 2005

Enslaving spirits : the Portuguese-Brazilian alcohol trade at Luanda and its hinterland, c. 1550-1830 / José C. Curto. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2004. - (The Atlantic world, ISSN 1570-0542 ; vol. 2)

Alcohol and empire : "illicit" gin prohibition and control in colonial eastern Nigeria / Chima J. Korieh
In: African Economic History: (2003), no. 31, p. 111-134 : ill. , tab.

New generation drinking: the uncertain boundaries of criminal enterprise in modern Kenya / Justin Willis
In: African Affairs: (2003), vol. 102, no. 407, p. 241-260 : tab.

The case for an increased tax on alcohol in South Africa / Charles D. H. Parry, Bronwyn Myers & Michael Thiede
In: The South African Journal of Economics: (2003), vol. 71, no. 2, p. 265-281 : tab.

Alcohol in Africa : mixing business, pleasure, and politics / Deborah Fahy Bryceson. - Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann, 2002

Changing modalities of alcohol usage / Deborah Fahy Bryceson
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.23-52 : graf., tab.

Democracy's heady brew: cashew wine and the authority of the elders among the Balanta in Guinea-Bissau / Roy van der Drift
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.179-196.

Diluting drinks and deepening discontent : colonial liquor controls and public resistance in Windhoek, Namibia / Jan Bart Gewald
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.117-138.

Distribution, exploitation and valuation of non-timber forest products from a forest reserve in Sierra Leone / Aiah Randolph Lebbie. - Ann Arbor, MI : UMI Dissertation Services, 2002

Drinking mothers feeding children : market women and gender politics in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania / Tuulikki Pietilä
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.197-212.

Drinking with friends: popular culture, the working poor, and youth drinking in independent Ghana / Emmanuel Akyeampong
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.215-230.

Drinking, prestige, and power : alcohol and cultural hegemony in Maji, southern Ethiopia / Jon AbbinkBerz is the less-alcoholic version of tej ( Insta sm gram, Wikimedia Commons)
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.161-177.

Liquid gold of a lost kingdom : the rise of 'waragi' production in Kibaale District, Uganda / Nite Baza Tanzarn
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.75-91.

Living on the proceeds of a grog shop : liquor revenue in Nigeria / Simon Heap
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.139-159 : tab.

Looking through a glass of beer: alcohol in the cultural spaces of colonial Douala, 1910-1945 / Lynn Schler
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2002), vol. 35, no. 2/3, p. 315-334.

Modernity's limits: Pentecostalism and the moral rejection of alcohol in Malawi / Rijk van Dijk
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.249-264.

Pleasure and pain: the ambiguity of alcohol in Africa / Deborah Fahy Bryceson
In: Alcohol in Africa: mixing business, pleasure, and politics / ed.by Deborah Fahy Bryceson .- Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann: (cop.2002), p.267-291.

Potent brews : a social history of alcohol in East Africa 1850-1999 / Justin Willis / The British Institute in Eastern Africa. - Oxford [etc.] : Currey [etc.], 2002. - (Eastern African studies)

Boissons et civilisations en Afrique / Alain Huetz de Lemps. - Pessac : Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2001. - (Grappes & millésimes, ISSN 1242-5354)

The only money a woman can claim : a history of distilling in Bunyoro / Justin Willis
In: The Uganda Journal: (2000), vol. 46, p. 1-16.

Transport and liquor in colonial Nigeria / Simon Heap. - [S.l. s.n.], 2000

 

Selected (web) resources

Wine | Beer | Alcoholic beverages

Kenyan wine label (Source: http://www.kenyawines.com)Wine 

Fancy a cheeky Tanzanian red? Five African wines making a splash / Oliver Joy
In: CNN: 2014, January 09. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/

The wine industry in Africa. - CNBC Africa. (Invest Africa)
Youtube, published 2014, November 27

La vigne à la conquête de l'Afrique / Gaël Grilhot
In: RFI: 2013, October 22. Retreievd from http://www.rfi.fr/

Wine production in East Africa
In: Kenya Wines, 2013, September 17. Retrieved from http://www.kenyawines.com

South African Wine Industry Information & Systems (SAWIS)
SAWIS is the voice of the South African wine industry. It collects, processes, and disseminates information about the industry. The site provides an extensive amount of free information and statistics about wine. The annual South African Wine Industry Statistics booklet is available in pdf format.
http://www.sawis.co.za

wineanorak.com : Jamie Goode's online wine magazine
Includes a guide to South African wine and the quickguide to South Africa's wine regions.
http://www.wineanorak.com/

Beer

Heineken en Bavaria brouwen voor dorstig Ethiopië / Nieuwsuur, 31 januari 2015

De globalisatie van Heineken
This website presents a study of Heineken beer commercials. Within the study, the Heineken  commercials are placed in a context of globalization and its different aspects (in Dutch).
http://www.frw.rug.nl/persons/groote/cursus/global%20village/websites/0910/heineken/index.html; Africa & Middle East: www.frw.rug.nl/persons/groote/cursus/global%20village/websites/0910/heineken/afrika.html

Alcoholic beverages

Ill.: Total alcohol consumption per capita, WHO, 2010Africa’s drinking problem: alcoholism on the rise as beverage multinationals circle / Jessica Hatcher
In: Time: 2013, Augustus 09.  Retrieved from http://time.com/

Is Africa the drunk continent? How Time Magazine ignored the data / Kate Wilkinson
In: AfricaCheck: 2013, Augustus 29. Retrieved from https://africacheck.org/

Is Africa really a drunken continent? / Hannah Barnes
In: BBC Magazine: 2013, September 17. Retreived from http://www.bbc.com/

Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH)
The Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) is an essential tool for assessing and monitoring the health situation and trends related to alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, and policy responses in countries.
http://www.who.int/gho/alcohol/en/