African comic strips and cartoons

Cover Kata KataIn this web dossier, the ASCL Library highlights a relatively small and specific part of its collection: comic strips and cartoons. The average visitor to the ASCL Library might not automatically stumble upon items from this collection, in his or her quest for scientific information. However, the ASCL Library’s collection holds more than just scientific items: it also contains cultural expressions from the continent that often reflect cultural changes and shifts in mindset from the inside. In this respect, comic strips and especially cartoons, with their often political message, can be highly relevant.

The web dossier begins with a thematic introduction by drs. Ogo Ubabukoh, a Dutch-based publisher of the African cartoon magazine Kata Kata. The following overview includes all comic strips and cartoons as well as literature on these subjects available in the ASCL Library collection. There is also a section on the special category of animated cartoons. All titles include a link to the corresponding record in the library’s online catalogue, which provides further bibliographic details and abstracts, loan information, and links to the full text, where available. Finally, the web dossier offers links to a number of relevant web resources.

Introduction / Comic strips (about) / Comic strips (form) / Cartoons (about) / Cartoons (form) / Animated cartoons (about and form) / Web resources

Introduction

The relevance of comic strips and cartoons in Africa

A cartoon can be defined as an illustration or semi-realistic artistic style of drawing or image that captures a subject or topic, usually in a humorous way. A cartoonist is an artist, who creates cartoons. On the other hand, a comic strip is, on the whole, an array of drawings interdependently arranged and, often serialised in a comic book, magazine or newspaper, which display humour and narrative. Comic strips come with captions and balloons. While the word ‘cartoon’ was used in the Middle Ages, mainly as a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting, from the early twentieth century, it referred to comic strips and animated films.

Despite the semantic metamorphosis, both cartoons and comic strips play important roles in Africa, by effectively sensitising or criticising a topic or social reality through humour or satire. The popularity and relevance of cartoons and comic strips in Africa are influenced by the social-cum-political realities on the continent. Independence in Africa came with hopes and optimism amongst many Africans. Unfortunately, the pyramidal aspirations were shattered by the dictatorial rules of many African leaders, which consigned government accountability to the dustbin of history. The need for political or social criticism of the government and leaders became a necessity. Cartoons and comic strips have taken on this significant role in Africa. Thematic preoccupations and subjects like the war against corruption, individual struggle, war, poverty, better and safer Africa, battling evil and saving the day, childhood nostalgia, etc., feature prominently in many African comic strips. Political cartoons and comic strips have become the order of the day, especially in newspapers. Through subtle criticism or comment on socio-political issues, using humour, irony and satire, cartoons and comic strips appear, more often than not, less offensive. Employing satire, cartoonists criticise the corruption and political aggrandisement of leaders or comment on the social realities. Such cartoons call African leaders to account for their stewardship. The result is that many African cartoons and comic strips act as a societal watchdog, by holding their leaders responsible for their actions.

The presence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Africa, necessitates the need for their message to reach their target audience. Unlike written messages, which might be difficult for those lacking literacy skills to understand, gag cartoons are used to provoke laughter as well as get across important messages from the organisations and government. 

Furthermore, the internet in Africa has given rise to web comics and animated cartoons, which try to create a ‘real life’ effect. While the word animation can be used to refer to any style of illustrated images that gives an impression of movement, ‘cartoon’ - as in ‘cartoon animation’ - can be used to describe short films, aimed at children, most often featuring animals, transmitted on the television, cinema or computer screen. But the popularity of animation in Africa is not limited to children.

Many mobile networks are now investing heavily in animated cartoons, which they offer to their subscribers as a value-added service. These mostly humorous animations are forwarded to the mobile phones of network customers, who subscribe to them. Today, animated cartoons have become a multi-million-dollar source of revenue for mobile network providers in Africa.

The hope is that the many talented African cartoonists will soon share in this wealth and reap the fruits of their labour.

Drs. Ogo Ubabukoh
Publisher, Kata Kata African Cartoons

Comic strips (about)

Graphic novel histories : women's organized resistance to slum clearance in Crossroads, South Africa, 1975-2015/ Koni BensonCover Histoire de la bande dessinee
In: African Studies Review: (2016), vol.59, no.1, p.199-214 : ill.

Dictionnaire de la bande dessinée d'Afrique francophone/ Jason Kibiswa / Christophe Cassiau-Haurie (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (Africultures, ISSN 1276-2458 ; 94-95)

Cinquante années de bandes dessinées en Afrique francophone / Christophe Cassiau-Haurie & Christophe Meunier (ed.). - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010

Histoire de la bande dessinée congolaise : Congo belge, Zaire, République démocratique du Congo/ Christophe Cassiau-Haurie. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010

Not Western: race, reading, and the South African photocomic / Lily Saint
In: Journal of Southern African Studies: (2010), vol. 36, no. 4, p. 939-958 : foto's.

Cartooning in Africa / John A. Lent (ed.). - Cresskill, NJ [etc.] : Hampton [etc.], 2009. - (The Hampton Press communication series, Comic art)

Bande dessinée franco-belge et imaginaire colonial : des années 1930 aux années 1980/ Philippe Delisle. - Paris : Karthala, 2008

Mocking the State: comic strips in the Zimbabwean press/ Wendy Willems
In: Dilemmas of development : conflicts of interest and their resolutions in modernizing Africa / Jon Abbink & André van Dokkum (eds.).- Leiden : African Studies Centre: (cop.2008), p.151-163 : ill.

Picha : Afrikaanse striptentoonstelling 26 april t/m 31 augustus 2008/ Joost Pollmann / Afrika Museum;Nationale Commissie voor Internationale Samenwerking en Duurzame Ontwikkeling (NCDO). - Berg en Dal : Afrika Museum, 2008

Représentations et fonctions de la bande dessinée à Madagascar / Nathalie Ravelontsalama
In: Études océan Indien: (2008), no. 40/41, p. 257-268 : ill.

Bitterkomix : a South African comic as an indigenous ethnography/ Anne Line Hannesen. - Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang, 2007. - (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 19, Volkskunde, Ethnologie, Abt. B, Ethnologie, ISSN 0721-3549 ; 70)

Madagascar / Dominique Ranaivoson
In: Études littéraires africaines: (2007), no. 23, p. 4-54.

Popular media for HIV/AIDS prevention? : comparing two comics: 'Kingo' and the 'Sara' Communication Initiative / Rose Marie BeckCover Cartooning in Africa
In: The Journal of Modern African Studies: (2006), vol. 44, no. 4, p. 513-541 : ill. , foto.

Kibiriti ngoma: gender relations in Swahili comics and Taarab-music / Jigal Beez & Stefanie Kolbusa
In: Stichproben: (2003), Jg. 3, Nr. 5, p. [49]-71 : ill.

Africa comics [2002] : antologia delle migliori storie a fumetti del Premio Africa e Mediterraneo : riflessioni sui diritti umani, storie e cronache / Sandra Federici & Reggiani Marchesini (ed.). - Sasso Marconi : Edizioni Lai-momo [etc.], 2002

Papa Mfumu'eto 1er, peintre/ Célestin Badibanga & Stéphanie Suffren. - [Montreuil] : Éditions de l'il, 2002. - (Les carnets de la création, ISSN 1628-5778)

La bande dessinée/ Barly Baruti. - Paris : Adpf Association, 2001. - (Notre librairie, ISSN 0755-3854 ; no. 145)

Developmental pleasures, education, entertainment, and popular literacy in South Africa/ Loren Kruger
In: African visions : literary images, political change, and social struggle in contemporary Africa / ed.by Cheryl B.Mwaria, Silvia Federici, and Joseph McLaren.- Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press: (cop.2000), p.209-217.

Comic in Swahili or Swahili comic? / Rose Marie Beck
In: Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere: (1999), No. 60, p. 67-101 : ill.

Terug naar Ouagadougou : over Afrika in de strip/ Joost Pollmann. - [S.l.] : Stichting Beeldverhaal Nederland, 1998

Afrika/ Daniel De Bruycker, Maximilien Dauber, Pieter van Oudheusden, Jean Claude Berrier & Hergé. - [Doornik ; Dronten] : Casterman, 1994. - (De reisnotities van Kuifje)

Zelie noord-zuid/ Cosey & Valott. - Brussel : Le Lombard, 1994. - (Getekend)

Deep cuts : graphic adaptations of stories/ Can Themba, Alex La Guma, Bessie Head & Peter Thuynsma. - Cape Town [etc.] : Maskew Miller Longman, 1993. - (Graphic literature from Africa)

Ekanya junior on fire / World Learning, Kampala. - Kampala : World Learning, 1993

Responsible citizenship : building democracy : a pictorial dialogue/ Wahome Mutahi & Frank Odoi. - Nairobi : Views Media, 1993

Le bossu/ Jean Hubert Bazié, Nur El-Dine & Amadou S. Yao. - Ouagadougou : L'Intrus, 1992

Dangerous love/ Andrew Zankanani / I.P.P.F., London. - Harare : Baobab Books, 1990

Reading Zimbabwean comic strips / T. O. MacLoughlin
In: Research in African Literatures: (1989), vol. 20, no. 2, p. 217-241 : ill. , fig.

Kuifje in Afrika/ Hergé. - [Doornik] : Casterman, 1984. - (De avonturen van Kuifje)

Chaka : le fils du ciel/ Ibrahima Baba Kaké, Alpha Waly Diallo & Thomas Mofolo. - [Yaoundé] : Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines etc., 1983

Comic strips (form)

Chaos debout à Kinshasa/ Barly Baruti & Thierry Bellefroid. - Grenoble : Glénat, 2016Cover chaos debout a Kinshasa

Lamsari et le trésor des Oudayas/ Malika Dahi & Jean François Chanson. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2015. - (Harmattan BD ; 24)

Mental health matters : recognising and responding to mental health needs in Namibia/ Perri Caplan & Tafy Tang Arts. - Windhoek : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre [etc.], 2015

Tempête sur Bangui : première partie/ Didier Kassai / Amnesty international. - Paris : La boîte à bulles [etc], 2015. - (Hors champ)

The song of Lionogo : an Indian Ocean mythological remix/ Jiba Molei Anderson / Griot Enterprises. - Chicago, Ill : Griot Enterprises, 2015

Une jeunesse kabyle/ au bled Blonde. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2015. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 25)

Union contre Ebola/ Malick Bah & Mory Diané. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015

Votons dans le calme/ Malick Bah & Mory Diané. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2015

Kwaw Ansah's legendary Love brewed in the African pot/ Kwaw Ansah & Peter Poka Asamoah / Maame Adwoa Opoku-Agyemang (ed.). - [London : Film Africa Limited [etc.], 2014

L'Afrique en partage/ Jason Kibiswa, Al'Mata, Odia, Hector Sonon & T. T. Fons / Christophe Cassiau-Haurie (ed.). - Paris [etc.] : Éditions Dapper [etc.], 2014

L'odyssée de Mongou/ Didier Kassai, Pierre Sammy Mackfoy & Vincent Carrière. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014. - (Harmattan BD ; 21)

La fille volée/ Franco Clerc. - [Paris] : l'Harmattan, 2014. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 20)

La terreur en Centrafrique/ Didier Kassai. - Paris : LRD SAS, 2014

Le croqueur croqué/ Jeff Ikapi. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014. - (Collection l'Harmattan BD ; 22)

Madame Livingstone : Congo, la Grande Guerre/ Christophe Cassiau-Haurie & Barly Baruti. - Grenoble : Glénat, 2014

Moto-taxi à bécane au Bénin/ Hodall Béo. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014. - (Harmattan BD ; 17)

Paris vaille que vaille/ Koffi Roger N'Guessan. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2014. - (Harmattan BD ; 23)

Yékini, le roi des arènes/ Lisa Lugrin & Clément Xavier. - Poitiers : Éd. FLBLB, 2014

John Koutoukou : Abidjan est gâtée!/ Benjamin Kouadio. - Abidjan : Éditions Éburnie, 2013

John Koutoukou : le sida tue, et alors?/ Benjamin Kouadio. - Abidjan : Éditions Éburnie, 2013

John Koutoukou : quittons dans ça/ Benjamin Kouadio. - Abidjan : Éditions Éburnie, 2013

June 12 : 1993: annulment/ Abraham Oshoko. - Lagos : Farafina, 2013

Laff Lafrikain/ Moss. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (Harmattan BD ; 18)

Le turban et la capote/ Nassur Attoumani & Luke Razaka. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 15)

Sommets d'Afrique/ Christophe Cassiau-Haurie & Anani Accoh. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 14)

Tagant : la forêt des mystères/ Omar Ennaciri. - [Paris?] : Le éditions Alberti, 2013

Tana blues/ Ndrematoa. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2013. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 13)

Uhuru : legend of the windriders/ Adeniran Adeniji, Adeniyi Adeniji & Stanley Obende. - [S.l.] : Comic Bandit Press, 2013Cover Paris vaille que vaille

*1*Lola/ Kash. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (Jungle urbaine
L'Harmattan BD)

Abina and the important men : a graphic history/ Trevor R. Getz & Liz Clarke. - New York [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2012

Cargaison mortelle à Abidjan/ Japhet Miagotar. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (L'Harmattan BD)

Chroniques de Brazzaville/ Jussie Nsana, KHP & Lionnel Boussi. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (L'Harmattan BD)

Jungle urbaine/ Kash. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2012

Les envahisseurs/ Benjamin Kouadio. - [Paris] : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 12)

Mokanda illusion : Mata Mata et Pili Pili/ Francis Mongo Sisé. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (L'Harmattan BD)

Un guerrier dendi/ Sani. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2012. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 11)

Afrique citoyenne : bande dessinée pour la jeunesse africaine/ Malang Sene. - Dakar : Fondation Konrad Adenauer (FKA) [etc.], 2011

Vive la corruption/ Didier Viodé. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2011. - (L'Harmattan BD ; 5)

Alternatives to corporal punishment/ Anne Joyce, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

Alternatives to corporal punishment : comic 2/ Anne Joyce, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

Championzé : une histoire de Battling Siki, champion du monde de boxe, 1922/ Aurélien Ducoudray & Eddy Vaccaro. - [S.l.] : Futuropolis, 2010

Heart of darkness/ David Zane Mairowitz, Catherine Anyango & Joseph Conrad. - London : 2010

How to claim child maintenance/ Rachel Coomer, Dianne Hubbard & Jo Rogge. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

How to get a protection order/ Maureen Quigley, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

Le retour au pays d'Alphonse Madiba dit Daudet/ Al'Mata & Christophe Ngalle Edimo. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (Harmattan BD ; 1)

Les diamants de Kamituga/ Seraphin Kajibwami. - Paris : Editions AAD, 2010

Rape, should you withdraw a rape case?/ Anne Joyce, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

Visions d'Afrique : trois textes sur l'Afrique re-visités par des auteurs du continent/ Umar Timol. - Paris : L'Harmattan, 2010. - (L'Harmattan BD)

What are your options when you find out that you are pregnant and you do not want the baby/ Rachel Coomer, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

What to do if someone stops to pay maintenance/ Rachel Coomer, Dudley Viall & Perri Caplan. - [Windhoek] : Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre, 2010

Barack Obama : the sun of hope : the dream/ Theopeters Ebonugwu, Femi Arowolo, Folashade Oni, ' B. Liadi & Victor Nweke. - Ikeja-Lagos : Literamed Publications, 2009. - (The Barack Obama story ; 3
Cowrie comics, Human series)

Barack Obama : the sun of solidarity : the process/ Theopeters Ebonugwu, Femi Arowolo, Folashade Oni, ' B. Liadi & Victor Nweke. - Ikeja-Lagos : Literamed Publications, 2009. - (The Barack Obama story ; 4
Cowrie comics, Human series)

Barack Obama : beyond the risen sun : the cradle/ Theopeters Ebonugwu, Femi Arowolo, Folashade Oni, ' B. Liadi & Victor Nweke. - Ikeja-Lagos : Literamed Publications, 2008. - (The Barack Obama story ; 2
Cowrie comics, Human series)

Barack Obama : the rising sun : the roots/ Theopeters Ebonugwu, Femi Arowolo, Folashade Oni, ' B. Liadi & Victor Nweke. - Ikeja-Lagos : Literamed Publications, 2008. - (The Barack Obama story ; 1
Cowrie comics, Human series)

Dipoula : Mbolo/ Sti & Pahé. - [Genève] : Paquet, 2008. - (Dipoula)

Nelson Mandela : the authorised comic book / Nelson Mandela Foundation;Umlando Wezithombe. - Johannesburg [etc.] : Jonathan Ball, 2008

Paname/ Pahé. - [Genève] : Paquet, 2008. - (La vie de Pahé ; 2)

Rwanda 1994 ; 2: le camp de la vie/ Pat Masioni, Cécile Grenier & Ralph. - [S.l.] : Vent des savanes, 2008Cover Visions d'Afrique

Testifying before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda/ Bocar Sy & Jennifer Odallo / United Nations, Arusha, Tanzania. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR);Nations Unies, Arusha, Tanzania. Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda (TPIR). - Arusha : International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, ICTR = Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda, TPIR, 2008

Vies volées/ Alix Fuilu, Didier Kassai & Alain Kojelé. - Tourcoing : Afro-Bulles, 2008

Are your rights respected? / The Gay and Lesbian Archives (GALA), Braamfontein. - Braamfontein : GALA, 2006

Bitam/ Pahé. - [Genève] : Paquet, 2006. - (La vie de Pahé ; 1)

Country Boy. - Greenside : Khaba Design, 2006. - (Khaba ; 1)

Job Maseko : unarmed but dangerous/ Nic Buchanan & Raymond Whitcher. - [S.l.] : Umlando Wezithombe, 2006. - (Africa illustrated)

June 12 : the struggle for power in Nigeria/ Abraham Oshoko. - Lagos : Farafina, 2006

Kingdom of gold : the curse of Mapungubwe/ Sian Tiley-Nel, Nic Buchanan & Sivuyile Matwa. - [S.l.] : Umlando Wezithombe Publishing, 2006. - (Africa illustrated)

La vie de Pahé/ Pahé. - [Genève] : Paquet, 2006

President in waiting/ Santa Buchanan, Sahm Venter, Pitshou Mampa & Pascal Nzoni. - [S.l.] : Umlando Wezithombe Publishing, 2006. - (The Madiba legacy series ; 7)

The prophecy of the cattle killing : Nongqawuse/ Nic Buchanan. - [S.l.] : Umlando Wezithombe Publishing, 2006. - (Africa illustrated)

A son of the Eastern Cape/ Pitshou Mampa & Sivuyile Matwa. - [S.l.] : Umlando Wezithombe Publishing, 2005. - (The Madiba legacy series ; [1])

Aya de Yopougon ; vol 1-6/ Marguerite Abouet & Clément Oubrerie. - Paris : Gallimard, 2005

Rwanda 1994/ Pat Masioni, Cécile Grenier & Ralph. - Paris : Albin Michel, 2005

Rwanda 1994 ; 1: descente en enfer/ Pat Masioni, Cécile Grenier & Ralph. - Paris : Albin Michel, 2005

Soundjata : la bataille de Kirina/ Biyong Djehouty. - [Paris] : Menaibuc, 2004

Sundiata : a legend of Africa/ Will Eisner. - New York : NBM, 2003

Africa comics [2002] : antologia delle migliori storie a fumetti del Premio Africa e Mediterraneo : riflessioni sui diritti umani, storie e cronache / Sandra Federici & Reggiani Marchesini (ed.). - Sasso Marconi : Edizioni Lai-momo [etc.], 2002

International maid of mystery/ Stephen Francis, Harry Dugmore & Rico. - Cape Town [etc.] : David Phillips Publishers in association with Rapid Phase, 1999

The best of Bitterkomix. - Stellenbosch

Sluipend gif : muzungu/ Jeroen Janssen. - Hasselt : Wonderland Half Vier Productions, 1997

Bitterkomix. - Stellenbosch

Prisoners of the gods : part one/ Kwabena Kusi Appouh. - Kumasi : Kusi-Appouh Productions, 1992

Mère Marie Madeleine de la Croix : fondatrice des Filles de Marie à l'île de la Réunion : 1810-1889/ Marc Blanchet. - Saint-Denis : Maison généralice des Filles de Marie, 1988

Magic of the rainmaker. - Nairobi : Kenway, 1985. - (Pichadithi series ; 18)

Omganda's treasure. - Nairobi : Kenway, 1985. - (Pichadithi series ; 14)

Woman of the lake. - Nairobi : Kenway, 1985. - (Pichadithi series ; 13)

Terror in Ngachi village/ Anne Costrage. - Nairobi : Kenway, 1984. - (Pichadithi series ; 10)

Power to the people! : South Africa in struggle : a pictorial history/ Peder Gouwenius. - London : Zed Press, 1981. - (Africa Series)

Il était une fois... : Félix Houphouet-Boigny/ J. M. Ruffieux / Fondation Houphouet-Boigny;Afrique Biblio-Club. - [Paris] : ABC, 1978

Joe : Africa's entertainment monthly. - Nairobi

Atóka. - Lagos

Cartoons (about)

Chronique dessinée pour le petit peuple / Idi Nouhou. - [Lussas] : DocNet, 2015. - 1 DVD simple face vidéo monoface double couche toutes zones (52 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Afrique en docs, Lumière d'Afrique, ISSN 2103-6004 ; 04)

Political representation of China-Africa : the tale of a playful panda, or a threatening dragon?/ Lina Benabdallah
In: Africa Review: (2015), vol.7, no.1, p.28-41 : tab.

'Raid at Abbottabad' : editorial cartoons and the 'terrorist almighty' in the Kenyan press/ Duncan Mainye Omanga Cover What's so funny
In: Journal of African Cultural Studies: (2014), vol.26, no.1, p.15-32 : ill.

From saint to devil : the visual transformations of Kwame Nkrumah in 'Accra Evening News' cartoons / Baba G. Jallow
In: Stichproben: (2014), Jg. 13, Nr. 27, S. 79-103 : ill.

Football and the representation of history : the Senegalese 2002 "success story" in football cartoons and advertisements/ Susann Baller
In: Global perspectives on football in Africa : visualising the game / ed.by Susann Baller, Giorgio Miescher and Ciraj Rassool.- London [etc.] : Routledge, 2013: (2013), p.171-188 : ill.

Les printemps arabes croqués par le dessinateur de presse Godfrey Mwampembwa (dit Gado) : s'ils peuvent le faire, pourquoi pas nous?' / Alexander A. Panov
In: Afrique contemporaine: (2013), no. 245, p. 37-51 : ill.

What makes Africans laugh? : reflections of an entrepreneur in humour, media and culture/ James R. Tumusiime. - Kampala : Fountain Publishers, 2013

'House of believers' : irony and commensurability in Tanganyikan colonial discourse / R. Ronnenberg
In: African Identities: (2012), vol. 10, no. 1, p. 33-54 : ill.

Moulding and shaping space : editorial cartoons, terrorism and Islamic space in Kenya/ Duncan Omanga
In: Trends, discourses and representations in religions in Africa / [ed.of this vol.Meron Zeleke ...].- Bayreuth : Institut für Afrikastudien, 2012: (2012), p.17-38 : ill.

No small irony: a discourse analysis of Zapiro's 2010 World Cup cartoons / Marthinus Conradie, Susan Brokensha & Marilize Pretorius
In: Language Matters: (2012), vol. 43, no. 1, p. 39-59 : ill. , tab.

Zimbabwean diaspora politics and the power of laughter: humour as a tool for political communication, criticism and protest / Jenny Kuhlmann
In: Journal of African Media Studies: (2012), vol. 4, no. 3, p. 295-314 : ill. .

So, what is terrorism? : how editorial cartoons framed the Nairobi embassy terror attacks/ Omanga Duncan Mainye
In: Africa Media Review: (2011), vol.19, no.1/2, p.1-26 : ill., fig.

Chiefs, traitors, and representatives : the construction of a political repertoire in independence-era Cameroun / Meredith Terretta
In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies: (2010), vol. 43, no. 2, p. 227-253 : ill.

La culture politique nationaliste malgache à travers les dessins politiques des années 1940 et 1950 / Denis Alexandre Lahiniriko
In: Études océan Indien: (2010), no. 44, p. 121-150 : ill.

What's so funny? : under the skin of South African cartooning/ Andy Mason. - Claremont : Double Storey, 2010

Politieke cartoons in de Zuid-Afrikaanse dag- en weekbladpers (1994-2002) : een kwalitatieve analyse/ Jeroen Van Coppenolle. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2002

Cartoons (form)

It's code red! : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times and The Times/ Zapiro & Mike Wills. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media; in association with Zaprock Productions, 2014 Cover it's code red

My big fat Gupta wedding : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times and The Times/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana, 2013

SocioBiz 2 : chroniques encore plus irrévérencieuses !/ Nafissatou Dia Diouf & Samba Ndar Cissé. - [Dakar] : TML Éditions, 2013

Vuvuzelanation : Zapiro on SA sport, 1995-2013/ Zapiro & Mike Wills. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media; in association with Zaprock Productions, 2013

Crisis...? What crisis?! : a collection of Gado's editorial cartoons, published in the Daily Nation, the Sunday Nation and the EastAfrican from 2005 to 2011/ Gado. - Nairobi : Buni Media, 2012

It's a madd, madd world! : the hot years 2007-2011/ Paul Kelemba. - Nairobi : Buni Media, 2012

Kata Kata cartoon magazine = ISSN 2214-059X. - Almere

Willis from Tunis : chroniques de la révolution/ Nadia Khiari. - Paris : La Découverte, 2012. - (Zones)

Zapiro : but will it stand up in court? : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times and The Times/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2012

Keeping a sharp eye : a century of cartoons on South Africa's international relations, 1910-2010/ Peter C. J. Vale. - Johannesburg : Otterley, 2011

Le nouveau type de sénégalaiseries/ Ibou Fall. - Dakar : Forte Impression, 2011. - (Sénégalaiseries et autres complications pour se simplifier la vie ; 5)

The emperor's new clods : political cartoons from Zimbabwe/ Tony Namate. - [Harare] : Lion Press in collaboration with the New Zimbabwe Media Ltd., 2011

The last sushi : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times and The Times/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media in association with Zaprock Productions, 2011

Do you know who I am? : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times and The Times/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana, 2010

SocioBiz : (chroniques impertinentes sur l'économie et l'entreprise!)/ Nafissatou Dia Diouf & Samba Ndar Cissé. - [Dakar] : TML Éditions, 2010

Don't mess with the president's head/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana, 2009

Gathara will draw for food/ Patrick Gathara. - Nairobi : P. Gathara, 2009

Pirates of Polokwane : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times, and independent newspapers/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2008

Take two veg and call me in the morning : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times, and independent newspapers/ Zapiro. - Auckland Park : Jacana Media, 2007

Varia Zimbabweana : notities over ervaringen aan de basis in Bulawayo en Harare over de periode juli-september 2007 uit de agenda van/ Frans J. Verstraelen. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2007 Cover crisis what crisis

Da Zuma code : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times, and independent newspapers/ Zapiro. - Cape Town : Double Storey, 2006

Les messages du pagne/ Béatrice Lalinon Gbado, Hervé Alladaye & Alexandre Gbado. - Cotonou : Ruisseaux d'Afrique, 2006

Is there a spin doctor in the house? : cartoons from Mail & Guardian, Sunday Times, Sowetan and independent newspapers/ Zapiro. - Cape Town [etc.] : Double Storey, 2005

The end of an error and the beginning of a new one!/ Godfrey Mwampembwa. - Nairobi : Sasa Sema Publications, 2005

Long walk to free time/ Zapiro. - Cape Town [etc.] : Double Storey [etc.], 2004

Over the rainbow : the first 10 years of South Africa's democracy in cartoons/ Stidy. - [Pietermaritzburg : Witness], 2004

Dr Do-Little and the African potato : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Lannsdowne : Double Storey, 2003

Bushwacked : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Cape Town : Double Storey, 2002

The ANC went in 4X4 : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Cape Town [etc.] : David Philip Publ., 2001

Democrazy!/ Gado. - Nairobi : Sasa Sema Publications, 2000

The devil made me do it : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian, and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Cape Town (etc.) : David Philip Publ., 2000

Call Mr. Delivery : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian, and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Claremont : David Philip Publishers, 1999

Mandela : a life in cartoons / Harry Dugmore, Stephen Francis, & Rico Schacherl (ed.). - Claremont [etc.] : David Philip [etc.], 1999

End of part one : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian and Sunday Times/ Zapiro. - Cape Town : David Philip Publishers, 1998

It's a jungle out there/ S. Francis, H. Dugmore & Rico. - Cape Town [etc.] : David Philip Publ., 1998

The hole truth : cartoons from Sowetan, Mail & Guardian, and Cape Argus/ Zapiro. - Claremont : David Philip, 1997

The Madiba years : cartoons from Sowetan and the Mail & Guardian/ Zapiro & Pieter Dirk Uys. - Claremont : David Philip Publishers, 1996

Don't quote me, but ... : a lighthearted look at our political "heroes" / Alistair Brown & Patsy White (ed.). - Cape Town : Struik Publishers, 1994

Selection of anti-apartheid cartoons from around the world / United Nations Centre against Apartheid. - New York : United Nations Centre against Apartheid, 1989

Xiconhoca o inimigo. - Maputo

I like it here : a new collection of cartoons/ David Marais. - Cape Town : Jan Botha Publishers (Pty) Limited, 1964

Out of this world : a new collection of cartoons/ David Marais. - Cape Town : Books of Africa (Pty) Ltd, 1963

I got a licence : a new collection of cartoons/ David Marais. - Cape Town : Books of Africa (Pty.) Ltd, 1962

"Hey! Van der Merwe" : a new collection of cartoons/ David Marais. - Cape Town : Jan Botha Publishers, 1961

Europeans only : a collection of cartoons/ David Marais. - Cape Town : Jan Botha Publishers, 1960

Le cimetière libre du Congo = The Congo free graveyard. - Paris : L'Assiette au Beurre, 1908. - (L'assiette au beurre ; no. 376)

Animated cartoons (about and form)

Images & animation : le cinéma d'animation en Afrique centrale : introduction au cinéma d'animation en République Démocratique du Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi/ Guido Convents. - Kessel Lo : Afrika Filmfestival, 2014 Poster The killing of the imam

Moomin/Mmin/Moemin : apartheid-era dubbing and Japanese animation/ Cobus Van Staden
In: Critical Arts: (2014), vol.28, no.1, p.1-18.

6ème Rencontres Film Court de Madagascar / Ranto Ramilijaonina, Christian Andretseheno, Lova Nantenaina Randriambololonirina, Mamy Telina Randriamahaly, Linda Volahasiniaina, Ambinintsoa Luck Razanajao, & Manohiray Randriamananjo. - [S.l.] : Association Rencontres du Film Court [etc.], 2011. - 2 dvd-video ( 285 min.). : kleur, gel.

Go South Africa! / Robbert Jan Vos & Renske Mijnheer. - [S.l.] : Sir Moving Images, 2010. - 1 dvd-video (2 min.). : kleur, gel.

The killing of the Imam / Khalid Shamis. - [S.l.] : Tuba Films, 2010. - 1 dvd-video (10 min.). : kleur, gel..

Mune : the animation / Jesca Marisa & Saskia Schiel. - [S.l.] : South African School of Motion Picture Medium & Live Performance, 2009. - 1 dvd-video (10 min.). : kleur, gel.

Tengers / Michael J. Rix. - [S.l.] : Mirror Mountain Publishers, 2007. - 1 dvd-video (68 min.). : kleur, gel.

Tree of spirits / Cilia Sawadogo & Deron Albright. - [S.l. : s.n.], 2005. - 1 dvd-video (61 min.). : kleur, gel.

Prince Loseno / K. W. Kibushi. - [S.l.] : Le Studio Malembe Maa, 2004. - 1 dvd-video (29 min.). : kleur, gel.

Tire-langue : une confidence de Louise : Gabon, 1990 / Caroline Emery-Desplechin & Stephan Bauer. - [S.l.] : Le Groupe de recherches et d'essais cinématographique, 2003. - 1 dvd-video (7 min.). : kleur, geluid.

Impressions d'Afriques. - Montreuil : Éditions de l'oeil, 2001. - 6 vol. (6 dvd-videos). : kleur, zw/w, gel.

Kokoa / Moustapha Alassane. - Montreuil : Éditions de l'oeil, 2001. - 1 dvd-video (13 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Impressions d'Afriques. [6]: Contes animales ; [4])

L'Enfant et le Caiman / Moustapha Dao. - Montreuil : Éditions de l'oeil, 2001. - 1 dvd-video (17 min.). : kleur, gel. - (Impressions d'Afriques. [6]: Contes animales ; [2])

Le bûcheron de Zietrou / Sorhoutès Vincent Glès. - [S.l.] : Productions du Griot [etc.], 2001. - 1 dvd-video (12 min.). : kleur, gel.

Train train Medina / Mouhamadou Ndoye. - [S.l.] : Atélier graphoui, 2001. - 1 dvd-video (7 min.). : kleur, gel.

Umwana ari amo! = What a child! = Quel enfant! / Aline Moens, Benjamin Ntabundi, Christian Coppin, & Eric Dederen. - Bruxelles [etc.] : Atelier Graphoul [etc.], 1993. - 1 dvd-video (11 min.). : kleur, gel.

Web resources

AfriBD
AfriBD is a project linked to the French Africultures organization, working together with three African partners. Its online portal aims to promote African Francophone comic artists and their work. It contains bibliographical data and works of artists and practical information on comic book publishing in Francophone Africa.
http://www.afribd.com/index.php

AfricaBulles
AfricaBulles is a Francophone blog kept by an amateur cartoonist on which you can find articles about African comic strips, new releases, interviews with African comic artists and more.
http://africabulles.com/

Africa cartoons
This website was set up as an educational encyclopedia of African political cartooning and cartoonists. It has entries on cartoonists from all African countries and shows samples of their works. Furthermore, there are links to online sources on cartooning in Africa in general, and on individual cartoonists.
http://africacartoons.com/

Africa Comics
This online database contains most of the drawings found in the physical collection of the African comics project, run by ‘Africa e Mediterraneo’ and ‘Lai-momo’, two Italian organisations working on the research and development process of African contemporary cultural movements.  As part of this project, they collected a large number of original comics, drawings and publications. The catalogue consists of more than 2500 drawings originating from almost all African sub-Saharan countries and represents one of the richest collections of African comics in the world.
http://www.africacomics.net/

The Comic Republic
This website holds comics from Nigeria, free for download. It also holds a link to the Republic Nation website, on which you can find background articles about the Nigerian comics industry, among other subjects.
http://www.thecomicrepublic.com/index.html

Kata Kata
Kata Kata is an African cartoon magazine with both online and printed versions. In a humorous way, Kata Kata discusses African and global socio-political issues. Its slogan: “don’t worry, just laugh” reflects  its maxim that life is not all about seriousness, and one needs some laughter and relaxation to face the challenges of life.
http://www.katakata.org/

Lambiek Comiclopedia
The Comiclopedia is an online illustrated compendium of over 13,500 comic artists from around the world. The Comiclopedia is the world's largest overview of comic artists, started by Amsterdam comic shop Lambiek's founder Kees Kousemaker (1942-2010). In the Comiclopedia you can look up comic artists by country, and find biographical information and samples of their work.
https://www.lambiek.net/comiclopedia.html

Squid Mag
Squid Mag is a blog that holds articles and information on African comics, animation and games.
https://squidmag.wordpress.com/

South African Comic Books
A blog recording the history of comic book publishing and collecting in South Africa.
http://southafricancomicbooks.blogspot.nl/